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Encyclopedia > Core microarchitecture
Current event marker This article or section contains information about scheduled or expected future product(s).
It may contain information of a speculative nature and the content may change dramatically as the product release approaches and more information becomes available.

The Intel Core Microarchitecture is Intel's new processor architecture. Previously called Pentium 5 and Intel's Next Generation Microarchitecture before its unveiling, Core marks the retirement of the Pentium brand name. Announced in Q1 2006, to be released later in the year, it will replace the old NetBurst and Pentium M microarchitectures. Developed in Haifa, Israel. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is a U.S.-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... CPU redirects here. ... Pentium 5 can signify: The presumed successor to Intels Pentium 4 series. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The NetBurst Microarchitecture is the name given to the new architecture that succeded the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... Nickname: Red Haifa Official website: www. ...


The architecture features low power usage, multiple cores, Virtualization Technology, and EM64T. Virtualization Technology is the name of the mutually incompatible virtualization technologies from Intel and AMD, previously known by their respective codenames Silvervale and Pacifica. They allow a single machine to run multiple operating systems at once without incurring significant emulation costs. ... Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intels implementation of AMD64, a 64-bit extension to the IA-32 architecture. ...


The first processors that will use this architecture are code-named Merom, Conroe, and Woodcrest; Merom is for mobile computing, Conroe is for desktop systems, and Woodcrest, which is expected to feature the most cores and technologies of all those processors, is for servers.


On March 7, 2006 at the Intel Developer Forum Intel announced the official name of this microarchitecture to be the Intel Core Microarchitecture. On May 8, 2006 Intel annouced that the Core 2 Duo badge will be used for desktop based on the Conroe and notebooks based on the Merom. Intel Developer Forum (IDF), is a twice yearly gathering of technologists to discuss Intel products and products based around Intel products. ...

Contents


Technology

The Intel Core Microarchitecture is designed from the ground up, but similar to the Pentium M in design philosophy. The pipeline is 14 stages — a fairly radical departure from the 31 stages in Prescott, a signature feature of wide order execution cores; Core's execution unit is 4-issues wide, compared to the 3-issue cores of P6, P6-M (Banias and derivatives), and NetBurst microarchitectures. The new architecture is a dual core design with linked L1 cache and shared L2 cache engineered for maximum performance per watt and improved scalability. Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth generation x86 microprocessor architecture of Intel, released in 1995. ... Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... The NetBurst Microarchitecture is the name given to the new architecture that succeded the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ...


One new technology included in the design is Macro-Ops Fusion, which combines two x86 instructions into a single microinstruction. For example, a common code sequence like a compare followed by a conditional jump would become a single micro-op. Other new technologies include 1 cycle throughput (2 cycles previously) of all 128-bit SSE instructions and a new power saving design. All components will run at minimum speed, ramping up speed dynamically as and when needed. This allows the chip to produce less heat, and consume as little power as possible. The front side bus for this new architecture is targeted to run at 1333 MHz for the Woodcrest, the server and workstation variant, and at 667 MHz for Merom, the mobile variant, though a second wave of Meroms, supporting an 800 MHz FSB, is planned. The desktop Conroe version is officially slated to run at 1066 MHz, with an Extreme Edition at 1333 MHz, and a budget version at 800 MHz. Unfortunately, the FSB is the weak link in the new architecture, as it uses the infrastructure installed in the Pentium 4 era which cannot handle the full bandwidth of dual-channel DDR2 SDRAM, or the new memory architecture FB-DIMM. x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... DDR2 SDRAM or double-data-rate two synchronous dynamic random access memory is a computer memory technology. ... FB-DIMM Architecture Fully Buffered DIMM (or FB-DIMM) is a memory solution which can be used to increase reliability, speed and density of memory systems. ...


Intel says that the power consumption of these new processors is to be extremely low — average use energy consumption is to be in the 1-2 watt range in ultra low voltage variants, with Thermal Design Points (TDPs) of 65 watts for Conroe and 80 watts for Woodcrest. However, this is subject to change. In comparison, an AMD Opteron 875HE processor consumes 55 watts. Merom, the mobile variant, is listed at 35 watts TDP for standard versions and 5 watts TDP for Ultra Low Voltage (ULV) versions. The Thermal Design Point or Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ...


Previously, Intel warned that it would focus on power efficiency ("Performance per Watt") rather than raw performance. However, at IDF, Intel advertised both. Some of the promised numbers are: Intel Developer Forum (IDF), is a twice yearly gathering of technologists to discuss Intel products and products based around Intel products. ...

  • 20% more performance for Merom at the same power level (compared to Core Duo)
  • 40% more performance for Conroe at 40% less power (compared to Pentium D)
  • 80% more performance for Woodcrest at 35% less power (compared to dual-core Xeon)

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Intel Core. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Xeon logo The Xeon is Intels name for its server-class PC microprocessors intended for multiple-processor machines. ...

Road map

Laptops

  • Merom, first eighth-generation notebook chip, 65 nm, dual-core, 2–4 MiB L2 cache (Release: August 2006)
  • Penryn, dual-core, 45 nm shrink of Merom, 3–6 MiB L2
  • Perryville, single-core, 45 nm mobile and desktop processor, 2 MiB L2

The 65 nanometer (65 nm) process is the next milestone as of 2005 in semiconductor manufacturing and fabrication. ... The 45 nanometer (45 nm) process is the next milestone (to be commercially viable in late 2006 to early 2007) in semiconductor manufacturing and fabrication. ... The 45 nanometer (45 nm) process is the next milestone (to be commercially viable in late 2006 to early 2007) in semiconductor manufacturing and fabrication. ...

Desktops

  • Conroe, first eighth-generation desktop chip, 65 nm, dual-core, 4 MiB L2 cache (Release: July 2006)
    • Allendale, dual-core, cut-down Conroe with 2 MiB L2
      • Millville, single-core, cut-down Allendale with 1 MiB L2
      • Wolfdale, dual-core, 45 nm shrink of Allendale, with 3 MiB L2
    • Kentsfield, quad-core MCM, consists of two Conroes, with 2 × 4 MiB L2 (8 MiB L2)
      • Yorkfield, eight-core MCM, 45 nm, 12 MiB L2, successor to Kentsfield
    • Ridgefield, dual-core, 45 nm shrink of Conroe, with 6 MiB L2
  • Perryville, single-core, 45 nm mobile and desktop processor, 2 MiB L2

...

Servers and workstations

  • Woodcrest, first eighth-generation server and workstation chip, 65 nm, dual-core, 4 MiB L2 cache (Release: June 2006)
  • Clovertown, quad-core MCM, consists of two Woodcrests, with 2 × 4 MiB L2
  • Clovertown-MP, MP-capable version of Clovertown
  • Tigerton, quad-core, MP-capable. Based on Tulsa processor, that is quad-core with two Woodcrest Cores.
  • Harpertown, either a dual-core, 45 nm shrink of Woodcrest, or an eight-core, 45 nm MCM with 12 MiB L2
  • Dunnington, four to thirty-two cores, successor to Tigerton

See also

This generational and chronological list of Intel microprocessors attempts to present all of Intels processors (µPs) from the pioneering 4-bit 4004 (1971) to the present high-end offerings, the 64-bit Itanium 2 (2002) and Pentium 4F with EM64T (2004). ... The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth generation x86 microprocessor architecture of Intel, released in 1995. ... The NetBurst Microarchitecture is the name given to the new architecture that succeded the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ...

References


 
 

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