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Encyclopedia > Corded Ware culture
Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC).
Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC).

The Corded Ware culture, Battle Axe culture or Single Grave culture is an enormous European archaeological horizon that begins in the late Neolithic (stone age), flourishes through the copper age and finally culminates in the early bronze age, developing in various areas from ca. 3200 BC/2900 BC to ca. 2300 BC/1800 BC. With the Yamna culture, it represents the introduction of metal into Northern Europe, and the earliest expansion of the Indo-European family of languages. Image File history File links Corded_Ware_culture. ... Image File history File links Corded_Ware_culture. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... (33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - 31st century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Ancient Egypt: Earliest known Egyptian hieroglyphs Crete: Rise of Minoan civilization Neolithic settlement built at Skara Brae in the Orkney Islands, Scotland New Stone Age people in Ireland build... (Redirected from 2900 BC) (30th century BC - 29th century BC - 28th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2890 BC -- Egypt: End of First Dynasty, start of Second Dynasty 2900 - 2334 BC - Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period Significant persons Inventions, discoveries... (Redirected from 2300 BC) (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia... (Redirected from 1800 BC) (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ... The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ...

Boat-shaped battle axe from Närke
Boat-shaped battle axe from Närke

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (453x732, 59 KB) from Nordisk familjebok File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (453x732, 59 KB) from Nordisk familjebok File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Närke is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Nericia, or Närke - a historical Province of Sweden Part of Örebro County, or Örebro län - a current County of Sweden Part of Närke and Värmland County, or Närkes och V...


Extent

It encompassed most of continental northern Europe from the Rhine River on the west, to the Volga River in the east, including most of modern-day Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Baltic States, Belarus, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, northern Ukraine, western Russia, as well as coastal Norway and the southern portions of Sweden and Finland. The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... Volga in Yaroslavl (autumn morning) Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge 8,000 m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ...


The somewhat later Beaker culture was contemporaneous. It is succeeded by a number of bronze age cultures, among them the Unetice culture (Central Europe), ca 2300 BC, and by the Nordic Bronze Age, a culture of Scandinavia and northernmost Germany-Poland, ca 1800 BC. The Beaker culture (ca. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Unetice, or more properly Únětice, culture, (German: Aunjetitz) is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. ... (Redirected from 2300 BC) (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far east as Estonia [1... (Redirected from 1800 BC) (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766...


Nomenclature

It receives its name Corded Ware from its characteristic pottery, Single Grave from its burial custom, and Battle Axe from its characteristic grave offering to males, a stone battle axe (which was by this time an inefficient weapon but a traditional status symbol). Swedish halberds from 16th century A halberd is a two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th and 15th centuries. ...


Origins and Development

Considering its immense, continental expanse, it clearly represents a fusion of earlier archaeological cultures of varying degrees of relatedness, probably lead by intrusive elements from the east and south. It does not represent a single monolithic entity, but rather a diffusion of technological and cultural innovations. The fact that the Globular Amphora culture similtaneously overlies much of the same area as of the Corded Ware culture proves this. Different peoples, living in close proximity to each other at the same time really did leave different archaeological remains. In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... The Globular Amphora Culture, German Kugelamphoren, ca. ...


In the circum-Baltic and more westwards coastal Scandinavian areas, there is clear evidence of a maritime economy, where the sea has to be seen as a uniting element, much as the Aegean Sea united the Greeks.


In the west, it involves all of the area and is an obvious but not necessarily the only successor of the earlier Funnelbeaker culture. In the area of the present Baltic states and Kaliningrad Oblast (former East Prussia), it is seen as an intrusive successor to the southwestern portion of the Narva culture. Elsewhere, however, particularly in its eastern extent, it is a new presence, not really associated with any earlier culture. Narva culture, ca. ...


Economy

There are very few settlements, but it has been shown that agriculture was practiced, a continuation from the Funnelbeaker culture era, and that some domestic animals were kept. The majority, however, seemed to have followed a fully-or semi-nomadic pastoral way of life. Wheeled vehicles (presumptively drawn by cattle) are evidenced. The horse, perhaps-to-probably domesticated, is represented by the tarpan. Binomial name Equus ferus Boddaert, 1785 The Tarpan, Equus ferus, was the Eurasian wild horse. ...


Graves

Inhumation was characteristically done one metre deep, without any marks, in a flexed position; males lay on their right side, females on the left, with the faces of both oriented to the south. Originally, there was probably a wooden construction, since the graves are often positioned in a line. Many are also marked with small tumuli. Grave goods for men typically included a stone battle-axe. By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... Burial of Oleg of Novgorod in a tumulus in 912. ... A battle axe is an axe specifically designed as a weapon. ...

Late battle axe from Gotland
Late battle axe from Gotland

The approximately contemporary Beaker culture had similar burial traditions, and together they covered most of Western and Central Europe. While broadly related to the Corded Ware culture, the origins of the Bell-Beaker folk are considerably more obscure, and represent one of the mysteries of European pre-history. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (260x670, 41 KB) from Nordisk familjebok File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (260x670, 41 KB) from Nordisk familjebok File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...   Gotland? is the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ... The Beaker culture (ca. ... The Beaker culture (ca. ...


Language

The Corded Ware culture was long pointed to as the cultural horizon best fitting the description for the Urheimat (original homeland) of the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language. This people would have originated on the North German plain, then moved outwards. This viewpoint was still reflected in even some relatively recent literature, but has now been essentially supplanted by the work of Marija Gimbutas and her energetic propounding of the Kurgan hypothesis. Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Marija Gimbutas (Vilnius, Lithuania January 23, 1921 – Los Angeles February 2, 1994) researched the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of Old Europe, a term she introduced, in works published between 1946 and 1971, that opened new views by combining traditional spadework, linguistics and mythology. ... This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ...


The role of the Corded Ware culture in the history of the Indo-European languages is actively debated but not denied. The Corded Ware people are mostly seen as ancestral to Proto-Balto-Slavic in its eastern regions, and to the Centum dialects (i.e. Proto-Germanic, Proto-Celtic and Proto-Italic) in the western parts. The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Balto-Slavic language group is a hypothetical language group consisting of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ... Centum is the collective name for the branches of Indo-European in which the so-called Satem shift, the change of palato-velar *k^, *g^, *g^h into fricatives or affricates, did not take place, and the palato-velar consonants merged with plain velars (*k, *g, *gh). ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, ca 500 BC-50 BC. The area south of Scandinavia is the Jastorf culture Proto-Germanic, the proto-language believed by scholars to be the common ancestor of the Germanic languages, includes among its descendants Dutch, Yiddish... Proto-Celtic, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...


The Corded Ware culture may in terms of Gimbutas' theory also seen as a "kurganized" culture that emerged out of Neolithic Europe. The origin of this "kurganization" or Indo-Europeanization would be the approximately contemporaneous and overlapping Globular Amphora (ca. 3400-2800 BC) and Baden (ca. 3600-2800 BC) cultures, a process described by Gimbutas as the second wave of the Kurgan culture "invasion". See also Germanic substrate hypothesis. In its earlier phase, it was likely a largely non-Indo-European entity, a part of what Gimbutas termed Old Europe. In its subsequent phases, it clearly became progressively more Indo-European in character, and at the end, quite strongly so. Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennia Europe in ca. ... The Globular Amphora Culture, German Kugelamphoren, ca. ... Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC). ... The Germanic substrate hypothesis is a hypothesis that some have ventured that attempts to explain the distinctiveness of the Germanic languages within the Indo-European language family. ... This article is about Old Europe a term in contemporary politics. ...


Subgroups

The core group spread its pottery nearly everywhere.


Corded Ware culture

The prototypal Corded Ware culture, German Schnurkeramikkultur is found in Central Europe, mainly Germany and Poland, and refers to the characteric pottery of the era: wet clay was decoratively incised with cordage, i.e., string. It is known mostly from its burials, and both sexes received the characteristic cord-decorated pottery. Whether made of flax or hemp, they had rope. Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength, for pulling and connecting. ...


Swedish-Norwegian Battle Axe culture

The Swedish-Norwegian Battle Axe culture, or the Boat Axe culture, appeared ca. 2800 BC and is known from about 3000 graves from Skåne to Uppland and Trøndelag. The time of its appearance and spread over Scandinavia has been called the Age of the crushed skulls, because from this time there are many finds of buried people with crushed skulls and not only men, but also many women and children (Lindquist 1993:43). Its introduction was violent and fast, and a very likely candidate for an Indo-European (and specifically earliest-Germanic) invasion. (Redirected from 2800 BC) (29th century BC - 28th century BC - 27th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2775 - 2650 BC - Second Dynasty wars in Egypt 2750 BC - End of the Early Dynastic I Period, and the beginning of the Early Dynastic II...   SkÃ¥ne? (also known as Scania) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) of Sweden. ... Uppland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden, which can refer to: Uplandia, or Uppland - a historical Province of Sweden Uppsala County, or Uppsala län - a current County of Sweden Part of Stockholm County, or Stockholms län - a current County of Sweden Part of Västmanland County or Västmanlands... Trøndelag is the name of a geographical region in the middle of Norway, consisting of the two counties Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag. ...


About 3000 battle axes have been found, in sites distributed over all of Scandinavia, but they are sparse in Norrland and northern Norway. Less than 100 settlements are known, and their remains are negligible as they are located on continually used farmland, and have consequently been plowed away. Einar Østmo reports sites above the Arctic Circle in the Lofoten Islands, and as far north as the present city of Tromsø. Norrland is a historical land of Sweden. ... World map showing the five major circles of latitude Two shirtless young men brave the cold at the edge of the Arctic Circle in Grimsey, Iceland. ... Reine, Lofoten, seen from top of Reinebringen (June, 2003). ... County Troms Landscape Municipality NO-1902 Administrative centre Tromsø Mayor (2004) Herman Kristoffersen (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 18 2,566 km² 2,519 km² 0. ...


It was based on the same agricultural practices as the previous Funnelbeaker culture, but the appearance of metal changed the social sysem. This is marked by the fact that the Funnelbeaker culture had collective megalithic graves with a great deal of sacrifices to the graves, but the Battle Axe culture has individual graves with individual sacrifices. The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany A megalith is a large stone which has been used to construct a structure or monument either alone or with other stones. ...


A new aspect was given to the culture in 1993, when a death house in Turinge, in Södermanland was excavated. Along the once heavily timbered walls were found the remains of about twenty clay vessels, six work axes and a battle axe, which all came from the last period of the culture. There were also the cremated remains of at least six people. This is the earliest find of cremation in Scandinavia and it shows close contacts with Central Europe. 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Södermanland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Sudermannia, or Södermanland - a historical Province of Sweden Södermanland County, or Södermanlands län - a current County of Sweden Part of Stockholm County, or Stockholms län - a current County of Sweden... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...


In the context of the entry of Germanic into the region, Einar Østmo emphasizes that the Atlantic and North Sea coastal regions of Scandinavia, and the circum-Baltic areas were united by a vigorous maritime economy, permitting a far wider geographical spread and a closer cultural unity than interior continental cultures could attain. He points to the widely disseminated number of rock carvings assigned to this era, which display "thousands" of ships. To sea-faring cultures like this one, the sea is a highway and not a divider.


Finnish Battle Axe culture

The Finnish Battle Axe culture was primarily a hunter-gatherer culture, and one of the few in this horizon to provide rich finds from settlements. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...


Middle Dnieper and Fatyanovo-Balanovo cultures

Main articles: Middle Dnieper culture and Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture.

The eastern outposts of the Corded Ware culture are the Middle Dnieper culture and on the upper Volga, the Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture. The Middle Dnieper culture has very scant remains, but occupies the easiest route into Central and Northern Europe from the steppe. The Middle Dnieper culture is an eastern extension of the Corded Ware culture, ca. ... The Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture, 3200—2300 BC, is an eastern extension of the Corded Ware culture into Russia. ... The Middle Dnieper culture is an eastern extension of the Corded Ware culture, ca. ... The Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture, 3200—2300 BC, is an eastern extension of the Corded Ware culture into Russia. ...


See also

The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ... The Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture, 3200—2300 BC, is an eastern extension of the Corded Ware culture into Russia. ... The Middle Dnieper culture is an eastern extension of the Corded Ware culture, ca. ... The Beaker people (or `Beaker folk) were an archaeological culture present in prehistoric Europe, defined by a pottery style -- a beaker with a distinctive bell-shaped profile -- that many archeologists believe spread across the western part of the Continent during the 3rd millennium BC. The pottery is particularly prevalent in... Mjolnir has inspired many works of art, such as this drawing. ...

Sources

  • James P. Mallory, "Corded Ware Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
  • Einar Østmo, "The Indo-European Question: a Norwegian perspective", pp. 23-41, in The Indo-Europeanization of Northern Europe, Martin E. Huld & Karlene Jones-Bley editors, Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph No. 17, Institute for the Study of Man, Washington, DC, 1996.
  • Lindquist, H. Historien om Sverige, 1993.
  • Nationalencyklopedin

JP Mallory is the nom-de-plume of Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist Prof. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ... The Nationalencyklopedin is the most comprehensive contemporary Swedish language encyclopedia, initiated by a government grant. ...

External links

  • The transition from the Copper Age to the Early Bronze Age at the north-western edge of the Carpathian basin Volker Heyd & Francois Bertemes 2002
  • Corded Ware Culture Sites in North-Eastern Estonia Aivar Kriiska

  Results from FactBites:
 
Corded Ware culture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1566 words)
The Corded Ware culture, alternatively characterized as the Battle Axe culture or Single Grave culture is an enormous European archaeological horizon that begins in the late Neolithic (stone age), flourished through the copper age and finally culminates in the early bronze age, developing in various areas from ca.
The prototypal Corded Ware culture, German Schnurkeramikkultur is found in Central Europe, mainly Germany and Poland, and refers to the characteric pottery of the era: wet clay was decoratively incised with cordage, i.e., string.
The eastern outposts of the Corded Ware culture are the Middle Dnieper culture and on the upper Volga, the Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture.
Pitted Ware culture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (584 words)
The Pitted Ware culture (ca 3200 BC– ca 2300 BC) was a neolithic Hunter-gatherer culture in southern Scandinavia, mainly along the coasts of Svealand, Götaland, Åland, north-eastern Denmark and southern Norway.
It was first contemporary and overlapping with the agricultural Funnelbeaker culture, and later with the agricultural Corded Ware culture.
The culture is most easily accounted for as deriving from the mesolithic Nøstvet and Lihult cultures that received additional population and skills from the Funnelbeaker culture, but less of its economy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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