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Encyclopedia > Coral reef
Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.
Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

Coral reefs are aragonite structures produced by living organisms, found in shallow, tropical marine waters with little to no nutrients in the water. High nutrient levels such as those found in runoff from agricultural areas can harm the reef by encouraging the growth of algae.[1] In most reefs, the predominant organisms are stony corals, colonial cnidarians that secrete an exoskeleton of calcium carbonate. The accumulation of skeletal material, broken and piled up by wave action and bioeroders, produces a massive calcareous formation that supports the living corals and a great variety of other animal and plant life. Although corals are found both in temperate and tropical waters, reefs are formed only in a zone extending at most from 30°N to 30°S of the equator. Reef-forming corals do not grow at depths of over 30 m (100 ft), and temperature has less of an effect on distribution but it is generally accepted that no corals exist in waters below 18 °C.[2] Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 210 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 210 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of over 2,900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ... Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... A coral reef can be an oasis of marine life. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ...

Contents

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 1. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (1260 × 896 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (1260 × 896 pixel, file size: 1. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Articulata (540 species) Cladida (extinct) Flexibilia (extinct) Camerata (extinct) Disparida (extinct) Crinoids, also known as sea lilies or feather-stars, are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata). ...

Biology

Anatomy of a coral polyp.
Anatomy of a coral polyp.
See also: Coral

The building blocks of coral reefs are the generation of reef-building , and other organisms that are composed of calcium carbonate. For example, as a coral head grows, it lays down a skeletal structure encasing each new polyp. Waves, grazing fish (such as parrotfish), sea urchins, sponges, and other forces and organisms break down the coral skeletons into fragments that settle into spaces in the reef structure. Many other organisms living in the reef community contribute their skeletal calcium carbonate in the same manner. Coralline algae are important contributors to the structure of the reef in those parts of the reef subjected to the greatest forces by waves (such as the reef front facing the open ocean). These algae contribute to reef-building by depositing limestone in sheets over the surface of the reef and thereby contributing also to the structural integrity of the reef. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (462x670, 123 KB) Summary http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (462x670, 123 KB) Summary http://www. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Anatomy of a coral polyp. ... Genera Bolbometopon Calotomus Cetoscarus Chlorurus Cryptotomus Hipposcarus Leptoscarus Nicholsina Scarus Sparisoma Parrotfish are mostly tropical, perciform marine fish of the family Scaridae. ... Subclasses Subclass Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Subclass Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Wikispecies has information related to... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Genera 39 genera Coralline algae are red algae in the Family Corallinaceae characteriuzed by a thallus covered with calcareous deposits. ...


Reef-building or hermatypic corals are only found in the photic zone (above 50 m depth), the depth to which sufficient sunlight penetrates the water for photosynthesis to occur. The coral polyps do not photosynthesize, but have a symbiotic relationship with single-celled algae called zooxanthellae; these algal cells within the tissues of the coral polyps carry out photosynthesis and produce excess organic nutrients that are then used by the coral polyps. Because of this relationship, coral reefs grow much faster in clear water, which admits more sunlight. Indeed, the relationship is responsible for coral reefs in the sense that without their symbionts, coral growth would be too slow for the corals to form impressive reef structures. Corals can get up to 90% of their nutrients from their zooxanthellae symbionts.[3] The photic zone is the depth of the water, whether in a lake or an ocean, that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Zooxanthellae are golden-brown endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa. ...


Corals can reproduce both sexually and asexually. An individual polyp may use both reproductive modes within its lifetime. Corals reproduce sexually by either internal or external fertilization. The reproductive cells are found on the mesentery membranes that radiate inward from the layer of tissue that lines the stomach cavity. Some mature adult corals are hermaphroditic; others are exclusively male or female. A few even change sex as they grow.


Internally fertilized eggs are brooded in the polyp for a period ranging from days to weeks. Subsequent development produces a tiny larva, known as a planula. Externally fertilized eggs develop during a synchronized spawning. Polyps release eggs and sperm into the water simultaneously. This spawning method disperses eggs over a larger area. Synchronous spawning depends on four factors: time of year, water temperature, and tidal and lunar cycles. Spawning is most successful when there is little variation between high and low tides. The less water movement there is over the reef, the better the chance that an egg will be fertilized. Ideal timing occurs in the spring, release of eggs or planula larvae usually occurs at night and is sometimes in phase with the lunar cycle (3-6 days after a full moon). The period from release to settlement lasts only a few days, but some planulae can survive afloat for several weeks (7, 14). They are vulnerable at this time to heavy predation and adverse environmental conditions. For the lucky few which survive to attach to substrate, the challenge comes from competition for food and space.


Formations

Coral reefs can take a variety of forms, defined in following:

  • Fringing reef – a reef that is directly attached to a shore or borders it with an intervening shallow channel or lagoon.
  • Barrier reef – a reef separated from a mainland or island shore by a deep lagoon (see Great Barrier Reef).
  • Patch reef – an isolated, often circular reef, usually within a lagoon or embayment.
  • Apron reef – a short reef resembling a fringing reef, but more sloped; extending out and downward from a point or peninsular shore.
  • Bank reef – a linear or semi-circular in outline, larger than a patch reef.
  • Ribbon reef – a long, narrow, somewhat winding reef, usually associated with an atoll lagoon.
  • Atoll reef – a more or less circular or continuous barrier reef extending all the way around a lagoon without a central island; see atoll.
  • Table reef – an isolated reef, approaching an atoll type, but without a lagoon.

Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of over 2,900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... “Bay” redirects here. ... Portion of a Pacific atoll showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon. ...

Distribution

Locations of coral reefs.
Locations of coral reefs.

Coral reefs are estimated to cover 284,300 square kilometres, with the Indo-Pacific region (including the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia and the Pacific) accounting for 91.9% of the total.[citation needed] Southeast Asia accounts for 32.3% of that figure, while the Pacific including Australia accounts for 40.8%. Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs only account for 7.6% of the world total.[4] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Indo-Pacific is the aggregate of the Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and the minor seas between the two in the general area of Indonesia. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... West Indies redirects here. ...


Coral reefs are either restricted or absent from the west coast of the Americas, as well as the west coast of Africa. This is due primarily to upwelling and strong cold coastal currents that reduce water temperatures in these areas.[5] Corals are also restricted from off the coastline of South Asia from Pakistan to Bangladesh.[4] They are also restricted along the coast around north-eastern South America and Bangladesh due to the release of vast quantities of freshwater from the Amazon and Ganges Rivers respectively.[citation needed] World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the river. ... Ganga redirects here. ...


Famous coral reefs and reef areas of the world include:

The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of over 2,900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... The coastal area of Belize is an outstanding natural system consisting of the largest barrier reef in the northern hemisphere, offshore atolls, several hundred sand cays, mangrove forests, coastal lagoons and estuaries. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Pulley Ridge is a reef consisting of drowned, barrier islands off the Gulf Coast of Florida, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The New Caledonia Barrier Reef is located in New Caledonia in the South Pacific, and is the second-longest coral reef in the world, after Australias Great Barrier Reef. ...

Ecology and biodiversity

A school of Pennant coralfish, Pyramid and Millet butterflyfishes, and others at the Rapture Reef, French Frigate Shoals

Coral reefs support an extraordinary biodiversity; although they are located in nutrient-poor tropical waters. The process of nutrient cycling between corals, zooxanthellae, and other reef organisms provides an explanation for why coral reefs flourish in these waters: recycling ensures that fewer nutrients are needed overall to support the community. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x2001, 4710 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x2001, 4710 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Heniochus acuminatus Linnaeus, 1758 The pennant coralfish or longfin bannerfish, Heniochus acuminatus, is a tropical fish of the family Chaetodontidae. ... Map of French Frigate Shoals The French Frigate Shoals (Hawaiian: Mokupāpapa) is the largest atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... In ecology, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit where a nutrient moves back and forth between both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. ...


Cyanobacteria also provide soluble nitrates for the coral reef through the process of nitrogen fixation. Corals absorb nutrients, including inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, directly from the water, and they feed upon zooplankton that are carried past the polyps by water motion.[6] Thus, primary productivity on a coral reef is very high, which results in the highest values per square meter, at 5-10g C m-2 day-1.[7] Producers in coral reef communities include the symbiotic zooxanthellae, coralline algae, and various seaweeds, especially small types called turf algae, although scientists disagree about the importance of these particular organisms.[6] Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... Primary productivity is the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy in a given amount of time. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ...


Coral reefs are home to a variety of tropical or reef fish, such as the colorful parrotfish, angelfish, damselfish and butterflyfish. Other fish groups found on coral reefs include groupers, snappers, grunts and wrasses. Over 4,000 species of fish inhabit coral reefs.[4] It has been suggested that the high number of fish species that inhabit coral reefs are able to coexist in such high numbers because any free living space is rapidly inhabited by the first planktonic fish larvae that occupy it. These fish then inhabit the space for the rest of their life. The species that inhabit the free space is random and has therefore been termed 'a lottery for living space'.[8] For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Genera Bolbometopon Calotomus Cetoscarus Chlorurus Cryptotomus Hipposcarus Leptoscarus Nicholsina Scarus Sparisoma Parrotfish are mostly tropical, perciform marine fish of the family Scaridae. ... Cocoa damselfish (Stegastes variabilis) Damselfish refers to members of the family Pomacentridae, except those of the two genera Amphiprion and Premnas. ... Genera Amphichaetodon Chaetodon Chelmon Chelmonops Coradion Forcipiger Hemitaurichthys Heniochus Johnrandallia Parachaetodon Prognathodes The butterflyfish are a group of conspicuous tropical marine fish of the family Chaetodontidae. ... Genera Acanthistius Alphestes Anyperidon Caprodon Cephalopholis Cromileptes Dermatolepis Epinephelus Gonioplectrus Gracila HypoplectrodesLiopropoma Mycteroperca Niphon Paranthias Plectropomus Saloptia Triso Variola For the computer program, see Grouper (Windows application). ... Genera Aphareus Aprion Apsilus Etelis Hemilutjanus Hoplopagrus Lipocheilus Lutjanus Macolor Ocyurus Paracaesio Pinjalo Pristipomoides Randallichthys Rhomboplites Symphorus Snapper can also refer to the Snapping turtle. ... Genera See text. ... Genera (60 genera) The wrasses are a family (family Labridae) of reef safe marine fish, many of which are brightly-colored and popular for aquaria. ...


Reefs are also home to a large variety of other organisms, including sponges, Cnidarians (which includes some types of corals and jellyfish), worms, crustaceans (including shrimp, spiny lobsters and crabs), molluscs (including cephalopods), echinoderms (including starfish, sea urchins and sea cucumbers), sea squirts, sea turtles and sea snakes. Aside from humans, mammals are rare on coral reefs, with visiting cetaceans such as dolphins being the main group. A few of these varied species feed directly on corals, while others graze on algae on the reef and participate in complex food webs.[6][4] Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Subphylum/Classes[2] Anthozoa — corals and sea anemones Medusozoa:[1] Cubozoa â€” sea wasps or box jellyfish Hydrozoa â€” hydroids, hydra-like animals Polypodiozoa Scyphozoa — jellyfish Staurozoa — stalked jellyfish Unranked: Myxozoa - parasites Cnidaria[3] (pronounced [4]) is a phylum containing some 11,000 species of apparently simple animals found exclusively in aquatic... For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Worm (disambiguation). ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Genera Jasus Linuparus Palinurus Panulirus Spiny lobsters, also known as rock lobsters are a family (Palinuridae) of about 45 species of achelate crustaceans, in the Decapoda Reptantia. ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusc class... Subphyla & Classes Homalozoa Gill & Caster, 1960 Homostelea Homoiostelea Stylophora † Ctenocystoidea Robison & Sprinkle, 1969 Crinozoa Crinoidea Paracrinoidea † Regnéll, 1945 Cystoidea †von Buch, 1846 Asterozoa Ophiuroidea Asteroidea Echinozoa Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiocistioidea Helicoplacoidea † Arkarua † Homalozoa † Pelmatozoa † Edrioasteroidea † Blastozoa † Blastoidea † Eocrinoidea †Jaekel, 1899 † = extinct Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata, from the Greek for spiny skin... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apodacea Apodida Molpadiida Subclass Aspidochirotacea Aspidochirotida Elasipodida Subclass Dendrochirotacea Dactylochirotida Dendrochirotida The sea cucumber is an echinoderm of the class Holothuroidea, with an elongated body and leathery skin, which is found on the sea floor worldwide. ... Classes Ascidiacea Thaliacea Appendicularia Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates or sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with input and output siphons. ... Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean . ... For sea snakes in mythology and cryptozoology, see Sea serpent. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... Figure 1. ...


A number of invertebrates, collectively called cryptofauna, inhabit the coral skeletal substrate itself, either boring into the skeletons (through the process of bioerosion) or living in pre-existing voids and crevices. Those animals boring into the rock include sponges, bivalve molluscs, and sipunculans. Those settling on the reef include many other species, particularly crustaceans and polychaete worms.[5] Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ... The Sipuncula, sipunculid worms or peanut worms, are a phylum of marine worms with a tentacle surrounded mouth on a completely invertible head end. ... Subclasses Palpata Scoleoida Tomopteris from plankton The Polychaeta or polychaetes are a class of annelid worms, generally marine. ...


Due to their vast biodiversity, many governments world-wide take measures to protect their coral reefs. In Australia, the Great Barrier Reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, and is the subject of much legislation, including a Biodiversity Action Plan. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park protects a large part of Australias Great Barrier Reef from activities that would damage it. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ...


Algae and coral reef

Researchers found evidence of algae dominance in locations of healthy coral reefs. In surveys done around largely uninhabited US Pacific islands, algae consists of a large percentage of the surveyed coral locations. [9] The algae population consists of turf algae, coralline algae, and macroalgae. Genera 39 genera Coralline algae are red algae in the Family Corallinaceae characteriuzed by a thallus covered with calcareous deposits. ... Seaweed-covered rocks in the UK Biologists, specifically marine biologists, consider seaweed to be any of a large number of marine benthic algae that are multicellular, macrothallic, and thus differentiated from most algae that tend to be microscopic in size [1]. Many phycologists prefer the term marine macroalgae over seaweeds...


Threats

Bioerosion (coral damage) such as this may be caused by coral bleaching.
Bioerosion (coral damage) such as this may be caused by coral bleaching.[10]

Human activity may represent the greatest threat to coral reefs living in Earth's oceans. In particular, pollution and over-fishing are the most serious threats to these ecosystems. Physical destruction of reefs due to boat and shipping traffic is also a problem. The live food fish trade has been implicated as a driver of decline due to the use of cyanide and disaster for peoples living in the tropics. Hughes, et al, (2003), writes that "with increased human population and improved storage and transport systems, the scale of human impacts on reefs has grown exponentially. For example, markets for fishes and other natural resources have become global, supplying demand for reef resources far removed from their tropical sources."[11] A coral reef tha has undergone bioerosion. ... A coral reef tha has undergone bioerosion. ... Warm pink and yellow host coral organism due to stress. ... Ocean (Okeanos, a Greek god of sea and water; Greek ωκεανός) covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ...


Currently researchers are working to determine the degree various factors impact the reef systems. The list of factors is long but includes the oceans acting as a carbon dioxide sink, changes in Earth's atmosphere, ultraviolet light, ocean acidification, biological virus, impacts of dust storms carrying agents to far flung reef systems, various pollutants, impacts of algal blooms and others. Reefs are threatened well beyond coastal areas and so the problem is broader than factors from land development and pollution though those are too causing considerable damage. A carbon dioxide (CO2) sink is a carbon dioxide reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon dioxide source. The main natural sinks are (1) the oceans and (2) plants and other organisms that use photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere by incorporating it... Air redirects here. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Satellite photo of a Saharan dust cloud (2000) over the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. ... Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society An algal bloom or marine bloom or water bloom is a rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system. ...


Land development and pollution

Extensive and poorly managed land development can threaten the survival of coral reefs. Within the last 20 years, once prolific mangrove forests, which absorb massive amounts of nutrients and sediment from runoff caused by farming and construction of roads, buildings, ports, channels, and harbors, are being destroyed. Nutrient-rich water causes fleshy algae and phytoplankton to thrive in coastal areas in suffocating amounts known as algal blooms. Coral reefs are biological assemblages adapted to waters with low nutrient content, and the addition of nutrients favors species that disrupt the balance of the reef communities. Both the loss of wetlands and mangrove habitats are considered to be significant factors affecting water quality on inshore reefs.[12] Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal Mangrove are woody trees or shrubs that grow in coastal habitats or mangal (Hogarth, 1999), for which the term mangrove swamp also would apply. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... A red tide resulting from a dinoflagellate bloom discoloring the water on the right An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ...


Poor water quality has also been shown to encourage the spread of infectious diseases among corals.[13] This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


Copper, a common industrial pollutant, has been shown to interfere with the life history and development of coral polyps.[14] Fish Trade The hobby of keeping saltwater aquaria has experienced an increase in world popularity since the 1990s. Beyond sales of aquaria, air pumps, food, medications and other supplies, the primary product of the aquarium industry is fish. However, the world market is limited in the diversity of collected species. For example, among 4000 coral reef fish species, only 200–300 are exploited. Selection of species results from a demand for fish being highly colorful and being able to be maintained and fed in aquaria. The last point is very important in the choice of imported species. For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Life history refers to a variety of methods and techniques that are used for conducting qualitative interviews. ...


Although a few fish species (e.g. Pomacentridae) can be reproduced in aquaria, 95% of exploited fish are directly collected in the coral environment. Intense sampling of coral reef fish, especially in South-East Asia (including Indonesia and the Philippines), has caused great damage to the environment. A major catalyst of cyanide fishing is poverty within fishing communities. In areas like the Philippines where cyanide is regularly used to catch live aquarium fish, the percentage of the population below the poverty line is 40%.[15] In such developing countries, a fisherman might resort to such unethical practices in order to prevent his or her family from starving. Cyanide fishing is an illegal form of fishing common in South East Asia, which usually uses the chemical compound sodium cyanide - a close relation of potassium cyanide. ...  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita...


Most, 80–90%, of aquarium fish exported from the Philippines are captured with sodium cyanide. This toxic chemical is dissolved in sea water and released into fish shelters. It has a rapid narcotic effect on fish, which are then easily captured. However, most fish collected with cyanide die a few months after capture from extensive liver damage. Moreover, other fish species that are not interesting for the aquarium market also die in the field.[16] Sodium cyanide is a highly toxic chemical compound, also known as sodium salt of hydrocyanic acid and cyanogran. ...


Dynamite fishing

Dynamite fishing is another extremely destructive method that fishermen use to harvest small fish. Sticks of dynamite, grenades, or home-made explosives are lit or activated and thrown in the water. Once the dynamite goes off the explosion brings about an underwater shockwave, causing the internal organs of fish to liquefy, killing them almost instantly. A second blast is often set off after the first to kill any larger predators that are attracted to the initial kill of the smaller fish. This method of fishing not only kills the fish within the main blast area, but also takes the lives of many reef animals that are not edible or wanted. Also, many of the fish do not float to the surface to be collected, but sink to the bottom. The blast also kills the corals in the area, eliminating the very structure of the reef, destroying the habitat for fish and other animals important for the maintenance of a healthy reef. Areas that used to be full of coral become deserts, full of coral rubble, dead fish and little else after dynamite fishing. With dynamite fishing especially around the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, have caused a vast majority of problems. With the rising sea level already the coral reefs act as a natural defence against flooding. With the dynamite fishing, the coral reefs are destroyed making the islands more vulnerable to flooding. Blast fishing or dynamite fishing describes the practice of using dynamite, homemade bombs or other explosives to stun or kill schools of fish for easy collection. ...


Bleaching

Main article: Coral bleaching

During the 1998 and 2004 El Niño weather phenomena, in which sea surface temperatures rose well above normal, many tropical coral reefs were bleached or killed. Some recovery has been noted in more remote locations, but global warming could negate some of this recovery in the future. High seas surface temperature (SSTs) coupled with high irradiance (light intensity), triggers the loss of zooxanthellae, a symbiotic algae, and its dinoflagellate pigmentation in corals causing coral bleaching. Zooxanthellae provide 95% of the energy to the coral host. Refer to Hoegh-Guldberg 1999 for more information. Warm pink and yellow host coral organism due to stress. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Annual mean sea surface temperature for the World Ocean. ... Warm pink and yellow host coral organism due to stress. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Ocean acidification

Main article: Ocean acidification

The decreasing ocean surface pH is of increasing long-term concern for coral reefs.[17] Increased atmospheric CO2 increases the amount of CO2 dissolved in the oceans.[18] Carbon dioxide gas dissolved in the ocean reacts with water to form carbonic acid, resulting in ocean acidification. Ocean surface pH is estimated to have decreased from approximately 8.25 to 8.14 since the beginning of the industrial era,[19] and it is estimated that it will drop by a further 0.3 - 0.4 units by 2100 as the ocean absorbs more anthropogenic CO2.[20]. Under normal conditions, the conditions for calcium carbonate production are stable in surface waters since the carbonate ion is at supersaturating concentrations. However, as ocean pH falls, so does the concentration of this ion, and when carbonate becomes under-saturated, structures made of calcium carbonate are vulnerable to dissolution. Research has already found that corals experience reduced calcification or enhanced dissolution when exposed to elevated CO2[21]. Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Enormous highly pure, single crystal substances can be grown from a solution at the metastable boundary between an unsaturated and supersaturated solution. ...


African and Asian dust outbreaks

Dust from the Sahara moving around the southern periphery of the subtropical ridge moves into the Caribbean and Florida during the warm season as the ridge builds and moves northward through the subtropical Atlantic. Dust can also be attributed to a global transport from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts across Korea, Japan, and the Northern Pacific to the Hawaiian Islands.[22] Since 1970, dust outbreaks have worsened due to periods of drought in Africa. There is a large variability in the dust transport to the Caribbean and Florida from year to year;[23] however, the flux of dust is greater during positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation.[24] Dust events have been linked to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s.[25] Studies have shown that corals can incorporate dust into their skeletons as identified from dust from the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa in Indonesia in the annular bands of the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis from the Florida reef tract.[26] The relative abundance of chemical elements, particularly metals, has been used to distinguish soil derived from volcanic dust from mineral dust.[27] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The subtropical ridge is a large belt of high pressure situated around 30ºN in the Northern Hemisphere and 30ºS in the Southern Hemisphere. ... West Indies redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The Gobi is a large desert region in northern China and southern Mongolia. ... Dust storm in Taklamakan from space, June 25, 2005 The Taklamakan (also Taklimakan) is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 1,500 mi (2,400 km) in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is a complex climatic phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean (especially associated with fluctuations of climate between Iceland and the Azores). ... This article is about the volcano. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... // General information Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil. ...


Destruction worldwide

Coral reefs and fishes in Papua New Guinea
Coral reefs and fishes in Papua New Guinea

Southeast Asian coral reefs are at risk from damaging fishing practices (such as cyanide and blast fishing), overfishing, sedimentation, pollution and bleaching. A variety of activities, including education, regulation, and the establishment of marine protected areas are under way to protect these reefs. Indonesia, for example has nearly 33,000 square miles (85,000 km²) of coral reefs. Its waters are home to a third of the world’s total corals and a quarter of its fish species. Indonesia's coral reefs are located in the heart of the Coral Triangle and have been victim to destructive fishing, unregulated tourism, and bleaching due to climatic changes. Data from 414 reef monitoring stations throughout Indonesia in 2000 found that only 6% of Indonesia’s coral reefs are in excellent condition, while 24% are in good condition, and approximately 70% are in poor to fair condition (2003 The Johns Hopkins University). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 1. ... Southeast Asian coral reefs have the highest levels of biodiversity for the worlds marine ecosystems. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... Cyanide fishing is an illegal form of fishing common in South East Asia, which usually uses the chemical compound sodium cyanide - a close relation of potassium cyanide. ... Blast fishing or dynamite fishing describes the practice of using dynamite, homemade bombs or other explosives to stun or kill schools of fish for easy collection. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ...


On September 24, 2007, Reef Check (the world’s largest reef conservation organization) stated that only 5% of Philippines 27,000 square-kilometers of coral reef are in “excellent condition” : Tubbataha Reef, Marine Park in Palawan, Apo Island in Negros Oriental, Apo Reef in Puerto Galera, Mindoro, and Verde Island Passage off Batangas. Philippine coral reefs is 2nd largest in Asia.[28] is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To conserve habitat for wild species and prevent their extinction or reduction in range is a priority of a great many groups that cannot be easily characterized in terms of any one ideology. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... Tubbataha Reef is an atoll coral reef located in the Sulu Sea, 98 nautical miles southeast of Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. ... For the public park of the same name, see Marine Park, Brooklyn. ... Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa region. ... Apo Island is a small volcanic island, 7km off the southeastern tip of Negros Island in the Philippines. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Negros Oriental Region: Central Visayas (Region VII) Capital: Dumaguete City Founded: March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,126,061 (20th largest) Density—208 per km² (41st highest) Area: 5,402. ... Puerto Galera is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. ... Beach in Northern Mindoro Mindoro is the seventh-largest island in the Philippines. ... Verde Island sits in the Verde Island Passage near Calapan, Mindoro and Batangas, Luzon in The Philippines. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Batangas Region: CALABARZON (Region IV-A) Capital: Batangas City Founded: March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,905,348 (9th largest) Density—602 per km² (7th highest) Area: 3,165. ... The Republic of the Philippines is a country of South East Asia, located in the western Pacific Ocean some 1,210 km (750 mi) from mainland Asia. ... Part of a coral reef. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


General estimates show approximately 10% of the coral reefs around the world are already dead.[29][30]Problems range from environmental effects of fishing techniques, described above, to ocean acidification.[31] Coral bleaching is another manifestation of the problem and is showing up in reefs across the planet. Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Warm pink and yellow host coral organism due to stress. ...


Protection and restoration

Aerial photo of Ahus Island, Papua New Guinea
Aerial photo of Ahus Island, Papua New Guinea

Inhabitants of Ahus Island, Manus Province, Papua New Guinea, have followed a generations-old practice of restricting fishing in six areas of their reef lagoon. While line fishing is permitted, net and spear fishing are restricted based on cultural traditions. The result is that both the biomass and individual fish sizes are significantly larger in these areas than in places where fishing is completely unrestricted.[32][33] Image File history File links ManusReefs_L7_2000Feb20. ... Image File history File links ManusReefs_L7_2000Feb20. ... Location of Manus Province in Papua New Guinea Manus Province is the smallest province in Papua New Guinea with a land area of 2100km², but with more than 220,000km² of water. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ...


It is estimated that about 60% of the world’s reefs are at risk due to destructive, human-related activities. The threat to the health of reefs is particularly strong in Southeast Asia, where an enormous 80% of reefs are considered endangered. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


Organisations as Coral Cay, Counterpart [34] and the Foundation of the peoples of the South Pacific are currently undertaking coral reef/atoll restoration projects. They are doing so using simple methods of plant propagation. Other organisations as Practical Action have released informational documents on how to set-up coral reef restoration to the public.[35] Headline text PLANT PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES Adrian Arias Biology 109 October 28, 2005 There are many ways to create new plants; they can be created by sexual or asexual techniques. ... Practical Action - the working name of Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) – is a charity registered in the United Kingdom which works directly in four regions of the developing world – Latin America, East Africa, Southern Africa and South Asia, with particular concentration on Peru, Kenya, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka and Nepal. ...


Marine Protected Areas

One method of coastal reef management that has become increasingly prominent is the implementation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). MPAs have been introduced in Southeast Asia and elsewhere around the world to attempt to promote responsible fishery management and habitat protection. Much like the designation of national parks and wild life refuges, potentially damaging extraction activities are prohibited. The objectives of MPAs are both social and biological, including restoration of coral reefs, aesthetic maintenance, increased and protected biodiversity, and economic benefits. Conflicts surrounding MPAs involve lack of participation, clashing views and perceptions of effectiveness, and funding. The term Marine Protected Area is often used as an umbrella term covering a wide range of marine areas with some level of restriction to protect living, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources. ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... This article is about national parks. ...


Reef Restoration Technology

Low voltage electrical currents applied through seawater crystallizes dissolved minerals onto steel structures. The resultant white carbonate (aragonite) is the same mineral that makes up natural coral reefs. Corals rapidly colonize and grow at faster than normal rates onto these coated structures. The change in the environment produced by electrical currents also accelerates formation and growth of both chemical limestone rock and the skeletons of corals and other shell-bearing organisms. Within the vicinity of the anode and cathode is a high pH environment which inhibits the growth of filamentous and fleshy algae, which compete with coral for space. This, and the increased growth rates cease when the mineral accretion process stops.[36] Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ...


The effects of mineral accretion is, however, only temporary. During the process the settled corals have an increased growth rate, and size, and density, but after the process is complete the corallites are comparable to naturally growing corallites in growth rate and density, and are about the same size or slightly smaller.[37]


Reefs in the past

Throughout the Earth history, from a few million years after hard skeletons were developed by marine organisms, there was almost always reefs in the primitive seas. The times of maximum development were in the Middle Cambrian (513-501 Ma), Devonian (416-359 My) and Carboniferous (359-299 Ma), due to Order Rugosa extinct corals, and Late Cretaceous (100-65 Ma) and all Neogene (23 Ma - present), due to Order Scleractinia corals. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The Middle Cambrian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Suborders Columnariina† Cystiphyllina† Streptelasmatina† The Rugosa, also called the Tetracoralla, are an extinct order of coral that were abundant in Middle Ordovician to Late Permian seas. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Geography of the US in the Late Cretaceous Period Late Cretaceous (100mya - 65mya) refers to the second half of the Cretaceous Period, named after the famous white chalk cliffs of southern England, which date from this time. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... Families Suborder Astrocoeiina   Acroporidae   Astrocoeniidae   Pocilloporiidae Suborder Caryophylliina   Caryophylliidae Suborder Dendrophylliina   Dendrophylliidae Suborder Faviina   Astrangiidae   Faviidae   Meandrinidae   Mirulinidae   Mussidae   Oculinidae   Pectiniidae   Trachyphyllidae Suborder Fungiina   Agariciidae   Fungiidae   Poritidae   Siderastreidae   Thamnasteriidae Scleractinia, also called Stony corals, are exclusively marine animals; they are very similar to sea anemones but generate a hard skeleton. ...


Not all reefs in the past were formed by corals: in the Early Cambrian (542-513 Ma) resulted from calcareous algae and archaeocyathids (small animals with conical shape, probably related to sponges) and in the Late Cretaceous (100 -65 Ma), when also existed reefs formed by a group of bivalves called rudists (one of the valves formed the main conical structure and the other, much smaller, acting as cap). The Early Cambrian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... The Archeocyatha, also called Archaeocyathids, were sessile, reef-building marine organisms that lived during the Lower Cambrian period (500-600 million years ago). ... This article is about the animal. ... Geography of the US in the Late Cretaceous Period Late Cretaceous (100mya - 65mya) refers to the second half of the Cretaceous Period, named after the famous white chalk cliffs of southern England, which date from this time. ... Subclasses Anomalosdesmata Cryptodonta Heterodonta Paleoheterodonta Palaeotaxodonta Pteriomorphia and see text Mussels in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England. ... Rudists are a group of bivalves that peaked in abundance and diversity during the late Mesozoic era, particuarly in the Cretaceous period, at the end of which they became extinct. ...


See also

For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Warm pink and yellow host coral organism due to stress. ... Coral rag is a rubbly limestone composed of ancient coral reef material. ... The Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL) is a member-supported, non-profit organization, dedicated to keeping coral reefs alive by integrating ecosystem management, sustainable tourism, and community partnerships. ... Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. ... Project AWARE is a non-profit, worldwide, organization dedicated to Conserving underwater environments through education, advocacy and action. ... Several species of reef-associated sharks are known as reef sharks: Grey reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos. ... White band disease is characterized by complete coral tissue degradation of Caribbean acroporid corals. ...

References

  1. ^ Corals reveal impact of land use. ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  2. ^ Achituv, Y. and Dubinsky, Z. 1990. Evolution and Zoogeography of Coral Reefs. Ecosystems of the World. Vol. 25:1-8.
  3. ^ (2006) A Reef Manager’s Guide to Coral Bleaching. Townsville, Australia: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,. 1 876945 40 0. 
  4. ^ a b c d Spalding, Mark, Corinna Ravilious, and Edmund Green. 2001. World Atlas of Coral Reefs. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press and UNEP/WCMC.
  5. ^ a b Nybakken, James. 1997. Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach. 4th ed. Menlo Park, CA: Addison Wesley.
  6. ^ a b c Castro, Peter and Michael Huber. 2000. Marine Biology. 3rd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
  7. ^ Sorokin, Y. I. Coral Reef Ecology. Germany. Sringer-Herlag, Berlin Heidelberg. 1993.
  8. ^ Coexistence of coral reef fishes—a lottery for living space PF Sale 1978 - Environmental Biology of Fishes, 1978
  9. ^ Vroom, Peter S.; Page, Kimberly N.; Kenyon, Jean C. & Brainard, Russell E. (2006), “Algae-Dominated Reefs”, American Scientist 94 (5): pp.430-437 
  10. ^ Ryan Holl (17 April 2003). Bioerosion: an essential, and often overlooked, aspect of reef ecology. Iowa State University. Retrieved on 2006-11-02.
  11. ^ Hughes, et al. 2003. Climate Change, Human Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs. Science. Vol 301 15 August 2003
  12. ^ Australian Government Productivity Commission (2003). Industries, Land Use and Water Quality in the Great Barrier Reef Catchment - Key Points. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.
  13. ^ Rachel Nowak (2004-01-11). Sewage nutrients fuel coral disease. New Scientist. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  14. ^ Emma Young (2003). Copper decimates coral reef spawning. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  15. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Philippines. CIA. Retrieved on 2006-11-02.
  16. ^ David LECCHINI, Sandrine POLTI, Yohei NAKAMURA, Pascal MOSCONI, Makoto TSUCHIYA, Georges REMOISSENET, Serge PLANES (2006) "New perspectives on aquarium fish trade" Fisheries Science 72 (1), 40–47. Blackwell Synergy. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  17. ^ Kleypas, J.A., R.A. Feely, V.J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, and L.L. Robbins, 2006, Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A guide for Future Research, NSF, NOAA, & USGS, 88 pp.
  18. ^ The Ocean and the Carbon Cycle. NASA Oceanography (science@nasa) (2005-06-21). Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  19. ^ Jacobson, M. Z. (2005). Studying ocean acidification with conservative, stable numerical schemes for nonequilibrium air-ocean exchange and ocean equilibrium chemistry. J. Geophys. Res. Atm. 110, D07302.
  20. ^ Orr, J. C. et al. (2005). Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437, 681-686.
  21. ^ Gattuso, J.-P., Frankignoulle, M., Bourge, I., Romaine, S. and Buddemeier, R. W. (1998). Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification. Glob. Planet. Change 18, 37-46.
  22. ^ Duce, R.A., Unni, C.K., Ray, B.J., Prospero, J.M., Merrill, J.T. 1980. Long-range atmospheric transport of soil dust from Asia to the tropical North Pacific:Temporal variability. Science 209:1522–1524.
  23. ^ Usinfo.state.gov. Study Says African Dust Affects Climate in U.S., Caribbean. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  24. ^ Prospero, J.M., Nees, R.T. 1986. Impact of the North African drought and El Niño on mineral dust in the Barbados trade winds. Nature 320:735–738.
  25. ^ U. S. Geological Survey. Coral Mortality and African Dust. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  26. ^ Merman, E.A. 2001. Atmospheric inputs to the tropical ocean—unlocking the record in annually banded corals. Master’s thesis. University of South Florida, St. Petersburg.
  27. ^ Muhs, D.R., Bush, C.A., Stewart, K.C., Rowland, T.R., Crittenden, R.C. 1990. Geochemical evidence of Saharan dust parent material for soils developed on Quaternary limestones of Caribbean and Western Atlantic islands. Quaternary Research 33:157–177.
  28. ^ Abs-Cbn Interactive, ‘RP coral reefs, second largest in Asia, in bad shape’
  29. ^ Save Our Seas, 1997 Summer Newsletter, Dr. Cindy Hunter and Dr. Alan Friedlander
  30. ^ Tun, K., L.M. Chou, A. Cabanban, V.S. Tuan, Philreefs, T. Yeemin, Suharsono, K.Sour, and D. Lane, 2004, p:235-276 in C. Wilkinson (ed.), Status of Coral Reefs of the world: 2004.
  31. ^ Kleypas, J.A., R.A. Feely, V.J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, and L.L. Robbins, 2006, Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A guide for Future Research, NSF, NOAA, & USGS, 88 pp.
  32. ^ Cinner, J. et al. (2005). Conservation and community benefits from traditional coral reef management at Ahus Island, Papua New Guinea. Conservation Biology 19 (6), 1714-1723
  33. ^ Coral Reef Management, Papua New Guinea. Nasa's Earth Observatory. Retrieved on 2006-11-02.
  34. ^ 'The Coral Gardener'-documentary on coral gardening by Counterpart
  35. ^ Practical Action coral reef restoration
  36. ^ Sabater, Marlowe G.; Yap, Helen T. 2004. "Long-term effects of induced mineral accretion on growth, survival, and corallite properties of Porites cylindrica Dana." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Vol. 311:355-374.
  37. ^ Sabater, Marlowe G.; Yap, Helen T. 2004. "Long-term effects of induced mineral accretion on growth, survival, and corallite properties of Porites cylindrica Dana." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Vol. 311:355-374.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park protects a large part of Australias Great Barrier Reef from activities that would damage it. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iowa State University of Science and Technology (ISU) is a public land-grant and space-grant university located in Ames, Iowa, USA. Iowa State has produced a number of astronauts, Nobel laureates, Pulitzer Prize winners and a variety of other notable individuals in their respective fields. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The Earth Observatory is a publishing organization of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

General references

  • Barber, Charles V. and Vaughan R. Pratt. 1998. Poison and Profit: Cyanide Fishing in the Indo-Pacific. Environment, Heldref Publications.
  • Butler, Steven. 1996. "Rod? Reel? Dynamite? A tough-love aid program takes aim at the devastation of the coral reefs". U.S. News and World Report, 25 November 1996.
  • Christie, P. 2005a. University of Washington, Lecture. 18 May 2005.
  • Christie, P. 2005b. University of Washington, Lecture. 4 May 2005.
  • CIA - World Factbook -- Philippines
  • Clifton, Julian. 2003. Prospects for Co-Management in Indonesia's Marine Protected Areas. Marine Policy, 27(5): 389-395.
  • Courtney, Catherine and Alan White. 2000. Integrated Coastal Management in the Philippines. Coastal Management; Taylor and Francis.
  • Fox, Helen. 2005. Experimental Assessment of Coral Reef Rehabilitation Following Blast Fishing. The Nature Conservancy Coastal and Marine Indonesia Program. Blackwell Publishers Ltd, Feb 2005.
  • Gjertsen, Heidi. 2004. Can Habitat Protection Lead to Improvements in Human Well-Being? Evidence from Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines.
  • Martin, Glen. 2002. "The depths of destruction Dynamite fishing ravages Philippines' precious coral reefs". San Francisco Chronicle, 30 May 2002
  • Sadovy, Y.J. Ecological Issues and the Trades in Live Reef Fishes, Part 1
  • USEPA.
  • UNEP. 2004. Coral Reefs in the South China Sea. UNEP/GEF/SCS Technical Publication No. 2.
  • UNEP. 2007. Coral Reefs Demonstration Sites in the South China Sea. UNEP/GEF/SCS Technical Publication No. 5.
  • UNEP, 2007. National Reports on Coral Reefs in the Coastal Waters of the South China Sea. UNEP/GEF/SCS Technical Publication No. 11.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Coral reefs
  • Moorea Coral Reef Long Term Ecological Research Site (US NSF)
  • ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies
  • NOAA's Coral-List Listserver for Coral Reef Information and News
  • NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program
  • NOAA's Coral Reef Information System
  • NOAA Report: The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2005
  • ReefBase: A Global Information System on Coral Reefs
  • National Coral Reef Institute Nova Southeastern University
  • Global Coral Reef Alliance
  • Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN)
  • Marine Aquarium Council
  • NCORE National Center for Coral Reef Research University of Miami
  • The Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL)
  • Science and Management of Coral Reefs in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand
  • A special report on the plight of the planet's coral reefs—and how you can help—from Mother Jones magazine
  • A guide to finding sources and literature about coral reefs
  • NBII portal on coral reefs
A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... Mariculture is the cultivation of marine organisms for food, either in their natural environment or in seawater in ponds or raceways. ... An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the waters surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ... Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are the only significant factors in determining population dynamics, while extrinsic factors (immigration and emigration) are considered to be insignificant. ... In aquaculture, the broodstock is a group of sexually mature individuals of a cultured species that is kept separate for breeding purposes. ... A freshwater prawn farm is an aquaculture business designed to raise and produce freshwater prawn or shrimp1 for human consumption. ... Krill fishery is the commercial fishery of krill, small shrimp-like marine animals that live in the oceans world-wide. ... Because of their large size, rapid growth, and palatability, a number of tilapiine cichlids are at the focus of major aquaculture efforts, specifically various species of Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia colloquially known as tilapias. ... A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artifical conditions, especially those of fish or poultry. ... The U.S. Farm-Raised Catfish Industry began in the early 1960s in Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. ... Tailwater refers to a type of trout fishery. ... Hirudiculture is the culture, or farming, of leeches in both natural and artificial environments. ... Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... Sea louse is the designation of ectoparasitic copepods Lepeoptheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus both parasitic on salmonids ... The National Fish Hatchery System was established by the U.S. Congress in 1871 through the creation of a U.S. Commissioner for Fish and Fisheries. ... Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHHN) is a viral disease of penaeid shrimp that causes mass mortality (up to 90%) among the Western Blue Shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) and severe deformations in the Pacific White Shrimp (). It occurs in Pacific farmed and wild shrimp, but not in wild shrimp on the... The Yellowhead disease (YHD) is a viral infection of shrimp, in particular of the Giant Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon), one of the two major species of farmed shrimp. ... White spot syndrome (WSS) is a viral infection of penaeid shrimp. ... Taura syndrome is one of the more devastating diseases affecting the shrimp farming industry worldwide. ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... The WorldFish Center (originally International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management or ICLARM) is an international research center specializing in fisheries and related aquatic resources. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... A water column is a conceptual column of water from surface to bottom sediments. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column. ... Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... Population ecology is a major subfield of ecology—one that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment. ... Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. ... Often referred to by the acronym VPA, is a modelling technique commonly used in fisheries science for reconstructing historical fish numbers at age using information on death of individuals each year. ... Trophic cascades occur when predators in a food chain suppress the abundance of their prey, thereby releasing the next lower trophic level from predation (or herbivory if the intermediate trophic level is an herbivore). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Population dynamics. ... Functional ecology is the branch of ecology that focuses on the roles, or functions, that species play in the community or ecosystem in which they occur. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... The Sea Around Us Project is devoted to studying the impact of fisheries on the worlds marine ecosystems. ... Earthtrust is a non-governmental organization (NGO) dedicated to wildlife protection. ... The FRV Scotia Fisheries Research Services (FRS) is an Executive Agency of the Scottish Executive, part of the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department. ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ... The National Fisheries Research and Development Institute or NFRDI, is a scientific body operated by the South Korean government, under the authority of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ... The Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science(CEFAS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government department the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... Seafood Watch is a program designed to raise consumer awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources. ... Sustainable seafood is seafood from either fished or farmed sources that can maintain or increase production in the future without jeopardizing the ecosystems from which it was acquired. ... Unsustainable fishing methods are ways of catching wild fish that are not considered sustainable in the long term. ... Unsustainable fishing methods are ways of catching wild fish that are not considered sustainable in the long term. ... A fish aggregating (or aggregation) device (FAD) is a man-made object used to attract ocean going pelagic fish such as marlin, tuna and mahi-mahi (dolphin fish). ... A fishing light attractor is an underwater light that can be used to attract fish of many species, including baitfish, and larger fish. ... Cyanide fishing is an illegal form of fishing common in South East Asia, which usually uses the chemical compound sodium cyanide - a close relation of potassium cyanide. ... Blast fishing or dynamite fishing describes the practice of using dynamite, homemade bombs or other explosives to stun or kill schools of fish for easy collection. ... A Flosser is an angler who uses the method of flossing to catch fish mainly from the Salmon species. ... Drift nets are nets used in oceans. ... Ghost nets are fishing nets that have been lost by fishermen. ... The Celtic Explorer, a research vessel engaged in bottom trawling Bottom trawling (known in the scientific community as Benthic trawling) is a fishing method which involves towing trawl nets along the sea floor, as opposed to pelagic trawling, where a net is towed higher in the water column. ... A piscicide is a substance which is poisonous to fish. ... ... A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels. ... A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels. ... EconMult is a general fleet model to be used in fisheries modelling. ... EconSimp is a bioeconomic management model of the Barents Sea fisheries. ... Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), in the context of fisheries, is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a broadening of traditional enforcing national rules over fishing, to the support of the hroader problem of fisheries management[1]. Internationally, the basis of law for... Individual fishing quotas (popularly abbreviated to IFQ) are a means by which many governments have tried to regulate fishing. ... Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), in the context of fisheries, is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a broadening of traditional enforcing national rules over fishing, to the support of the hroader problem of fisheries management[1]. Internationally, the basis of law for... Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) are used in commercial fishing to allow environmental and fisheries regulatory organizations to monitor, minimally, the position, time at a position, and course and speed of fishing vessels. ... In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively-immature juveniles of the target species. ... Cetacean bycatch is the technical term for the incidental capture of non-target cetacean species by fisheries. ... Exclusive Economic Zone of the EU, with 25 million km² it is the largest in the world[1] The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ... Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. ... The term Marine Protected Area is often used as an umbrella term covering a wide range of marine areas with some level of restriction to protect living, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources. ... Marine reserve is an area of the sea which has legal protection against fishing or development. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Founded in 1973 by fishermen, the National Coalition for Marine Conservation (NCMC) is the USAs oldest public advocacy group dedicated exclusively to conserving ocean fish and their environment. ... The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) is an intergovernmental organisation responsible for the management and conservation of tunas and tuna-like species in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas. ... The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent non-profit organization that aims to promote sustainable fishery practices. ... The Pacific Whiting Conservation Cooperative (PWCC) is a harvest and research cooperative formed by four companies that participate in the catcher/processor sector of the Pacific whiting (aka hake, Merluccius productus) fishery -- Alaska Ocean Seafoods, American Seafoods, Glacier Fish Co. ... opened for signature - 29 April 1958 entered into force - 20 March 1966 objective - to solve through international cooperation the problems involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas, considering that because of the development of modern technology some of these resources are in danger of being overexploited... Walther Herwig (February 25, 1838 - December 16, 1912) was a Prussian administrative lawyer, and the founder of the German fisheries science. ... Dr. Daniel Pauly is a Professor and Director of the Fisheries Centre. ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... A turtle excluder device. ... Nymphaea alba, a species of water lily. ... Fishing from a Pier Fishing is both the recreation and sport of catching fish (for food or as a trophy), and the commercial fishing industry of catching or harvesting seafood (either fish or other aquatic life-forms, such as shellfish). ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Coral Reef Alliance - Coral Reef Overview (2086 words)
Coral reefs are one of the most complex and colorful tropical ecosystems, rivaling rain forests in their richness of life.
Coral reef organisms build massive and intricate physical structures that are home to some of the most fascinating plants and animals in the world.
A good way to imagine a coral reef is to think of it as a bustling city or community, with the buildings made of coral, and thousands of inhabitants coming and going, carrying out their business.
Coral Reef - MSN Encarta (1476 words)
A coral reef is a reef that has been built largely or entirely by corals, tiny animals that live together in colonies.
Patch reefs occur along a continental shelf where mound-shaped hillocks on the sea floor are close enough to the surface to allow corals to settle and grow.
Fringing reefs occur along a rocky coastline where corals or coral remains extend outward from the shore and form an outermost line or ridge that runs parallel to the shore.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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