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Encyclopedia > Coquina
Coquina outcropping on the beach at Washington Oaks State Gardens, Florida
Coquina outcropping on the beach at Washington Oaks State Gardens, Florida

Coquina (Spanish, "cockle"; pronounced /koʊˈkiːnə/) is an incompletely consolidated sedimentary rock found in coastal Florida. Coquina was formed in association with marine reefs and is a variety of "coral rag", technically a subset of limestone. Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlain by limestone. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... For other uses, see Reef (disambiguation). ... Coral rag is a rubbly limestone composed of ancient coral reef material. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Composition and distribution

Coquina is mainly composed of mineral calcite, often including some phosphate, in the form of seashells or coral. It is found in surface exposures along the east coast of Florida from St. Johns County to Palm Beach County. It may occur up to 20 miles inland from the coast in the sub-surface. For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... A display of seashells, mostly of marine Mollusca, including an abalone, nautilus, ark shell, scallop, pearl oyster, auger shell, cone shell, two cowries, a hammer oyster, and a fossil clam, but also including the shell or test of a sand dollar (an echinoderm). ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... St. ... Palm Beach County is a county located in the state of Florida. ...


History and use

Occasionally quarried or mined and used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years, coquina forms the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos, Saint Augustine. The stone makes a very good material for forts, particularly those built during the period of heavy cannon use. Because of its softness, cannon balls would sink into, rather than shatter or puncture, the walls of the Castillo de San Marcos. For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The Castillo de San Marcos is a Spanish built fort located in the city of St. ... St. ...


When first quarried, coquina is extremely soft. This softness makes it very easy to remove from the quarry and cut into shape. However, the stone is also at first much too soft to be used for building. In order to be used as a building material, the stone is left out to dry for approximately one to three years, which causes the stone to harden into a usable, but still comparatively soft, form.


Coquina has also been used as a source of paving material. It is usually poorly cemented and easily breaks into component shell or coral fragments, which can be substituted for gravel or crushed harder rocks. Large pieces of coquina of unusual shape are sometimes used as landscape decoration. Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... This article is about the geological substance. ...


Because coquina often includes a component of phosphate, it is sometimes mined for use as fertilizer. Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Notable exposures of coquina

Detail of coquina showing characteristic shell deposits
Detail of coquina showing characteristic shell deposits

Coquina Conway, South Carolina Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:57, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coquina Conway, South Carolina Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:57, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Washington Oaks Gardens State Park is a Florida State Park located near Palm Coast, Florida, along Highway A1A. The park is most famous for its formal gardens, however it also preserves the original habitat of a northeast Florida barrier island. ... Flagler County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... Hutchinson Island is a barrier island on the coast of Martin and St. ... Martin County is a county located in the state of Florida. ... Palm Beach County is a county located in the state of Florida. ...

See also

  • List of types of limestone

External links

Look up coquina in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Services - Office of Cultural & Historical Programs (448 words)
Coquina is a soft, porous stone, a mixture of mollusk shell fragments and quartz sand, bound together by calcium carbonate.
Coquina formed when sand and shells accumulated in underwater offshore bars and sea levels were higher than they are today.
As early as 1598, coquina was quarried on nearby Anastasia Island to construct a gunpowder storage magazine.
Coquina Harbour in Little River South Carolina (276 words)
Coquina Harbour in Little River South Carolina is a picturesque Myrtle Beach area marina on the northern end of the Grand Strand.
At Coquina Harbour visitors can dine overlooking the docks at Umbertos Italian Restaurant, a favorite of locals for its high level of service and quality of dishes served.
Despite opposition from Little River residents and their representation at Horry County Council, a new resort dubbed Coquina Harbor Resort is scheduled to be developed at the marina.
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