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Encyclopedia > Copyright
Intellectual property law
Primary rights
Sui generis rights
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Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time, after which the work enters the public domain. Generally, it is "the right to copy", but also gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, who may perform the work, who may financially benefit from it, and other, related rights. It is an intellectual property form (like the patent, the trademark, and the trade secret) applicable to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete. Copywriting is the process of writing the words that promote a person, business, opinion, or idea. ... Image File history File links Copyright. ... Image File history File links Copyright. ... Copyright symbol. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Image File history File links Scale_of_justice_2. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... Industrial design rights are intellectual property rights that protect the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian. ... A utility model is an intellectual property right to protect inventions. ... A geographical indication (sometimes abbreviated to GI) is a name or sign used on certain products or which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (eg. ... A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. ... Related rights is a term in copyright law, used in opposition to the term authors rights. The term neighbouring rights is exactly equivalent, and a more literal translation of the original French droits voisins. ... A trade name, also known as a trading name or a business name, is the name which a business trades under for commercial purposes, although its registered, legal name, used for contracts and other formal situations, may be another. ... The term domain name has multiple related meanings: A name that identifies a computer or computers on the Internet. ... Sui generis is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning a scholar like what pradeep is or unique in its characteristics. ... Database rights are a form of exclusive right introduced by European Union Law to those countries which follow EU Law in 1996. ... A mask work is a two or three-dimensional layout of an integrated circuit (IC), i. ... Plant breeders rights, also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are intellectual property rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant. ... In European Union member countries, a supplementary protection certificate (SPC) is a sui generis, patent-like, intellectual property right. ... Indigenous intellectual property: is an umbrella legal term used in national and international forums to identify indigenous peoples special rights to claim (from within their own laws) all that their indigenous groups know now, have known, or will know. ... This is a list of topics related to intellectual property. ... A government is an organization that has the power to make and enforce laws for a certain territory. ... In law, an exclusive right is the power or right to perform an action in relation to an object or other thing which others cannnot perform. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. ...


Copyright initially was conceived as a way for governments in Europe to restrict printing; the contemporary intent of copyright is to promote the creation of new works by giving authors control of and profit from them. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Print. ...


Copy rights have been internationally standardised, lasting between fifty to a hundred years from the creator's death, or a finite period for anonymous or corporate creations; some jurisdictions have required formalities to establishing copyright, most recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Generally, copyright is enforced as a civil matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions. Civil law has at least three meanings. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ...


Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing "fair" exceptions to the creator's exclusivity of copyright, and giving users certain rights. The development of the Internet, digital media, computer network technologies, such as peer-to-peer filesharing, have prompted reinterpretation of these exceptions, introduced new difficulties in enforcing copyright, and inspired additional challenges to copyright law's philosophic basis. Simultaneously, businesses with great economic dependence upon copyright have advocated the extension and expansion of their copy rights, and sought additional legal and technological enforcement. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Audio & Visual Media Digital media (as opposed to analog media) usually refers to electronic media that work on digital codes. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ...


See: Anti-copyright main article and Critique in "See also". Anti-copyright refers to the opposition to copyright laws. ...

Contents

History

Copyright was invented after the advent of the printing press and with wider public literacy. As a legal concept, its origins in Britain were from a reaction to printers' monopolies at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Charles II of England was concerned by the unregulated copying of books and passed the Licensing Act of 1662 by Act of Parliament [1], which established a register of licensed books and required a copy to be deposited with the Stationers Company, essentially continuing the licensing of material that had long been in effect. Copyright was invented after the advent of the printing press and subsequent widening of public literacy. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


The British Statute of Anne (1709) further alluded to individual rights or the artist, beginning: "Whereas Printers, Booksellers, and other Persons, have of late frequently taken the Liberty of Printing... Books, and other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors... to their very great Detriment, and too often to the Ruin of them and their Families:..."[2] A right to benefit financially from the work is articulated, and court rulings and legislation have recognized a right to control the work, such as ensuring that the integrity of it is preserved. An irrevocable right to be recognized as the work's creator appears in some countries' copyright laws. The Statute of Anne (short title Copyright Act 1709 8 Anne c. ...


The Statute of Anne was the first real copyright act, and gave the publishers rights for a fixed period, after which the copyright expired. Copyright has grown from a legal concept regulating copying rights in the publishing of books and maps to one with a significant effect on nearly every modern industry, covering such items as sound recordings, films, photographs, software, and architectural works. The Statute of Anne (short title Copyright Act 1709 8 Anne c. ... “Sound recorder” redirects here. ...


The Copyright Clause of the United States Constitution (1787) authorized copyright legislation: "To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries." That is, by guaranteeing them a period of time in which they alone could profit from their works, they would be enabled and encouraged to invest the time required to create them, and this would be good for society as a whole. A right to profit from the work has been the philosophical underpinning for much legislation extending the duration of copyright, to the life of the creator and beyond, to his heirs. Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution, known as the Copyright Clause empowers the United States Congress: To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


The 1886 Berne Convention first established recognition of copyrights among sovereign nations, rather than merely bilaterally. Under the Berne Convention, copyrights for creative works do not have to be asserted or declared, as they are automatically in force at creation: an author need not "register" or "apply for" a copyright in countries adhering to the Berne Convention. As soon as a work is "fixed", that is, written or recorded on some physical medium, its author is automatically entitled to all copyrights in the work, and to any derivative works unless and until the author explicitly disclaims them, or until the copyright expires. The Berne Convention also resulted in foreign authors being treated equivalently to domestic authors, in any country signed onto the Convention. The UK signed the Berne Convention in 1887 but did not implement large parts of it until 100 years later with the passage of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act of 1988. The USA did not sign the Berne Convention until 1989. For the treaty establishing the General Postal Union, see Treaty of Bern. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... A creative work is a tangible manifestation of creative effort such as literature, paintings, software, and this article. ...


The United States and most Latin American countries instead entered into the Buenos Aires Convention in 1910, which required a copyright notice (such as "all rights reserved") on the work, and permitted signatory nations to limit the duration of copyrights to shorter and renewable terms. The Universal Copyright Convention was drafted in 1952 as another less demanding alternative to the Berne Convention, and ratified by nations such as the Soviet Union and developing nations. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Buenos Aires Convention was a treaty proposed in 1910 which provided for copyright protection in all countries that were signatory to the convention, for a work created in any member country, where the work carries a notice containing a statement of reservation of rights. ... The Universal Copyright Convention (UCC), adopted at Geneva in 1952, is one of the two principal international conventions protecting copyright; the other is the Berne Convention. ...


The regulations of the Berne Convention are incorporated into the World Trade Organization's TRIPS agreement (1995), thus giving the Berne Convention effectively near-global application. The 2002 WIPO Copyright Treaty enacted greater restrictions on the use of technology to copy works in the nations that ratified it. For the treaty establishing the General Postal Union, see Treaty of Bern. ... -1... The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) is a treaty administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) which sets down minimum standards for forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation. ... The World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty, abbreviated as the WIPO Copyright Treaty, was an international treaty on copyright law adopted by the member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1996. ...


Justification

Some take the approach of looking for coherent justifications of established copyright systems, while others start with general ethical theories, such as utilitarianism and try to analyse policy through that lens. Another approach denies the meaningfulness of any ethical justification for existing copyright law, viewing it simply as a result (and perhaps an undesirable result) of political processes. // Overview The philosophy of copyright has several aspects. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ...


Another widely debated issue is the relationship between copyrights and other forms of "intellectual property", and material property. Most scholars of copyright agree that it can be called a kind of property, because it involves the exclusion of others from something. But there is disagreement about the extent to which that fact should allow the transportation of other beliefs and intuitions about material possessions. The copyright symbol is used to give notice that a work is covered by copyright. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In law, an exclusive right is the power or right to perform an action in relation to an object or other thing which others cannnot perform. ...


There are many other philosophical questions which arise in the jurisprudence of copyright. They include such problems as determining when one work is "derived" from another, or deciding when information has been placed in a "tangible" or "material" form. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Some critics claim copyright law protects corporate interests while criminalizing legitimate use, while proponents argue the law is fair and just.


Scope

Copyright may apply to a wide range of creative, intellectual, or artistic forms, or "works". Specifics vary by jurisdiction, but these can include poems, theses, plays, other literary works, movies, dances, musical compositions, audio recordings, paintings, drawings, sculptures, photographs, software, radio and television broadcasts, and industrial designs. Graphic designs and industrial designs may have separate or overlapping laws applied to them in some jurisdictions. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... This article is about the thesis in dialectics and academia. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Look up Choreography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... Sculptor redirects here. ... -1... Software redirects here. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... In the context of the applied arts, engineering, architecture and other such creative endeavours, design is both a noun and a verb. ...


Copyright does not cover ideas and information themselves, only the form or manner in which they are expressed. For example, the copyright to a Mickey Mouse cartoon restricts others from making copies of the cartoon or creating derivative works based on Disney's particular anthropomorphic mouse, but doesn't prohibit the creation of other works about anthropomorphic mice in general, so long as they're different enough to not be judged copies of Disney's. In many jurisdictions, copyright law makes exceptions to these restrictions when the work is copied for the purpose of commentary or other related uses (See Fair Use, Fair Dealing). Meanwhile, other laws may impose additional restrictions that copyright does not — such as trademarks and patents. Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. ... This montage of different images is an example of a derivative work In copyright law, a derivative work is an artistic creation that includes major, basic copyrighted aspects of an original, previously created first work. ... Disney redirects here. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... Fair dealing is a doctrine of limitations and exceptions to copyright which is found in many of the common law jurisdictions of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


Copyright laws are standardized somewhat through international conventions such as the Berne Convention and Universal Copyright Convention. These multilateral treaties have been ratified by nearly all countries, and international organizations such as the European Union or World Trade Organization require their member states to comply with them. For the treaty establishing the General Postal Union, see Treaty of Bern. ... The Universal Copyright Convention (UCC), adopted at Geneva in 1952, is one of the two principal international conventions protecting copyright; the other is the Berne Convention. ... For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... -1...


Obtaining and enforcing copyright

Typically, a work must meet minimal standards of originality in order to qualify for copyright, and the copyright expires after a set period of time (some jurisdictions may allow this to be extended). Different countries impose different tests, although generally the requirements are low; in the United Kingdom there has to be some 'skill, labour and judgment' that has gone into it.[3] In Australia and the United Kingdom it has been held that a single word is insufficient to comprise a copyright work. However, single words or a short string of words can sometimes be registered as a trademark instead. “(TM)” redirects here. ...


Copyright law recognises the right of an author based on whether the work actually is an original creation, rather than based on whether it is unique; two authors may own copyright on two substantially identical works, if it is determined that the duplication was coincidental, and neither was copied from the other.


In all countries where the Berne Convention standards apply, copyright is automatic, and need not be obtained through official registration with any government office. Once an idea has been reduced to tangible form, for example by securing it in a fixed medium (such as a drawing, sheet music, photograph, a videotape, or a computer file), the copyright holder is entitled to enforce his or her exclusive rights. However, while registration isn't needed to exercise copyright, in jurisdictions where the laws provide for registration, it serves as prima facie evidence of a valid copyright and enables the copyright holder to seek statutory damages and attorney's fees. (In the USA, registering after an infringement only enables one to receive actual damages and lost profits.) For the treaty establishing the General Postal Union, see Treaty of Bern. ... Look up prima facie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Statutory damages for copyright infringement are available under some countries copyright laws. ...


The original holder of the copyright may be the employer of the author rather than the author himself, if the work is a "work for hire". For example, in English law the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 provides that if a copyrighted work is made by an employee in the course of that employment, the copyright is automatically owned by the employer which would be a "Work for Hire." A work for hire is an exception to the general rule that the person who creates a work is the author of that work. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ...


Copyrights are generally enforced by the holder in a civil law court, but there are also criminal infringement statutes in some jurisdictions. While central registries are kept in some countries which aid in proving claims of ownership, registering does not necessarily prove ownership, nor does the fact of copying (even without permission) necessarily prove that copyright was infringed. Criminal sanctions are generally aimed at serious counterfeiting activity, but are now becoming more commonplace as copyright collectives such as the RIAA are increasingly targeting the file sharing home Internet user. Thus far, however, most such cases against file sharers have been settled out of court. (See: File sharing and the law) In the common law, civil law refers to the area of law governing relations between private individuals. ... The establishment of a fact by evidence constitutes legal proof. ... The RIAA Logo. ... File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... This article looks at file sharing and the law, including controversies, copyright issues, legislative regimes, and notable cases. ...


Copyright notices in the U.S.

Prior to 1989, use of a copyright notice — consisting of the copyright symbol (©, the letter C inside a circle), the abbreviation "Copr.", or the word "Copyright", followed by the year of the first publication of the work and the name of the copyright holder — was part of United States statutory requirements.[4][5] Several years may be noted if the work has gone through substantial revisions. The proper copyright notice for sound recordings of musical or other audio works is a sound recording copyright symbol (, the letter P inside a circle), which indicates a sound recording copyright. Similarly, the phrase All rights reserved was once required to assert copyright. Copyright symbol. ... The symbol, a circled P, represents a copyright on a sound recording. ... All rights reserved is a phrase that originated in copyright law as part of copyright notices. ...


In 1989, the U.S. enacted the Berne Convention Implementation Act, amending the 1976 Copyright Act to conform to most of the provisions of the Berne Convention. As a result, the use of copyright notices has become optional to claim copyright, because the Berne Convention makes copyright automatic.[6] However, the lack of notice of copyright using these marks may have consequences in terms of reduced damages in an infringement lawsuit — using notices of this form may reduce the likelihood of a defense of "innocent infringement" being successful.[7] For the treaty establishing the General Postal Union, see Treaty of Bern. ...


"Poor man's copyright"

A widely circulated strategy to avoid the cost of copyright registration is referred to as the "poor man's copyright." It proposes that the creator send the work to himself in a sealed envelope by registered mail, using the postmark to establish the date. This technique has not been recognized in any published opinions of the United States courts. The United States Copyright Office makes clear that the technique is no substitute for actual registration.[8] The United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office discusses the technique but does not recommend its use.[9] Poor mans copyright refers to the method of using registered dating by the postal service or a notary public to date intellectual property, thereby helping to establish that the material has been in ones posession since a particular time. ... An example of a postmark A postmark is a postal marking made on a letter, package, postcard or the like indicating the (more or less precise) date and time that the item was delivered into the care of the postal service. ...


Exclusive rights

Several exclusive rights typically attach to the holder of a copyright:

  • to produce copies or reproductions of the work and to sell those copies (including, typically, electronic copies)
  • to import or export the work
  • to create derivative works (works that adapt the original work)
  • to perform or display the work publicly
  • to sell or assign these rights to others
  • to transmit or display by radio or video

The phrase "exclusive right" means that only the copyright holder is free to exercise those rights, and others are prohibited from using the work without the holders permission. Copyright is sometimes called a "negative right", as it serves to prohibit certain people (e.g., readers, viewers, or listeners, and primarily publishers and would be publishers) from doing something they would otherwise be able to do, rather than permitting people (e.g., authors) to do something they would otherwise be unable to do. In this way it is similar to the unregistered design right in English law and European law. The rights of the copyright holder also permit him/her to not use or exploit their copyright, for some or all of the term. This montage of different images is an example of a derivative work In copyright law, a derivative work is an artistic creation that includes major, basic copyrighted aspects of an original, previously created first work. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... The European Union is unique among international organizations in having a complex and highly developed system of internal law which has direct effect within the legal systems of its member states. ...


There is, however, a critique which rejects this assertion as being based on a philosophical interpretation of copyright law that is not universally shared. There is also debate on whether copyright should be considered a property right or a moral right.[citation needed] Many argue that copyright does not exist merely to restrict third parties from publishing ideas and information, and that defining copyright purely as a negative right is incompatible with the public policy objective of encouraging authors to create new works and enrich the public domain.[weasel words] // Overview The philosophy of copyright has several aspects. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Moral rights are rights of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and first recognized in France and Germany, before they were included in the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in 1928. ...


The right to adapt a work means to transform the way in which the work is expressed. Examples include developing a stage play or film script from a novel, translating a short story, and making a new arrangement of a musical work.


Limits and exceptions to copyright

The expression limitations and exceptions to copyright refers to situations in which the exclusive rights granted to authors (or their asignees) under copyright law do not apply. ...

Idea-expression dichotomy and the merger doctrine

Main article: Idea-expression divide

Immanuel Kant in his 1785 essay Von der Unrechtmäßigkeit des Büchernachdrucks distinguishes the physical from the ideational, the thought involved from the book. This distinction is of critical importance to the near constant wrangling between publishers, other intermediaries, and the original, creative authors. In intellectual property law, the idea-expression divide is the principle which states that the function of the law is to protect the fixed expression or manifestation of an idea, rather than the fundamental concept or information which gives rise to the idea. ... Kant redirects here. ...


The first-sale doctrine and exhaustion of rights

Copyright law does not restrict the owner of a copy from reselling legitimately obtained copies of copyrighted works, provided that those copies were originally produced by or with the permission of the copyright holder. It is therefore legal, for example, to resell a copyrighted book or CD. In the United States this is known as the first-sale doctrine, and was established by the courts to clarify the legality of reselling books in second-hand bookstores. Some countries may have parallel importation restrictions that allow the copyright holder to control the aftermarket. This may mean for example that a copy of a book that does not infringe copyright in the country where it was printed does infringe copyright in a country into which it is imported for retailing. The first-sale doctrine is known as exhaustion of rights in other countries and is a principle which also applies, though somewhat differently, to patent and trademark rights. It is important to note that the first-sale doctrine permits the transfer of the particular legitimate copy involved. It does not permit making or distributing additional copies. The first-sale doctrine is a limitation on copyright that was recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1908 and subsequently codified in the Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U.S.C. § 109. ... Exhaustion of rights, or the doctrine of exhaustion, is a concept in intellectual property law whereby an intellectual property owner will lose or exhaust certain rights after the first use of the subject matter which is the subject of intellectual property rights. ... CD redirects here. ... The first-sale doctrine is a limitation on copyright that was recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1908 and subsequently codified in the Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U.S.C. § 109. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... A bookstore. ... Parallel importation (also known as participation in the grey market) is an issue of intellectual property and international trade. ... Aftermarket (Music), Master psuedoname of projects by engineer/producer Jonathan Borsis. ... Exhaustion of rights, or the doctrine of exhaustion, is a concept in intellectual property law whereby an intellectual property owner will lose or exhaust certain rights after the first use of the subject matter which is the subject of intellectual property rights. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... “(TM)” redirects here. ...


In addition, copyright, in most cases, does not prohibit one from acts such as modifying, defacing, or destroying his or her own legitimately obtained copy of a copyrighted work, so long as duplication is not involved. However, in countries that implement moral rights, a copyright holder can in some cases successfully prevent the mutilation or destruction of a work that is publicly visible. Moral rights are rights of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and first recognized in France and Germany, before they were included in the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in 1928. ...


Fair use and fair dealing

Main articles: Fair use and Fair dealing

Copyright does not prohibit all copying or replication. In the United States, the fair use doctrine, codified by the Copyright Act of 1976 as 17 U.S.C. § 107, permits some copying and distribution without permission of the copyright holder or payment to same. The statute does not clearly define fair use, but instead gives four non-exclusive factors to consider in a fair use analysis. Those factors are: For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... Fair dealing is a doctrine of limitations and exceptions to copyright which is found in many of the common law jurisdictions of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... The Copyright Act of 1976 is a landmark statute in United States copyright legislation and remains the primary basis of copyright law in the United States. ... Title 17 of the United States Code outlines the role of copyrights in the United States Code. ...

  1. the purpose and character of the use;
  2. the nature of the copyrighted work;
  3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.[10]

In the United Kingdom and many other Commonwealth countries, a similar notion of fair dealing was established by the courts or through legislation. The concept is sometimes not well defined; however in Canada, private copying for personal use has been expressly permitted by statute since 1999. In Australia, the fair dealing exceptions under the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) are a limited set of circumstances under which copyrighted material can be legally copied or adapted without the copyright holder's consent. Fair dealing uses are research and study; review and critique; news reportage and the giving of professional advice (ie legal advice). Under current Australian law it is still a breach of copyright to copy, reproduce or adapt copyright material for personal or private use without permission from the copyright owner. Other technical exemptions from infringement may also apply, such as the temporary reproduction of a work in machine readable form for a computer. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Fair dealing is a doctrine of limitations and exceptions to copyright which is found in many of the common law jurisdictions of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Legal advice is the giving of a formal and binding opinion regarding the substance or procedure of the law in exchange for financial or other compensation. ... // This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the United States the AHRA (Audio Home Recording Act Codified in Section 10, 1992) prohibits action against consumers making noncommercial recordings of music, in return for royalties on both media and devices plus mandatory copy-control mechanisms on recorders. The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law by adding chapter 10 Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media. ...

Section 1008. Prohibition on certain infringement actions
No action may be brought under this title alleging infringement of copyright based on the manufacture, importation, or distribution of a digital audio recording device, a digital audio recording medium, an analog recording device, or an analog recording medium, or based on the noncommercial use by a consumer of such a device or medium for making digital musical recordings or analog musical recordings.

Later acts amended US Copyright law so that for certain purposes making 10 copies or more is construed to be commercial, but there is no general rule permitting such copying. Indeed making one complete copy of a work, or in many cases using a portion of it, for commercial purposes will not be considered fair use. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act prohibits the manufacture, importation, or distribution of devices whose intended use, or only significant commercial use, is to bypass an access or copy control put in place by a copyright owner. An appellate court has held that fair use is not a defense to engaging in such distribution. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law which implements two 1996 WIPO treaties. ...


Transfer and licensing

A copyright, or aspects of it, may be assigned or transferred from one party to another. For example, a musician who records an album will often sign an agreement with a record company in which the musician agrees to transfer all copyright in the recordings in exchange for royalties and other considerations. The creator (and original copyright holder) benefits, or expects to, from production and marketing capabilities far beyond those of the author. In the digital age of music, music may be copied and distributed at minimal cost through the Internet, however the record industry attempts to provide promotion and marketing for the artist and his or her work so it can reach a much larger audience. A copyright holder need not transfer all rights completely, though many publishers will insist. Some of the rights may be transferred, or else the copyright holder may grant another party a non-exclusive license to copy and/or distribute the work in a particular region or for a specified period of time. A transfer or licence may have to meet particular formal requirements in order to be effective; see section 239 of the Australia Copyright Act 1968 (Cth). Under Australian law, it is not enough to pay for a work to be created in order to also own the copyright. The copyright itself must be expressly transferred in writing. The record industry is the part of the music industry that earns profit by selling sound recordings of music. ...


Under the U.S. Copyright Act, a transfer of ownership in copyright must be memorialized in a writing signed by the transferor. For that purpose, ownership in copyright includes exclusive licenses of rights. Thus exclusive licenses, to be effective, must be granted in a written instrument signed by the grantor. No special form of transfer or grant is required. A simple document that identifies the work involved and the rights being granted is sufficient. Non-exclusive grants (often called non-exclusive licenses) need not be in writing under U.S. law. They can be oral or even implied by the behavior of the parties. Transfers of copyright ownership, including exclusive licenses, may and should be recorded in the U.S. Copyright Office. (Information on recording transfers is available on the Office's web site.) While recording is not required to make the grant effective, it offers important benefits, much like those obtained by recording a deed in a real estate transaction. The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...


Copyright may also be licensed. Some jurisdictions may provide that certain classes of copyrighted works be made available under a prescribed statutory license (e.g. musical works in the United States used for radio broadcast or performance). This is also called a compulsory license, because under this scheme, anyone who wishes to copy a covered work does not need the permission of the copyright holder, but instead merely files the proper notice and pays a set fee established by statute (or by an agency decision under statutory guidance) for every copy made. Failure to follow the proper procedures would place the copier at risk of an infringement suit. Because of the difficulty of following every individual work, copyright collectives or collecting societies and performing rights organizations (such as ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC have been formed to collect royalties for hundreds (thousands and more) works at once. Though this market solution bypasses the statutory license, the availability of the statutory fee still helps dictate the price per work collective rights organizations charge, driving it down to what avoidance of procedural hassle would justify. To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... A statutory license or compulsory license is a copyright license to use content under reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. ... A compulsory license is a license to use a patent, copyright, or other exclusive right that a government forces the holder to grant to others. ... A copyright collective (also known as a copyright collecting agency or collecting society) is a body created by private agreements or by copyright law that collects royalty payments from various individuals and groups for copyright holders. ... A performance rights organisation exists to collect and distribute royalties on behalf of audio and video artists, for performances of their copyrighted works under copyright law. ... The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) is an organization known as a collecting society that protects intellectual property, ensuring that music which is broadcast, commercially recorded, or otherwise used for profit, pays a fee to compensate the creators of that music. ... Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI) is a collecting society that protects composers intellectual property in the communications business, especially radio. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Similar legal rights

Copyright law covers the creative or artistic expression of an idea. Patent law covers inventions. Trademark law covers distinctive signs which are used in relation to products or services as indicators of origin, as does (in a similar fashion), Trade dress. Registered designs law covers the look or appearance of a manufactured or functional article. Trade secret law covers secret or sensitive knowledge or information. For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... In semiotics, a sign is generally defined as, ...something that stands for something else, to someone in some capacity. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... Trade dress refers to features of the visual appearance of a product or its packaging (or even the facade of a building such as a restaurant) that may be registered and protected from being used by competitors in the manner of a trademark. ... A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. ...


Although copyright and trademark laws are theoretically distinct, more than one type of them may cover the same item or subject matter. For example, in the case of the Mickey Mouse cartoon, the image and name of Mickey Mouse would be the subject of trademark legislation, while the cartoon itself would be subject to copyright. Titles and character names from books or movies may also be trademarked while the works from which they are drawn may qualify for copyright.


Another point of distinction is that a copyright (and a patent) is generally subject to a statutorily-determined term, whereas a trademark registration may remain in force indefinitely if the trademark is periodically used and renewal fees continue to be duly paid to the relevant jurisdiction's trade marks office or registry. Once the term of a copyright has expired, the formerly copyrighted work enters the public domain and may be freely used or exploited by anyone. Courts in the United States and the United Kingdom have rejected the doctrine of a common law copyright. Public domain works should not be confused with works that are publicly available. Works posted in the internet for example, are publicly available, but are not generally in the public domain. Copying such works may therefore violate the author's copyright. In most countries, births, deaths, and marriages are recorded at a government controlled births, deaths and marriages registry office (eg. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Common law copyright is the legal doctrine that contends that copyright is a natural right and creators have the same inherent right to it as they would tangible property. ...


Useful articles

If a pictorial, graphic or sculptural work is a useful article, it is copyrighted only if its aesthetic features are separable from its utilitarian features. A useful article is an article having an intrinsic utilitarian function that is not merely to portray the appearance of the article or to convey information. They must be separable from the functional aspect to be copyrighted. [1]


There are two primary approaches to the separability issue: physical separability and conceptual separability. Physical separability is the ability to take the aesthetic thing away from the functional thing. Conceptual separability can be found in several different ways. It may be present if the useful article is also shown to be appreciated for its aesthetic appeal or by the design approach, which is the idea that separability is only available if the designer is able to make the aesthetic choices that are unaffected by the functional considerations. A question may also be asked of whether an individual would think of the aesthetic aspects of the work being separate from the functional aspects.


There are several different tests available for conceptual separability. The first, the Primary Use test, asks how is the thing primarily used: art or function? The second, the Marketable as Art test, asks can the article be sold as art, whether functional or not. This test does not have much backing, as almost anything can be sold as art. The third test, Temporal Displacement, asks could an individual conceptualize the article as art without conceptualizing functionality at the same time. Finally, the Denicola test says that copyrightability should ultimately depend on the extent to which the work reflects the artistic expression inhibited by functional consideration. If something came to have a pleasing shape because there were functional considerations, the artistic aspect was constrained by those concerns.


Duration

Copyright subsists for a variety of lengths in different jurisdictions. The length of the term can depend on several factors, including the type of work (e.g. musical composition, novel), whether the work has been published or not, and whether the work was created by an individual or a corporation. In most of the world, the default length of copyright is the life of the author plus either 50 or 70 years. In the United States, the term for most existing works is a fixed number of years after the date of creation or publication. Under most countries' laws, copyrights expire at the end of the calendar year in question.


The length and requirements for copyright duration are subject to change by legislation, and since the early 20th century there have been a number of adjustments made in various countries, which can make determining the duration of a given copyright somewhat difficult. For example, the United States used to require copyrights to be renewed after 28 years to stay in force, and formerly required a copyright notice upon first publication to gain coverage. In Italy and France, there were post-wartime extensions that could increase the term by approximately 6 years in Italy and up to about 14 in France. Many countries have extended the length of their copyright terms (sometimes retroactively). International treaties establish minimum terms for copyrights, but individual countries may enforce longer terms than those.


In the United States, all books and other works published before 1923 have expired copyrights and are in the public domain. In addition, works published before 1964 that did not have their copyrights renewed 28 years after first publication year also are in the public domain, except that books originally published outside the US by non-Americans are exempt from this requirement, if they are still under copyright in their home country (see How Can I Tell Whether a Copyright Was Renewed for more details).


But if the intended exploitation of the work includes publication (or distribution of derivative work, such as a film based on a book protected by copyright) outside the U.S., the terms of copyright around the world must be considered. If the author has been dead more than 70 years, the work is in the public domain in most, but not all, countries. Some works are covered by copyright in Spain for 80 years after the author's death.


In 1998 the length of a copyright in the United States was increased by 20 years under the The Copyright Term Extension Act. This legislation was strongly promoted by corporations which had valuable copyrights which otherwise would have expired, and has been the subject of substantial criticism on this point. The Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 extended copyright terms in the United States by 20 years. ...


As a curiosity, the famous work Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up has a complex – and disputed – story of copyright expiry. This article is about the play and novel by J.M. Barrie. ...


Typefaces

In the United States, the Copyright Office maintains that typeface designs are not covered by copyright, and it will not accept applications for their registration. See 37. C.F.R. § 202.1(e). In Tufenkian Import/Export Ventures, Inc. v. Einstein Moomjy, Inc., 338 F.3d 127, 132 (2nd Cir. 2003), the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit recognized this rule when it held, “the public domain includes, for example, both the generic shape of the letter 'L' and all of the elaborately more specific 'L's' from the hundreds of years of font designs that have fallen into the public domain.” However, if a design is novel and "non-obvious," it may be covered by design patent. See, for example, U.S. Des. Patent No. 289,773 , May 12, 1987), Charles A. Bigelow and Kris A. Holmes, inventors. Germany (in 1981) passed a special extension (Schriftzeichengesetz) to the design patent law (Geschmacksmustergesetz) for protecting them. This permits typefaces being registered as designs in Germany, too. So far, the United States courts have not published any opinions discussing whether a computer program creating a particular font might be intellectual property protected by the copyright laws. The United States Copyright Office, a part of the Library of Congress, is the official U.S. government body that maintains records of copyright registration in the United States. ... “Font” redirects here. ... weener ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Charles Bigelow (Born 1945 in Detroit, Michigan) is a type historian, professor and designer, recipient of a MacArthur Grant in 1982. ... co-creator of Lucida font family. ...


The United Kingdom (in 1989) has passed a law making typeface designs copyrightable. The British law also applies to designs produced before 1989. The Middlesex Guildhall will be home to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom has three distinct legal systems. ...


Accessible Copies

It is legal in several countries including the United Kingdom and the United States to produce alternative versions (for example, in large print or braille) of a copyrighted work to provide improved access to a work for blind and visually impaired persons without permission from the copyright holder.[11][12]


See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
US Copyright Law

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... A compulsory license is a license to use a patent, copyright, or other exclusive right that a government forces the holder to grant to others. ... Copyfraud is a term used to describe the misuse of false claims of copyright. ... Copying is the duplication of information, or an artifact, based only on an instance of that information or artifact, and not using the process that originally generated it. ... Intellectual property education is the teaching of explanations of and arguments concerning intellectual property laws, especially copyright and related violations. ... The Cathach of St. ... The copyright infringement of software (also known as software piracy) refers to several practices when done without the permission of the copyright holder: Creating a copy and/or selling it. ... The copyright status of the content of patent applications and patents may vary from one legislation to another. ... With copyright on religious works it is not always clear who the rights holder is. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... An image with visible digital watermarking. ... This article looks at file sharing and the law, including controversies, copyright issues, legislative regimes, and notable cases. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The legal aspects of technology involve many different terms. ... Various copyright treaties were created as a result of different requirements of the various countries, This is a list of what countries are signatory to which copyright treaties. ... The following is a list of cases that deal with issues of concern to copyright in various jurisdictions. ... This is a list of different countries and the length of their standard copyright in years. ... Moral rights are rights of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and first recognized in France and Germany, before they were included in the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in 1928. ... Paracopyright is a term that refers to an umbrella of legal protections above and beyond traditional copyright. ... Production music is the name given to the music owned by production music libraries and licensed to customers for use in film, television, radio and other media. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Reproduction fees are charged by image collections for the right to reproduce images in publications. ... Related rights is a term in copyright law, used in opposition to the term authors rights. The term neighbouring rights is exactly equivalent, and a more literal translation of the original French droits voisins. ... In economics, rent seeking occurs when an individual, organization, or firm seeks to make money by manipulating the economic environment rather than by making a profit through trade and production of wealth. ... Software copyright, the relatively recent extension of copyright law to machine-readable software, has allowed a market for proprietary software to flourish for some time. ... Threshold pledge is a system designed to solve the classic problem of distributed funding, which is that each contributor wants reassurance that others are also contributing, before putting in her own money. ...

National copyright laws

See also List of countries' copyright length This is a list of different countries and the length of their standard copyright in years. ...

Australian copyright law is based on the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and defines copyright in Australia. ... Canadian copyright law is the area of law that defines copyright within Canada. ... Intellectual property rights have been acknowledged and protected in the Peoples Republic of China since 1979. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: There is no copyright law of the European Union at all If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... Dutch copyright law (called Auteursrecht) grants exclusive rights to the author of a work of literature, science or art. ... The droit dauteur (or French copyright law) developed in the eighteenth century at the same time as copyright developed in the United Kingdom. ... German copyright law or Deutsches Urheberrecht is a droit dauteur style law. ... Copyright law in Hong Kong to a great extent follows the English model. ... The Indian copyright law is governed by the Copyright Act, 1957. ... In Japan, the copyright is divided into two: Authors Rights and Neighboring Rights. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Philippine copyright law is enshirined in the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines, officially known as Republic Act No. ... The Copyright law of the Russian Federation became effective on August 3, 1993. ... Spanish copyright law governs copyright (Spanish: derechos de autor), that is the rights of authors of literary, artistic or scientific works, in Spain. ... The copyright law of Switzerland is based on the concept of authors rights (Urheberrecht in German, droit dauteur in French), similarly to the French copyright law, instead of the concept of Copyright used in common law jurisdictions. ... The current copyright law of the United Kingdom is to be found in the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (the 1988 Act), with later amendments. ... United States copyright law governs the legally enforceable rights of creative and artistic works in the United States. ...

US Legislation

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law which implements two 1996 WIPO treaties. ... The Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 extended copyright terms in the United States by 20 years. ...

EU Legislation

The European Union (EU) directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, commonly known as the EU Copyright Directive or short EUCD, is the EUs implementation... The Directive on harmonizing the term of copyright protection was a European Union (EU) copyright directive issued in 1993. ...

International treaties

For the treaty establishing the General Postal Union, see Treaty of Bern. ... The Universal Copyright Convention (UCC), adopted at Geneva in 1952, is one of the two principal international conventions protecting copyright; the other is the Berne Convention. ... The Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations was accepted by members of the World Intellectual Property Organization on October 26, 1961. ... -1... The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) is a treaty administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) which sets down minimum standards for forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation. ... The WIPO Copyright Treaty, adopted by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1996, provides additional protections for copyright deemed necessary in the modern information era. ... The WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) was adopted in Geneva on December 20, 1996. ...

Critique

Various alternative compensation systems (ACSes) have been proposed as ways to allow the widespread reproduction of digital copyrighted works while still paying the authors and copyright owners of those works. ... Anti-copyright refers to the opposition to copyright laws. ... The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ... As used by copyright theorists, the term copynorm (or more frequently copynorms) is used to refer to a normalized social-standard regarding the ethical issue of duplicating copyrighted material. ... Copyright-free (著作権フリー) is a conventional expression extensively used in Japan that the author say their works can be used freely regardless of copyright. ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ... Creative Commons licenses are several copyright licenses released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U.S. non-profit corporation founded in 2001. ... Crypto-anarchism is a philosophy that expounds the use of strong public-key cryptography to enforce privacy and individual freedom. ... The book cover Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity (2004) is a book by law professor Lawrence Lessig that was released on the Internet under the Creative Commons Attribution/Non-commercial license (by-nc 1. ... Not to be confused with Lawrence Lessing. ... // Overview The philosophy of copyright has several aspects. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Uneasy Case for Copyright: A Study of Copyright in Books, Photocopies, and Computer Programs was an article in the Harvard Law Review by United States Supreme Court Justice-to-be Stephen Breyer in 1970, while he was still a legal academic. ... Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American attorney, political figure, and jurist. ...

Other

The Disneyland Memorial Orgy is a black and white drawing done by Wally Wood for humorist Paul Krassners underground publication The Realist. ... The Day the Violence Died is the eighteenth episode of The Simpsons seventh season. ... Simpsons redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ Copyright in Historical Perspective, p. 136-137, Patterson, 1968, Vanderbilt Univ. Press
  2. ^ Statute of Anne
  3. ^ Express Newspaper Plc v News (UK) Plc, F.S.R. 36 (1991)
  4. ^ Copyright Act of 1976, Pub.L. 94-553, 90 Stat. 2541, § 401(a) (October 19, 1976)
  5. ^ The Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988 (BCIA), Pub.L. 100-568, 102 Stat. 2853, 2857. One of the changes introduced by the BCIA was to section 401, which governs copyright notices on published copies, specifying that notices "may be placed on" such copies; prior to the BCIA, the statute read that notices "shall be placed on all" such copies. An analogous change was made in section 402, dealing with copyright notices on phonorecords.
  6. ^ U.S. Copyright Office - Information Circular
  7. ^ 17 U.S.C.
  8. ^ Copyright in General: I’ve heard about a "poor man’s copyright." What is it?, U.S Copyright Office
  9. ^ Copyright Registers', United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office
  10. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 107
  11. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 121
  12. ^ Copyright (Visually Impaired Persons) Act 2002 (England): http://www.rnib.org.uk/xpedio/groups/public/documents/publicwebsite/public_cvipsact2002.hcsp

Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Title 17 of the United States Code outlines the role of copyrights in the United States Code. ... Title 17 of the United States Code outlines the role of copyrights in the United States Code. ... Title 17 of the United States Code outlines the role of copyrights in the United States Code. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Copyright
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Copyright

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

China

  • China Law Blog Frequent commentary on China IP laws, including copyright

European Union

  • EU Copyright Information on EU IP laws, including copyright covering the nations of the European Union. This is a commercial site with links to a registration service which is unnecessary in the EU.

Israel

  • Unofficial English translation of the Israeli Copyright Act of 2007, passed the Israeli Parliament (the Knesset) November 19, 2007

is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Japan

  • Copyright Law of Japan, Copyright Research and information Center, Japan
    • Copyright Research and Information Center, Japan (CRIC), Copyright Law of Japan, Series: Q and A about Copyright in Japan , 1. Copyright for beginners, What is Copyright?, IV. How Long Does Author's Right Continue? (Japanese:著作権情報センター).

North Korea

  • Law on Computer Software (Unofficial translation)
  • Law on Industrial Design (Unofficial translation)
  • Law on Invention (Unofficial translation)
  • Law on Trademark (Unofficial translation)
  • Law on Copyright (Unofficial translation)
  • Law on the Place of Origin (Unofficial translation)

Poland

  • Intellectual Property in Poland (In English)

Russia

  • Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights No. 5351-I of July 9, 1993

South Korea

  • Copyright Act of (South) Korea

Miscellaneous

  • Lehman, Bruce: Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure (Report of the Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights, 1995)
  • Gantz, John & Rochester, Jack B. (2005). Pirates of the Digital Millennium. Financial Times Prentice Hall. ISBN O-13-146315-2. 
  • Lindsey, Marc: Copyright Law on Campus. Washington State University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-87422-264-7.
  • Mazzone, Jason. Copyfraud. http://ssrn.com/abstract=787244
  • Moores, Simon - "March of the Spiders:" Policy Challenges for Copyright in the Digital Publishing Environment (2005)
  • Nimmer, Melville; David Nimmer (1997). Nimmer on Copyright. Matthew Bender. ISBN 0-8205-1465-9. 
  • Ghosemajumder, Shuman. Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models. MIT Sloan School of Management, 2002.
  • Silverthorne, Sean. Music Downloads: Pirates- or Customers?. Harvard Business School Working Knowledge, 2004.
  • Steinberg, S.H. & Trevitt, John (1996). Five Hundred Years of Printing, 4th ed., London and New Castle: The British Library and Oak Knoll Press. ISBN 1-884718-19-1. 
  • Dowd, Raymond J. (2006). Copyright Litigation Handbook, 1st ed., Thomson West. ISBN 0314962794. 
  • Lyman Ray Patterson (1968). Copyright in Historical Perspective. Vanderbilt University Press. ISBN 0826513735. 
  • Pievatolo, Maria Chiara. Publicness and Private Intellectual Property in Kant's Political Thought. http://bfp.sp.unipi.it/~pievatolo/lm/kantbraz.html

Bruce A. Lehman (born September 19, 1945) served from August 5, 1993 through 1998 as the Assistant Secretary of Commerce and Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks. ... Washington State University (WSU) is a major public research university in Pullman, Washington. ... Simon Moores is Vice Chairman of policy development for the Conservative Technology Forum and Managing Director of Zentelligence (Research). ... Melville Bernard Nimmer (1923-1985) was a American lawyer and law professor, renowned as an expert in freedom of speech and copyright law. ... Shuman Ghosemajumder is the co-founder and former CEO of Anadas Consulting, a Canadian software development firm. ... The MIT Sloan School of Management is one of the five schools of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. It is one of the worlds leading business schools, conducting research and teaching in finance, entrepreneurship, marketing, strategic management, economics, organizational behavior, operations management, supply chain... Harvard Business School, officially named the Harvard Business School: George F. Baker Foundation, and also known as HBS, is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ...

Others

  • Copyright in higher education by SURF, NL
  • Copyright Toolbox for authors and publishers by SURF, NL
  • Where To Copyright Global Copyright resources
  • Future of Electronic Copyright Uncertain - 1995 - by Philip E. Daoust, SFSU
  • Against Perpetual Copyright, a collaboratively authored article on Lawrence Lessig's wiki.
  • The End of the Information Age An analysis of the history of Copyright policy and its impact on society
  • Erik Ringmar, "Liberate and Disseminate," Times Higher Education Supplement, 10 April, 2008.
  • A brief intro to copyright by Brad Templeton
  • 10 Myths about Copyrights
  • Copyright notices Fact sheet explaining copyright notices and how to use them effectively in the UK.
  • Common Copyright Myths and Misconceptions
  • Thomas Babbington Macaulay on copyright (1841)
  • The Free Expression Policy Project report on copyright
  • Libraries in Today's Digital Age: The Copyright Controversy
  • B. Gates Rants About Software Copyrights - in 1980
  • Article "The Evolving Common Law Doctrine of Copyright Misuse: A Unified Theory and Its Application to Software" by Brett Frischmann and Dan Moylan
  • (2002 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 0023) MUSIC PIRACY AND THE AUDIO HOME RECORDING ACT
  • PDF - March of the Spiders (by Simon Moores, for the UK Aediles Policy Unit)
  • A flowchart which helps to determine the copyright status of a particular work in the US.
  • Copyright Debate and RSS
  • Digital Copyright Canada forum for debating Canadian PCT (Patent, copyright, trademark and other related rights) law.
  • Copyright & Fair Use, Stanford University Libraries
  • 10 Things Webmasters Should Know About ... Copyright - A guide to website copyright.
  • Copyright, Patent, Trademark Information, Switzerland and International (German | English)
  • "Copyright Essentials for Writers", Holly Jahangiri
  • Online Copyright Activity (UK)
  • Infringement Nation:Copyright Reform and the Law/Norm Gap
  • Birds sing, but campers can’t - unless they pay up
  • Copyright notice precedent
  • Primary Sources on Copyright (1450-1900) (database of British, French, German, Italian, US historical documents)

Not to be confused with Lawrence Lessing. ... Brad Templeton (born near Toronto in 1960), son of Charles Templeton and Sylvia Murphy, is a software engineer and entrepreneur. ... Quotes His imagination resembled the wings of an ostrich. ... Stanford redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Copyright.com: The rights licensing experts - Copyright Clearance Center (280 words)
OnCopyright 2008, CCC's first-ever copyright conference, brought together thought leaders and change agents to exchange ideas about where copyright is headed and how it will affect the future of creative expression.
The new Annual Copyright License for academic institutions allows college and university instructors, researchers and other staff to share copyrighted content online and across campus, all year long.
CCC is celebrating its 30th year of providing licensing solutions for the seamless sharing of knowledge.
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If you create a henna work, and another person sees the henna work, they should not create a henna work closely based on your work and claim it is their own work.
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