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Encyclopedia > Copy control
Copy control logo
Copy control logo

Copy Control is the generic name of a copy protection system, used from 2001 until 2006 on several digital audio disc releases by EMI and Sony BMG Music Entertainment in several regions (Europe, Canada, the United States, Australia). It should not be confused with the totally unrelated CopyControl computer software copy protection system introduced by Microcosm in 1989. Several types of protection existed. While basically intended as a means of copy-protecting compact discs, Copy Control discs cannot properly be referred to as CDs as the system introduces incompatible data, making the discs non-compliant with the Red Book standard for audio CDs. The system is intended to prevent digital audio extraction ("ripping") from the protected discs, and thus limit the file sharing of ripped music. The techniques used are: Image File history File links Copy control logo. ... Image File history File links Copy control logo. ... Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ... The EMI Group (LSE: EMI) is a British music company comprising of the major record company EMI Music which operates several labels, based in Brook Green in London, England, and EMI Music Publishing, based on Charing Cross Road, London. ... The Sony BMG Music Entertainment logo. ... A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... The CDDA trademark Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... A CD ripper, CD grabber or CD extractor is a piece of software designed to extract raw digital audio (in format commonly called CDDA) from a compact disc to a file or other output. ... File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ...

  • Multisession (Blue Book) information is included which effectively hides the audio tracks from most CD-ROM drives;
  • Error-correction codes for the audio data are corrupted, which may introduce audible errors to ripped copies.
  • The data area of the disc usually includes DRM-restricted copies of the audio content, which are incompatible with some operating systems.

In the Netherlands, the record labels Sony and Universal experimented with copy control until 2004. EMI kept using it until June 2006, when they dropped it. The Blue Book or Enhanced Music CD specification describes the Enhanced Music CD disc format. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... In computer science and information theory, error correction consists of using methods to detect and/or correct errors in the transmission or storage of data by the use of some amount of redundant data and (in the case of transmission) the selective retransmission of incorrect segments of the data. ... Digital Rights Management (generally abbreviated to DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to any of several technologies used by publishers or copyright owners to control access to and usage of digital data or hardware, and to restrictions associated with a specific instance of a digital work or device. ... An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that manage the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The EMI Group (LSE: EMI) is a British music company comprising of the major record company EMI Music which operates several labels, based in Brook Green in London, England, and EMI Music Publishing, based on Charing Cross Road, London. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


In the United States, Universal Music Group experimented with copy control on a few soundtracks in 2001 and 2002, but abandoned it afterwards; Warner Music Group has only used it in Europe on such releases as Red Hot Chili Peppers Greatest Hits. As of September 2006 Cactus Data Shield, the Macrovision technology behind copy control, is no longer listed as a product on Macrovision's website and has completely been abandoned in such countries as Australia. [1] Universal Music Group (UMG), formerly MCA Music Entertainment Group, is the largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry. ... Warner Music Group (WMG) is one of the four major record labels. ... Red Hot Chili Peppers is a multiple Grammy Award-winning American rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1983. ... Cactus Data Shield is a form of CD/DVD copy protection for audio compact discs developed by Midbar Tech now owned by Macrovision. ... Macrovision is a company that creates electronic copy prevention schemes, established in 1983. ...


A December 2006 issue of Billboard magazine announced that EMI had decided to abandon copy control worldwide. Until then, it had been unclear whether EMI had completely abandoned it. There was no press release. For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... It has been suggested that Billboard be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Background

The Copy Control protections were devised in response to the file sharing and casual CD copying that has become commonplace in recent years, allegedly causing the music industry significant lost revenues. Neither issue was particularly relevant when the CD standard was introduced in the early 1980s, and thus, unlike the more recent DVDs, the CD standard specifies no inherent form of copy protection or other digital rights management. Copy control is one of a number of attempts to apply copy protection on top of the CD standard, but since it is merely a modification of the already unrestricted standard which must still yield usable results in most CD players, the efficiency of the system varies significantly. File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Digital Rights Management (generally abbreviated to DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to any of several technologies used by publishers or copyright owners to control access to and usage of digital data or hardware, and to restrictions associated with a specific instance of a digital work or device. ...

The CDDA logo, absent from Copy Control releases

As the Copy Control discs do not conform to the requirements of the CD standard, they are not labelled with the CDDA logo, which is trademarked by Philips. A Copy Control "CD" which would not play in a car CD player was deemed "defective" in a French 2003 lawsuit, and every recent Copy Control released disc carry visible Copy Control notices stating merely compatibility with CDs and the possibility of playback problems "on some equipment, for example car CD players". Nevertheless, the discs are frequently referred to as CDs or "copy-protected CDs" in music stores and in colloquial language. Image File history File links The CDDA logo. ... Image File history File links The CDDA logo. ... The CDDA trademark Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Circumvention

A Copy Control disc will appear as a mixed-mode disc, with audio and data content. Under Windows, inserting the disc will usually autorun an audio player utility, which plays the DRM-protected audio files provided. (This can be temporarily disabled by holding down the shift key while inserting the disc, or by disabling autorun altogether.) Autorun or autoplay (sometimes spelled in CamelCase as AutoRun or AutoPlay) is the ability of many modern computer operating systems to automatically take some action upon the inserting of removable media such as a CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, or flash media. ... The shift key on a modern Windows keyboard The shift key is a modifier key on a keyboard, used to type capital letters and other alternate upper characters. ...


The ability to extract the CD-Audio tracks is otherwise largely dependent on the disc drive used. The first obstacle is the 'fake' Table of Contents (ToC), which is intended to mask the audio tracks from CD-ROM drives. On the other hand, CD-R/RW drives, and similar, can usually access all session data on a disc, and thus can properly read the audio segment. (It has been reported that the fake ToC may also be bypassed by obscuring the outer 2-4 mm of the disc with a temporary felt-tip marker. This method, however, may no longer be effective due to advances in Copy Control technology.)


The other major obstacle is the incompatible (and technically corrupted) error-correction data. Again, the effect of this is dependent on the disc drive; some drives will be able to read the data without problems, but others will produce audio files with loud pops every few seconds. (A related problem is that such discs will probably not be as resistant to scratching.)


Copy Control also does not prevent copying a disc by recording it as audio through a computer's sound card, which only causes a slight degradation in audio quality, or none in the case where a digital link is used. More substantial is the loss in recording speed. This poses a major problem to the music industry, due to the fact that many "pirates" rip protected CD audio in this way.


Usually a CD-R/RW drive will play the disc but with occasional stops (about every 10 seconds) and DVD-R/RW drives will be able to read the data without problems and can be ripped straight to the PC. CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drives in a computer will usually refuse to play the data except in the provided player.


Systems other than Windows, however, can easily play Copy Control discs, with the disc appearing as two entities, "Audio CD" and whatever the data portion of the disc was named in manufacture. As the bundled players are usually Windows Proprietary, and, similarly, the auto-launchers are designed for Windows, there is little that can be done to stop a non-Windows user from ripping a Copy Control disc (though, arguably, the process may take longer).


In Linux, Copy Control discs are easily accessed through cdparanoia or KDE "audiocd:/" service. It has been suggested that Criticism of Linux be merged into this article or section. ... cdparanoia is a compact disc ripper for Linux and BeOS. It was designed to be a minimalistic, high-quality CD ripper that would be able to compensate for and adjust to poor hardware to produce a flawless rip. ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) (IPA: ) is a free software project which aims to be a powerful system for an easy-to-use desktop environment. ...


In Mac OS X, these discs are easily accessed through iTunes and Quicktime (When a CDDA track is dragged to a folder other than the CD, Quicktime automatically converts it to AIFF, which is a lossless PCM format). Though some Copy Control discs do have Mac OS software, this is becoming less common. Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


This technology is becoming easier to get around as more advances are made in modern technology, today new PC's can rip Copy Control discs simply the same way other non copy protected discs are ripped, further making this technology redundant.


Content on the CD extra

CDS-100 or CDS-200 Cactus Data Shield is a form of CD/DVD copy protection for audio compact discs developed by Midbar Tech now owned by Macrovision. ...


A player and a media file database (a copy of the audio contents in Windows Media). The player will only play the audio contents in the media file database.


CDS-300 Cactus Data Shield is a form of CD/DVD copy protection for audio compact discs developed by Midbar Tech now owned by Macrovision. ...


A player and the anti-copy program only. The player can ignore the anti-copy program to read the audio tracks. The player allow users to play the tracks, rip the audio tracks as DRM-enabled WMA files and burn CD for 3 times (The player will rip the CD as 320 kbit/s WMA files, then burn the audio on a CD-R, notice that the volume is lower and the quality is worse on the burned CD) Digital Rights Management (generally abbreviated to DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to any of several technologies used by publishers or copyright owners to control access to and usage of digital data or hardware, and to restrictions associated with a specific instance of a digital work or device. ...


See also

The analog hole is a fundamental, and inevitable vulnerability in copy prevention schemes for noninteractive digital content which is intended to be played back using analog means. ... Cactus Data Shield is a form of CD/DVD copy protection for audio compact discs developed by Midbar Tech now owned by Macrovision. ... Macrovision is a company that creates electronic copy prevention schemes, established in 1983. ... Macrovision is a company that creates electronic copy prevention schemes, established in 1983. ... Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ... MediaMax CD-3 is a software package created by SunnComm and sold as a form of copy protection for compact discs. ... key2audio is a copy protection system for Audio CDs, developed by Sony DADC. A hidden signature applied to the disc during glass master manufacturing prevents playback on PC/MAC and thereby prevents copying or track ripping. ... XCP-Aurora Extended Copy Protection (XCP) is a software package developed by the British company First 4 Internet and sold as a copy protection or digital rights management (DRM) scheme for compact discs. ...

External links


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Copy Control - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1234 words)
Copy Control is the name of a copy protection system used on recent EMI digital audio disc releases in some regions.
The Copy Control system was devised in response to the file sharing and casual CD copying that has become commonplace in recent years, allegedly causing the music industry significant lost revenues.
Copy Control is one of a number of attempts to apply copy protection on top of the CD standard, but since it is merely a modification of the already unrestricted standard which must still yield usable results in most CD players, the efficiency of the system varies significantly.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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