FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Coptic calendar

The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. This calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar. To avoid the calendar creep of the latter, a reform of the ancient Egyptian calendar was introduced at the time of Ptolemy III (Decree of Canopus, in 238 BC) which consisted of the intercalation of a sixth epagomenal day every fourth year. However, this reform was opposed by the Egyptian priests, and the idea was not adopted until 25 BC, when the Roman Emperor Augustus formally reformed the calendar of Egypt, keeping it forever synchronized with the newly introduced Julian calendar. To distinguish it from the Ancient Egyptian calendar, which remained in use by some astronomers until medieval times, this reformed calendar is known as the Coptic calendar. Its years and months coincide with those of the Ethiopian calendar but have different numbers and names. Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... A calendar is a system for naming periods of time, typically days. ... The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. ... Ptolemy III Euergetes I, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (246 BC-222 BC). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 243 BC 242 BC 241 BC 240 BC 239 BC - 238 BC - 237 BC 236 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For the honorific title, see Augustus (honorific). ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Ethiopian calendar or Ethiopic calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia. ...

Contents


Coptic year

The Coptic year is the extension of the ancient Egyptian civil year, retaining its subdivision into the three seasons, four months each. The three seasons are commemorated by special prayers in the Coptic Liturgy. This calendar is still in use all over Egypt by farmers to keep track of the various agricultural seasons. The Coptic calendar has 13 months, 12 of 30 days each and an intercalary month at the end of the year of 5 or 6 days, depending whether the year is a leap year or not. The year starts on 29 August in the Julian Calendar or on the 30th in the year before (Julian) Leap Years. The Coptic Leap Year follows the same rules as the Julian Calendar so that the extra month always has six days in the year before a Julian Leap Year. August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ...


The Feast of Neyrouz marks the first day of the Coptic year. Its celebration falls on the 1st day of the month of Thout, the first month of the Coptic year, which for AD 1901 to 2098 usually coincides with 11 September, except before a Gregorian leap year when it's September 12. Coptic years are counted from AD 284, the year Diocletian became Roman Emperor, whose reign was marked by tortures and mass executions of Christians, especially in Egypt. Hence, the Coptic year is identified by the abbreviation A.M. (for Anno Martyrum or "Year of the Martyrs"). The A.M. abbreviation is also used for the unrelated Jewish year (Anno Mundi). Thout also known as Tout is the first month of the Coptic calendar. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... Emperor Diocletian. ...


Every fourth Coptic year is a leap year without exception, as in the Julian calendar, so the above mentioned new year dates apply only between AD 1900 and 2099 inclusive in the Gregorian Calendar. In the Julian Calendar, the new year is always 29 August, except before a Julian leap year when it's August 30. Easter is reckoned by the Julian Calendar in the Old Calendarist way. 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


To obtain the Coptic year number, subtract from the Julian year number either 283 (before the Julian new year) or 284 (after it).


Date of Christmas

The choice of 25 December to celebrate the Nativity of Christ was first proposed by Hippolytus of Rome (170–236), but was apparently not accepted until either 336 or 364. Dionysius of Alexandria emphatically quoted mystical justifications for this very choice: Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a traditional holiday celebrating the birth of Jesus with both religious and secular aspects, commonly observed on 25 December. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... This page is about the title. ... Hippolytus, was a writer of the early Church. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Dionysius served as Patriarch of Alexandria (head of the church that became the Coptic Church and the Orthodox Church of Alexandria) between 248 and 264. ...

March 25 was considered to be the anniversary of Creation itself. It was the first day of the year in the medieval Julian calendar and the nominal vernal equinox (it had been the actual equinox at the time when the Julian calendar was originally designed). Considering that Christ was conceived at that date turned March 25 into the Feast of the Annunciation which had to be followed, nine months later, by the celebration of the birth of Christ, Christmas, on December 25.

There may have been more practical considerations for choosing 25 December. The choice would help substitute a major Christian holiday for the popular pagan celebrations around the winter solstice (Roman Saturnalia or Brumalia). The religious competition was fierce. In 274, Emperor Aurelian had declared a civil holiday on December 25 (the Festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun, or Sol Invictus) to celebrate the birth of Mithras, the Persian Sun-God whose cult predated Zoroastrianism and was then very popular among the Roman military. Finally, joyous festivals are needed at that time of year, to fight the natural gloom of the season. That there were in the same country sherperds living out in the fields, keeping watch over their flock by night (Luke 2:8), does not rule out December 25th as Christmas - for contemporary records indicate that this was as likely then as at any time of year. Those who observed what was happening then confirm the weather patterns of the time, and what shepherds did amidst them all. Until the 16th century, 25 December coincided with 29 Koiak of the Coptic calendar. However, upon the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582, December 25 shifted two weeks earlier in comparison with the Julian and Coptic calendars. This is the reason why Old-Calendrists (using the Julian and Coptic calendars) celebrate Christmas on January 7, two weeks after the New-Calendrists (using the Gregorian calendar), who celebrate Christmas on December 25. March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... Events The Gallic Empire (Gaul and Britain) is reconquered by Roman Emperor Aurelian With the conquests of the Palmyran Empire (272) and the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire is united again Births Deaths Pope Felix I Cao Fang, emperor of the Kingdom of Wei Categories: 274 ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (September 9, 214–275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated in the Roman Empire around the time of the winter solstice, when the duration of daylight begins to increase—a rebirth of the sun. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the undefeated Sun. Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun) or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun god) was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire. ... Mithras and the Bull: fresco from the mithraeum at Marino, Italy, (3rd century) Mithras was the central savior god of Mithraism, a syncretic Hellenistic mystery religion of male initiates that developed in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC and was practiced in the Roman Empire from... Zoroastrianism (Persian: آيين زرتشت , Aeen-e Zartosht) was once the state religion of Sassanid Persia, and played an important role during the preceding Achaemenid and Parthian eras. ... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... Koiak also known as Kiahk is the fourth month of the Coptic calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ...


Date of Easter

According to Christian tradition, Jesus died at the ninth hour (that is, the canonical hour of nona or 'noon' in Middle English - 3:00 pm) of the first full day of Pesach, when that day fell on a Friday; and arose from the dead at or by the first (canonical) hour of that Sunday. The day of Pesach (Pascha or Passover, Nisan 15), is always at the first or second full moon following the vernal equinox. At the First Ecumenical Council, held in 325 at Nicaea, it was decided to celebrate Easter on the Sunday following the so-called Paschal full moon. Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE– 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday (lasting seven days in Israel and among some liberal Diaspora Jews, and eight days among other Diaspora Jews) that commemorates the exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Egypt; it is also observed by some Christians to... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday (lasting seven days in Israel and among some liberal Diaspora Jews, and eight days among other Diaspora Jews) that commemorates the exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Egypt; it is also observed by some Christians to... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... The First Council of Nicaea, convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in AD 325, was the first ecumenical conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ...


At the Council of Nicaea, it became one duty of the bishop of Alexandria to determine the exact dates of Easter and to announce it to the rest of the Christian churches. This duty fell on this officate because of the erudition at Alexandria he could draw on. The precise rules to determine this are very involved, but Easter is usually the first Sunday after a full moon occurring no sooner than March 21, which was the actual date of the vernal equinox at the time of the First Council of Nicaea. Shortly before Julius Caesar reformed the calendar, the vernal equinox was occurring on the "nominal" date of March 25. This was abandoned at Nicaea, but the reason for the observed discrepancy was all but ignored (the actual tropical year is not quite equal to the Julian year of 365¼ days, so the date of the equinox keeps creeping back in the Julian calendar). The First Council of Nicaea, convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in AD 325, was the first ecumenical conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... This article needs to be updated. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (IPA: Classical Latin: IMP•C•IVLIVS•CAESAR•DIVVS1) (July 12, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ...


See also: Computus Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ...


Coptic months

Tout is a semi-colloquial, mainly British term for a person who earns money by reselling tickets to popular events. ... Baba can mean: Look up baba in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Koiak also known as Kiahk is the fourth month of the Coptic calendar. ... Touba is the name of more than one city: Touba, Côte dIvoire Touba, Senegal This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Paremhat also known as Baramhat is the seventh month of the Coptic calendar. ... Pashons also known as Bashans is the ninth month of the Coptic calendar. ... Paoni also known as Baona is the tenth month of the Coptic calendar. ... Epip also known as Abib is the eleventh month of the Coptic calendar. ... Mesori also known as Mesra is the twelfth month of the Coptic calendar. ... Pi Kogi Enavot also known as El Nasii is the thirteenth and last month of the Coptic calendar. ...

Sources and external links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CalendarHome.com - Coptic calendar - Calendar Encyclopedia (0 words)
To avoid the calendar creep of the latter, a reform of the Ancient Egyptian calendar was introduced at the time of Ptolemy III (Decree of Canopus, in 238 BC) which consisted in the intercalation of a 6th epagomenal day every fourth year.
The Coptic calendar has 13 months, 12 of 30 days each and an intercalary month at the end of the year of 5 or 6 days, depending whether the year is a leap year or not.
Coptic years are counted from AD 284, the year Diocletian became Roman Emperor, whose reign was marked by tortures and mass executions of Christians, especially in Egypt.
Science Fair Projects - Coptic calendar (1426 words)
To avoid the calendar creep of the latter, a reform of the Ancient Egyptian calendar was introduced at the time of Ptolemy III (Decree of Canopus, in 238 BC) which consisted in the intercalation of a 6th epagomenal day every fourth year.
The Coptic calendar has 13 months, 12 of 30 days each and an intercalary month at the end of the year of 5 or 6 days, depending whether the year is a leap year or not.
Coptic years are counted from AD 284, the year Diocletian became Roman Emperor, whose reign was marked by tortures and mass executions of Christians, especially in Egypt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m