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Encyclopedia > Coptic Orthodox
Christ - Coptic Art This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click... Christ - Coptic Art
Christ - Coptic Art

Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Although Christians are monotheistic, the one God is thought, by most Christians, to exist in... Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. He is often identified with the John, surnamed Mark that accompanied Paul and Barnabas in the first journey of Paul, but was left behind (and Barnabas... Mark established in The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes the Sinai Peninsula (considered part of... Egypt in the middle of the (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. Events Beginning of Christianity Spread of the Roman Empire Masoretes adds vowel pointings to the text of the Tanakh Pompeii and Herculaneum destroyed by eruption of Mount Vesuvius in... 1st century AD (approximately For other uses, see number 60. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s _ 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 55 56 57 58 59 - 60 - 61 62 63 64 65 Events Boudicca sacks London (approximate date). Gospel of Matthew is probably... AD 60). It is the national church of The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes the Sinai Peninsula (considered part of... Egypt. The church is one of the The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. The Oriental Orthodox churches rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. Thus, despite potentially... Oriental Orthodox churches. Its leader is the The Patriarch of Alexandria is the bishop of Alexandria, Egypt. Historically, this office has held the title of Pope, and did so before it was bestowed upon the Pope of Rome. Bestowing the title on Romes patriarch did not strip it from Alexandrias. There are currently three claimants... Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of the Holy See of Saint Mark. The current incumbent is HH Pope Shenouty III, 117th Pope of Alexandria and All Africa, and Patriarch of the Apostolic See of St Mark His Holiness Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria, born Nazeer Gayed, has been Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church since November 14, 1971. Pope Shenouda was born on August 3, 1923... Pope Shenouda III.

Contents

History

The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes the Sinai Peninsula (considered part of... Egypt is often identified as the place of refuge that the Holy Family sought in its flight from Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided... Judea: "When he arose, he took the young Child and His mother by night and departed for Egypt, and was there until the death of Herod I, also known as Herod the Great was an ancient king of Judaea. (c. 74 BC - 4 BC March in Jerusalem). Biography Herod the Great arose from a wealthy, influential Idumaean family, (the Idumaean = the Edomite of the Bible, who settled in Idumea, also known as Edom, in southern... Herod, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt I called My Son" ( Matthew the Evangelist (מתי Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew Mattay; Septuagint Greek Ματθαιος, Matthaios) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Matthew. He was the son of Alphaeus, and was a publican or... Matthew 2:12-23). The Egyptian Church, which is now more than nineteen centuries old, was the subject of many prophecies in the The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures constitutes the first major part of the Christian Bible, usually divided into the categories law, history, poetry (or wisdom books) and prophecy. All of these books were written before the birth of Jesus. Canon of the Old Testament Main article: Biblical canon The... Old Testament. Isaiah or Yeshayáhu (יְשַׁעְיָהוּ Salvation of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Yəšaʿyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yəšaʿăyāhû) was the son of Amoz, and... Isaiah the prophet, in Chapter 19, Verse 19 says "In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar to the LORD at its border."


The first This article is about the religious people known as Christians. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). The term Christian means belonging to Christ and is derived from the Greek noun Χριστός Khristós which means anointed one, which is itself a translation of... Christians in Egypt were mainly Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport Located on the Mediterranean Sea coast, Alexandria (in Arabic, الإسكندرية — al-Iskandariyah) is the chief seaport in Egypt, and that countrys second largest city, and the... Alexandrian The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jews such as Various people have been known by the name Theophilus. These include; Theophilus of Antioch — c 163, and early Christian patriarch. Theophilus of Alexandria — (? – 412) patriarch of Alexandria Theophilus (emperor) — (829 – 842) a Byzantine emperor of the second of the Phrygian dynasty. Theophilus Presbyter — (1070... Theophilus, whom Luke the Evangelist (Greek Λουκας Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. He is patron saint of painters, physicians and healers, and... Saint Luke the Evangelist addresses in the introductory chapter of his The Gospel of Luke is the third of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. Although the text does not name its author, the modern consensus follows the traditional view that this gospel and the Acts of the Apostles... gospel. When the church was founded by Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. He is often identified with the John, surnamed Mark that accompanied Paul and Barnabas in the first journey of Paul, but was left behind (and Barnabas... Mark during the reign of the Roman or Romans has several meanings, primarily related to the Roman citizens, but also applicable to typography, math, and a commune. Roman The noun Roman means a citizen of Rome. The adjective Roman means pertaining or related to Rome. The name Romans in historical texts often refers to the three... Roman Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). An emperor is a monarch and sovereign ruler of an empire or any other imperial realm. Emperors are generally recognised to be above kings in honour. They may obtain their position hereditarily, or by force, such as a coup... emperor This article deals with the Roman emperor Nero. For other meanings, see Nero (disambiguation). Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 AD - June 9, 68 AD), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. On February 25, 50 he became heir... Nero, a great multitude of native Egyptians (as opposed to Greeks or Jews) embraced the Christian faith. For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Although Christians are monotheistic, the one God is thought, by most Christians, to exist in... Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of Mark's arrival in Alexandria as is clear from the The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. The term is a translation of the Latin Novum Testamentum, which translates the Greek Η Καινη Δια... New Testament writings found in There are few remains at Oxyrhynchus to be seen above ground: its treasures lie beneath the sands Oxyrhynchus ( Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important... Bahnasa, in Middle Egypt, which date around the year 200 AD, and a fragment of the The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the sequence of the canon as printed in the New Testament, and scholars agree it was the fourth to be written. Like the other three gospels, it contains an account of the life of Jesus. The Gospel of John is the... Gospel of Saint John, written in This article is currently undergoing a major rewrite using the template at Wikipedia:WikiProject Languages; please see Talk:Coptic language The Coptic Language is the last phase of the Egyptian language, and is the direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language written in the hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. Coptic... Coptic, which was found in Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. The Pharaohs were known as the rulers of the Two Kingdoms, viz. upper and lower Egypt. Lower Egypt is to the north and is that part where the Nile delta flows... Upper Egypt and can be dated to the first half of the second century. In the (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. The kingdom of Aksum emerges. Significant persons Cai Lun, Chinese inventor Galen, medical writer Saint Irenaeus Pliny the Younger Plutarch Ptolemy Trajan... second century For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Although Christians are monotheistic, the one God is thought, by most Christians, to exist in... Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, and scriptures were translated into the local language, namely This article is currently undergoing a major rewrite using the template at Wikipedia:WikiProject Languages; please see Talk:Coptic language The Coptic Language is the last phase of the Egyptian language, and is the direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language written in the hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. Coptic... Coptic.


The Catechetical School of Alexandria

The Catechetical School of Alexandria is the oldest catechetical school in the world. Founded around 190 by the scholar Pantanaeus, the school of Alexandria became an important institution of religious learning, where students were taught by scholars such as Athenagoras (circa 133-190) was a Christian apologist of the second half of the 2nd century of whom little is known for certain, besides that he was Athenian (though possibly not originally from Athens), a philosopher, and a convert to Christianity. There is some evidence that he was a Platonist... Athenagoras, Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. He was born about the middle of the 2nd century, and died between 211 and 216. His Life He was not born... Clement, Didymus (?309-?394), surnamed the Blind, was an ecclesiastical writer of Alexandria, was born about the year 309. Although he became blind at the age of four, before he had learned to read; he succeeded in mastering the whole circle of the sciences then known; and on entering the service... Didymus, and the great Origen was a Christian scholar and theologian and one of the most distinguished of the Fathers of the early Christian Church. He was born about 182, probably at Alexandria, and died at Caesarea not later than 251. Life Early training His full name was apparently Origenes Adamantius. He was educated... Origen, who was considered the father of theology and who was also active in the field of commentary and comparative Biblical studies. Origen wrote over 6,000 commentaries of the The Bible (From Greek βιβλιος biblios, meaning book, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is a word applied to sacred scriptures. Although most often... Bible in addition to his famous Hexapla ( Gr. for sixfold), the term for an edition of the Bible in six versions, and especially the edition of the Old Testament compiled by Origen, which placed side by side: Hebrew Hebrew in Greek character Aquila Symmachus Septuagint Theodotion ... Hexapla. Many scholars such as Saint-Jérôme, Quebec is a town in Quebec, near Mirabel, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northwest of Montreal along Autoroute des Laurentides. It is home to CEGEP de Saint-Jérôme, one of the Colleges of General and Vocational Education located in the province. The town is... Saint Jerome visited the school of Alexandria to exchange ideas and to communicate directly with its scholars. The scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects; science, mathematics and humanities were also taught there. The question and answer method of commentary began there, and 15 centuries before A Czech braille calendar There is also an asteroid 9969 Braille Braille is a tactile writing system used by blind people. It was invented by Louis Braille of France who was blinded in a childhood accident. At the age of 15 he modified a military system for reading orders at... Braille, wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read and write.


The Theological college of the catechetical school of Alexandria was re-established in 1893. The new school currently has campuses in Alexandria, For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). View of the modern citys skyline. Cairo incorporates an entire medieval section, which is now a popular neighborhood and contains important buildings of islamic architecture. Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; romanized: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city... Cairo, State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey Official languages None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378 km² (14.9%) Population (2000)  - Population 8,414,350 (9th)  - Density... New Jersey, and This article is about the largest city in California. For other uses of Los Angeles, see Los Angeles (disambiguation) Downtown Los Angeles skyline facing northeast toward the San Gabriel Mountains on a clear winter day. Missing from the center foreground of the photo is the Staples Center arena, completed in... Los Angeles, where Coptic priests-to-be and other qualified men and women are taught among other subjects Christian theology, history, This article is currently undergoing a major rewrite using the template at Wikipedia:WikiProject Languages; please see Talk:Coptic language The Coptic Language is the last phase of the Egyptian language, and is the direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language written in the hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. Coptic... Coptic language and art - including chanting, music, It has been said “A picture is worth a thousand words”, and so it is that iconography is the traditional art of portraying figures in pigment that symbolically mean more than a simple depiction of the person involved. Icons have been used by many different religions including Hindu... iconography, and tapestry.


Monasticism and Missionary Work

In the (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. (230 - 232 AD). Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire Emperor Valerian I is taken captive by the Persian King of Kings Shapur I... third century, during the persecution of Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius (201-251), Roman emperor (249 - 251), the first of the long succession of distinguished men from the Illyrian provinces, was born at Budalia near Sirmium in lower Pannonia. Emperor Decius About 245 the emperor Philip the Arabian entrusted him with an important command on the... Decius, some Christians fled to the desert, and remained there to pray after the persecutions abated. This was the beginning of the Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. Many religions have monastic elements, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam, Jainism though the expressions differ considerably. Those pursuing a monastic life... monastic movement, which was reorganized by the saints Saint Anthony the Great, Father of all Monks Saint Anthony the Great ( 251 - 356), Christian saint, also known as Saint Anthony of Egypt, Saint Anthony of the Desert, Saint Anthony the Anchorite, and The Father of All Monks was a leader among the Desert Fathers, who were Christian monks in... Anthony the Great and Pachomius, who died around AD 345 in Tabennisi, Egypt, was one of the founders of Christian monasticism. Pachomius was a young Egyptian who according to tradition was raised a pagan and became a Christian after service in the Roman army. Pachomius set out to lead the life of a hermit... Pachomius in the (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. Events Definitive declaration of biblical canon: Council of Carthage Demotic is replaced by Greek Constantine I ends persecution of Christians in... 4th century. By the end of the century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered throughout the Egyptian hills. A number of these monasteries are still flourishing and have new vocations till this day.


Egyptian monasticism attracted the attention of Christians in other parts of the world, who visited Egypt, many bringing monastic ideas home with them, and spreading monasticism through the Christian world. Basil (ca. 330 - January 1, 379), also called Basil the Great, was bishop of Caesarea, a leading churchman in the 4th century. The Eastern Orthodox Church considers him a saint and one of the Three Holy Hierarchs, together with Gregory Nazianzus and John Chrysostom. Basil, Gregory Nazianzus, and Basils... Saint Basil, organizer of the monastic movement in Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Asia Minor visited Egypt around AD Events Battle of Strasbourg: Julian leads the Roman forces to victory against the Alamanni at Strasbourg Births Deaths Categories: 357 ... 357 and his rule is followed by the eastern Churches; Saint Jerome, en route to Jerusalem ( Modern Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim, Biblical and trad. Sephardi Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַםִ, Arabic: القدس al-Quds, see also names of Jerusalem) is... Jerusalem, stopped in Egypt and left details of his experiences in his letters; This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. 480 - 543), born at Nursia (Norcia), Italy, was the founder of western monasticism. The only authentic life of Benedict of Nursia is that contained in the second... Saint Benedict founded monasteries in the (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded... 6th century on the model of Pachomius, but in a stricter form.


Council of Nicaea

In the 4th century, a This article is about Libya, the country in North Africa. For the mythical character of the same name see: Libya (mythology). The Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya or Libya (Arabic: ليبيا) is a country in North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, located between Egypt... Libyan priest called This article is about the theological doctrine of Arius. See Aryan, Aryan race for the ethnic concept. Arianism was a Christological view held by followers of Arius in the early Christian Church, claiming that Jesus Christ and God the Father were not of the same fundamental essence, seeing the Son... Arius started a theological dispute about the nature of Christ that spread throughout the Christian world. The The First Council of Nicaea, which took place during the reign of the emperor Constantine in 325, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. The participating bishops were given free travel to and from their episcopal sees to the council, as well... Ecumenical Council of Nicaea ( Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea _ first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. Gladiatorial combat is outlawed in the Roman Empire. The Church of the Nativity is built in Bethlehem Jin Cheng Di succeeds Jin Ming Di... 325) was convened by Constantine. Head of the colossal statue. Musei Capitolini, Rome Flavius Valerius Constantinus (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I or Constantine the Great, was proclaimed Augustus by his troops on July 25, 306 and ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire to his... Constantine to resolve the dispute and eventually led to the formulation of the Symbol of Faith, also known as the The Nicene Creed, or the Icon/Symbol of the Faith, is a Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches. It gets its name from the First Council of Nicaea (325), at which it was adopted and from the First Council of... Nicene Creed. The Creed, which is now recited throughout the Christian world, was authored by Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. He is revered as a saint by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Roman Catholics have declared him one of 33 Doctors of the Church. Born: 298 Died: May 2... Saint Athanasius the Apostolic, the Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria.


Council of Constantinople

In the year Events First Council of Constantinople - second Ecumenical council of the Christian Church: The Nicene creed is affirmed and extended, Apollinarism is declared a heresy. Council of Aquilea: under the guidance of Ambrose, the chief Arianist bishops Palladius and Secundadius are deposed. Flavian succeeds Meletius as Patriarch of Antioch. Timothy succeeds... 381, Timothy I of Alexandria presided over the second ecumenical council known as the Ecumenical The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . Saberians were controversed too. In confirming the Nicene Creed, it also amended it by adding the final section regarding the Holy... Council of Constantinople, which completed the The Nicene Creed, or the Icon/Symbol of the Faith, is a Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches. It gets its name from the First Council of Nicaea (325), at which it was adopted and from the First Council of... Nicene Creed with this confirmation of the divinity of the The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. The Christian and Jewish views of the Holy Spirit vary greatly. In the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) the Hebrew term Ruach HaKodesh is used many times; it is translated literally as... Holy Spirit:

"We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Life-giver, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified who spoke by the Prophets and in one Holy Universal Apostolic Church. We confess one Baptism for the remission of sins and we look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the coming age, Amen."

Council of Ephesus

Download high resolution version (887x580, 117 KB)Coptic Altar in Jerusalem This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old...
Download high resolution version (887x580, 117 KB)Coptic Altar in Jerusalem This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Enlarge
Coptic Altar in Jerusalem

Another theological dispute in the ( 4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. Attila the Hun conquers large parts of Europe, threatens to attack Rome in 452 Vandals conquer Carthage in 439, sack Rome in 455 At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. The... 5th century occurred over the teachings of Nestorius (c.386 - c.451) was Patriarch of Constantinople (April 10, 428 - June 22, 431). He received his clerical training as a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch and gained a reputation for his sermons that led to his enthronement by Theodosius II as Patriarch following the death of... Nestorius, a Patriarch of Constantinople who taught that God the Word was not This article is in need of attention. Please improve it in any way you see fit. Hypostatically refers to being the substance or essential nature of an individual Categories: Pages needing attention ... hypostatically joined with human nature, but rather dwelt in the man Jesus. As a consequence of this, he denied the title "Mother of God" ( Russian Orthodox Icon of the Theotokos Theotokos is a Greek word that means God-bearer or Mother of God. It is a title assigned by the early Christian Church to Mary, the mother of Jesus, at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. The theological significance at the... Theotokos) to the The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: For the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary, see Mary, the mother of Jesus. For the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary, see Blessed Virgin Mary. For the issue of Marian apparitions, see Marian apparitions. For shrines associated with... Virgin Mary, declaring her instead to be "Mother of Christ" (Christotokos). When reports of this reached the Apostolic Throne of Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. He is often identified with the John, surnamed Mark that accompanied Paul and Barnabas in the first journey of Paul, but was left behind (and Barnabas... Saint Mark, the incumbent acted quickly to "correct" this breach with orthodoxy, requesting that Nestorius repent. When he would not, the Synod of Alexandria met in an emergency session and a unanimous agreement was reached. Pope Pope Cyril I of Alexandria (376- June 27, 444), also known as The Pillar of Faith was Pope of Alexandria. He is revered as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. In 1883 the Holy See declared him a Doctor of... Cyril I of Alexandria, supported by the entire See, sent a letter to Nestorius known as "The Third Epistle of Saint Cyril to Nestorius." This epistle drew heavily on the established Patristic Constitutions and contained the most famous article of Alexandrian Orthodoxy: "The Twelve Anathemas of Saint Cyril." In these This article is about the Biblical term anathema. For the British doom/death metal band, see Anathema (band) An anathema is anything laid up or suspended; hence anything laid up in a temple or set apart as sacred. In this sense the form of the word is once (in plural... anathemas, Cyril excommunicated anyone who followed the teachings of Nestorius. For example, "Anyone who dares to deny the The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: For the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary, see Mary, the mother of Jesus. For the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary, see Blessed Virgin Mary. For the issue of Marian apparitions, see Marian apparitions. For shrines associated with... Holy Virgin the title Theotokos is Anathema!" Nestorius however, still would not repent and so this led to the convening of the The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. Approximately 200 Bishops were present, though procedings began in haste before the arrival of the bishops from the west. The procedings were conducted in a heated atmosphere of confrontation... First Ecumenical Council of Ephesus ( Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. Nestorius is deposed from his see. October 1 - Maximianus is enthroned as Patriarch of Constantinople. Marcian (future Eastern Roman Emperor), is captured while fighting the Vandals. Hippo Regius becomes the capital of the Vandal... 431), over which Cyril presided.


The The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. Approximately 200 Bishops were present, though procedings began in haste before the arrival of the bishops from the west. The procedings were conducted in a heated atmosphere of confrontation... First Ecumenical Council of Ephesus confirmed the teachings of Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. He is revered as a saint by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Roman Catholics have declared him one of 33 Doctors of the Church. Born: 298 Died: May 2... Saint Athanasius and confirmed the title of the Holy Ever-Virgin Mary as "Mother of God". It also clearly stated that anyone who separated Christ, from the Greek Χριστός, or Khristós, means anointed, and is equivalent to the Hebrew term Messiah. In the Christian religion it is a title given to Jesus of Nazareth. The Anointed in the Old Testament In the Hebrew faith tradition, anointing (with... Christ into two hypostases was anathema, as Athanasius had said that there is "One Nature and One Hypostasis for God the Word Incarnate" (Mia Physis kai Mia Hypostasis tou Theou Logou Sasarkomeni). Also, the introduction to the creed was formulated as follows:

"We magnify you O Mother of the True Light and we glorify you O saint and Mother of God (Theotokos) for you have borne unto us the Saviour of the world. Glory to you O our Master and King: Christ, the pride of the Apostles, the crown of the martyrs, the rejoicing of the righteous, firminess of the churches and the forgiveness of sins. We proclaim the Holy Trinity in One Godhead: we worship Him, we glorify Him, Lord have mercy, Lord have mercy, Lord bless us, Amen."

The Orthodox faith is considered to have prevailed at the council. Unfortunately, Cyril of Alexandria died soon afterwards. Dioscorus (or Dioscurus) (died c.454), was patriarch of Alexandria (444 - 451), receiving consecration, according to one report (Mansi, vii. 603), from two bishops only. Some hagiographic sources confuse him with either the legendary Dioscurus, father of Saint Barbara, with the Alexandrian child-martyr Dioscurus, or with Antipope Dioscorus, which... Saint Dioscorus, the archdeacon of Alexandria (considered a saint by the non-Chalcedonians but a heretic by the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics) was elected as Cyril's replacement. The Nestorians took the opportunity of Cyril's death to revive their campaign against Cyrillian Christology.


Council of Chalcedon

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St Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Enlarge
St Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria

By the time the The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8-November 1, 451 A.D at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor. It is the fourth of the first seven Ecumenical Councils in Christianity, and is therefore recognized as infallible in its dogmatic definitions... Council of Chalcedon was called, politics had already started to intermingle with Church affairs. When the Emperor Imperator Caesar Flavius Marcianus Augustus or Marcian (c. 390–January 457) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 450 until his death. Marcian was born in Thrace or Illyria. He spent his early life as an obscure soldier. He subsequently served for nineteen years under Ardaburius and Aspar... Marcianus interfered with matters of faith in the Church, the response of Dioscorus (or Dioscurus) (died c.454), was patriarch of Alexandria (444 - 451), receiving consecration, according to one report (Mansi, vii. 603), from two bishops only. Some hagiographic sources confuse him with either the legendary Dioscurus, father of Saint Barbara, with the Alexandrian child-martyr Dioscurus, or with Antipope Dioscorus, which... Saint Dioscorus, the Pope of Alexandria who was later to be exiled, to this interference was clear: "You have nothing to do with the Church." It was at Chalcedon (Χαλκεδον, sometimes transliterated by purists as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari. It was a Megarian colony founded on a site so obviously inferior to that which was within view... Chalcedon that the emperor would take his revenge for the Pope's frankness.


The The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8-November 1, 451 A.D at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor. It is the fourth of the first seven Ecumenical Councils in Christianity, and is therefore recognized as infallible in its dogmatic definitions... Council of Chalcedon abandoned Cyrillian terminology and declared that Christ was one hypostasis in two natures. However, the Council's finding were rejected by many of the Christians on the fringes of the The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. In certain specific contexts, usually referring to the centuries that marked the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it is also often referred to as the Eastern... Byzantine Empire: Egyptians, The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. The borders with Israel and Turkey are subject to dispute, pending the resolution of outstanding conflicts over possession of the Golan Heights and the region of Iskenderun... Syrians, The text or formatting below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. Please see its entry on Wikipedia:Templates for deletion for comments and voting. Armenia (disambiguation). Armenia ( Armenian: Հայաստան Hayastan, Hayq) is a landlocked country in southern Caucasus... Armenians, and others. From that point onward, Alexandria would have two patriarchs: the " The Melkite or Melchite church is a non-nationalistic church originating when bishops from the oriental churches (primarily Armenian and Syriac, but also Coptic), who were excommunicated all over the middle-east following the Council of Chalcedon, sided with Emperor Marcian. At this point the Melkite Bishops came under the... Melkite" or Imperial Patriarch, now known as the The Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria has the title Patriarch and Pope of Alexandria and all Africa. The following list contains all the incumbents of the Easter Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria since the Council of Chalcedon. For the earlier Patriarchs of Alexandria prior to the schism, see List of Patriarchs... Eastern Orthodox Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria, and the non-Chalcedonian national Egyptian one, now known as the The following list contains all the Popes who have held sway over the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. For the earlier Patriarchs of Alexandria prior to the schims, see List of Patriarchs of Alexandria; for the patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox church from which the Coptic Church... Coptic Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria. Almost the entire Egyptian population rejected the terms of the Council of Chalcedon and remained faithful to the national Egyptian Church (now known as the Coptic Church). Those who supported the Chalcedonian definition remained in Full communion is a kind of relationship between two or more organizations of Christians. It implies a unity between them unbroken by heresy or schism. Complete uniformity in theology and usage is not necessary for full communion: instead, different understandings and emphases are seen as mutually enriching. But agreement on... communion with the other leading churches of The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. It is located on the lower Tiber river, near the Mediterranean Sea, at 41°50N, 12°15E. The Vatican City State, a sovereign enclave within Rome, is the seat... Rome and Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; Modern Greek: Konstantinoupoli or Κωνσταντινούπολη) is the former name of the city of Istanbul in todays Turkey. Today, Constantinople is the area between the Golden Horn and... Constantinople. The non-Chalcedonian party became what is today called the The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. The Oriental Orthodox churches rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. Thus, despite potentially... Oriental Orthodox Church.


The Chalcedonians sometimes called the non-Chalcedonians " Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. There are three major doctrines that can be called monophysite: Eutychianism... monophysites", though the Coptic Church denies that it teaches Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. There are three major doctrines that can be called monophysite: Eutychianism... monophysitism, which it regards as a heresy. They have sometimes called the Chalcedonian group " The Chalcedonian churches are those Christian churches who follow the Christological teachings of the Council of Chalcedon, in contradistinction to Nestorians, Monophysites and Monothelites. The latter are sometimes referred to collectively as non-Chalcedonian. Some non-Chalcedonians call the Chalcedoninan teaching Dyophysitic. The primary emphasis of Chalcedonian christology is the... dyophysites". A term that comes closer to Coptic doctrine is " Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. There are three major doctrines that can be called monophysite: Eutychianism... miaphysite", which refers to a conjoined nature for Christ, both human and divine, united indivisibly in the Incarnate Logos. The Coptic Church believes that Christ is perfect in His divinity, and He is perfect in His humanity, but His divinity and His humanity were united in one nature called "the nature of the incarnate word", which was reiterated by Pope Cyril I of Alexandria (376- June 27, 444), also known as The Pillar of Faith was Pope of Alexandria. He is revered as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. In 1883 the Holy See declared him a Doctor of... Saint Cyril of Alexandria. Copts, thus, believe in two natures "human" and "divine" that are united in one without mingling, without confusion, and without alteration. These two natures did not separate for a moment or the twinkling of an eye.


The Coptic Church was misunderstood at the Council of Chalcedon. Perhaps the Council understood the Church correctly, but wanted to exile the Church, to isolate it and to abolish the Egyptian, independent Pope, who maintained that Church and State should remain separate. Despite all of this, the Coptic Church has remained very strict and steadfast in its faith.


From Chalcedon to the Arab Conquest of Egypt

Copts suffered under the rule of the Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. There is no consensus on the starting date of the Byzantine period. Some place it during the reign of Diocletian (284-305) due to the administrative reforms he... Eastern Roman Empire. The Melkite Patriarchs, appointed by the emperors as both spiritual leaders and civil governors, massacred the Egyptian population whom they considered heretics. Many Egyptians were tortured and martyred to accept the terms of Chalcedon, but Egyptians remained loyal to the faith of their fathers and to the Cyrilian view of Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines who Jesus Christ is. It is generally less concerned with the minor details of his life; rather it deals with who he was, the incarnation, and the major events of his life (his birth, death, and resurrection). Important issues... Christology. One of the most renowned Egyptian saints of that period is Saint Samuel the Confessor.


The Arab Conquest of Egypt

The Arab (disambiguation). There are three factors which may assist to varying degrees in determining whether someone is considered Arab or not: Political: whether they live in a country which is a member of the Arab League (or, more vaguely, the Arab world); this definition covers more than 300 million people... Arab conquest of Egypt took place in AD Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. Revolt against Byzantine emperor Heraclonas; he is deposed and his brother Constans II becomes sole emperor. Caesarea surrenders to the Arabs Chindaswinth deposes Tulga, becomes king of the Visigoths. Deaths Emperor Jomei of Japan King Mu of Baekje February... 641. Although the Imperial forces resisted the Arab army under Amr ibn al-Ās (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. 663 CE) was an Arab military commander who is most noted for leading the Islamic conquest of Egypt in 640_41. Amr was a contemporary of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, who rose... Amr ibn al-As, the majority of the civilian population, having suffered persecution for the differing Christian beliefs, were less hostile; in some cases they welcomed their new masters. Considered "People of the Book", Christians were allowed to practice their religion, under the restrictions of the Islamic Sharia ( Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. Like most religious cultures, Islam classically drew no distinction between religious and secular life. Hence Sharia covers not only religious rituals, but many aspects of day-to-day life. However, this traditional view... Shari'a law.


Despite the political upheaval, Egypt remained a predominently Christian land, although gradual conversions to Islam over the centuries had the effect of changing Egypt from a predominantly Christian to a predominantly A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. The word Muslim means one who submits and implies complete submission to the will of God ( Allah). Muslims believe that nature is itself Islamic, since it follows natural laws placed by God. Thus, a Muslim strives to surrender to God... Muslim country by the end of the (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Events Song dynasty loses power... 12th century.


From the 19th century to the 1952 Revolution

The position of the Copts began to improve early in the 19th century under the stability and tolerance of See Mehemet Ali (Turkey) for the Turkish foreign minister and regent. Muḩammad `Alī Muḩammad `Alī (many spelling variations, included Turkish Mehmet Ali, are encountered) (1769-August 2, 1849), was a viceroy of Egypt, and is sometimes considered the founder of modern Egypt. Muḩ... Muhammad Ali's dynasty. The Coptic community ceased to be regarded by the state as an administrative unit and, by Events January 23 - The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, Minnesota, a crossing made today by the Father Louis Hennepin Bridge. George Hamilton-Gordon is forced to resign as Prime Minister of Britain because of bad management of the campaigns in the Crimean War... 1855, the main mark of Copts' inferiority, the Jizya tax was lifted. Shortly thereafter, Christians started to serve in the Egyptian army. The 1919 revolution in Egypt, the first grassroots display of Egyptian identity in centuries, stands as a witness to the homogeneity of Egypt's modern society with both its Muslim and Christian components.


Coptic Christianity today

Coptic Festival in Upper Egypt File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 10:33, 22 Jan 2005 . . Afanous (163009 bytes...
Coptic Festival in Upper Egypt File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 10:33, 22 Jan 2005 . . Afanous (163009 bytes... Enlarge
Coptic Festival in Upper Egypt.

The current Coptic Orthodox The Patriarch of Alexandria is the bishop of Alexandria, Egypt. Historically, this office has held the title of Pope, and did so before it was bestowed upon the Pope of Rome. Bestowing the title on Romes patriarch did not strip it from Alexandrias. There are currently three claimants... Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of the Holy See of Saint Mark is HH Pope Shenouty III, 117th Pope of Alexandria and All Africa, and Patriarch of the Apostolic See of St Mark His Holiness Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria, born Nazeer Gayed, has been Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church since November 14, 1971. Pope Shenouda was born on August 3, 1923... Pope Shenouda III; the most recent Greek Orthodox Melkite Patriarch is His Holiness Patriach Theodoros II of Alexandria is the current Eastern Orthodox Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria. He was elected following the death of Patriarch Peter VII of Alexandria in a helicopter crash. On Sunday 24 October, His Beatitude was enthroned as the new Pope and Patriarch in the Patriarchal Cathedral... Patriarch Theodoros II. These positions should not to be confused with that of the The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has multiple meanings (see Catholicism); the term Roman Catholic Church is used in this article to avoid... Roman Catholic Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. The Pope is the Catholic bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches (note that the name within the communion is simply the one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church). In addition to... Pope in The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. It is located on the lower Tiber river, near the Mediterranean Sea, at 41°50N, 12°15E. The Vatican City State, a sovereign enclave within Rome, is the seat... Rome, nor with either of the other two bishops bearing the title of -1... Patriarch of Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport Located on the Mediterranean Sea coast, Alexandria (in Arabic, الإسكندرية — al-Iskandariyah) is the chief seaport in Egypt, and that countrys second largest city, and the... Alexandria (one in Full communion is a kind of relationship between two or more organizations of Christians. It implies a unity between them unbroken by heresy or schism. Complete uniformity in theology and usage is not necessary for full communion: instead, different understandings and emphases are seen as mutually enriching. But agreement on... communion with the Roman Pope and the other the head of one of the canonical Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. During the first millennium of Christendom, differences developed between the Christian East and West. By the 11th century, this had culminated in a Great Schism, separating the Roman Catholic Church... Eastern Orthodox churches).


By some accounts there are more than 40 million Coptic Orthodox Christians in the world: they are found primarily in The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes the Sinai Peninsula (considered part of... Egypt (roughly 10 million), This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Ityopiya, Amharic ኢትዮጵያ) is a country situated in an area known as the Horn of Africa. It has one of the most... Ethiopia (roughly 30 million), and This article is about the African nation. For the Greek city, see Eretria. National motto: None Official languages Tigrigna, Arabic and English Capital Asmara President Isaias Afewerki Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 96th 121,320 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2002)  - Density Ranked 118th 4,298,269 37... Eritrea (roughly 2 million), but there are significant numbers in Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Sudan Sudan has a territorial dispute with Egypt over the Halaib Triangle. States Main article: States of Sudan Sudan has 26 states or wilayat: Al Jazirah, Al Qadarif, Bahr al Jabal, Blue Nile, East Equatoria, Junqali, Kassala, Khartoum, Lakes, North Bahr al... Sudan and The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit.: Medinat Yisrael; Arabic: دولة اسرائيل, translit.: Daulat Israil) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea... Israel, and in diaspora throughout the world. However, as applied to the The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. It claims a membership of close to 36 million people world wide, and is thus the... Tewahedo Church of Ethiopia, which before 1950 was a part of the Coptic Church of Egypt, the word Coptic can be considered a misnomer because it means Egyptian. The The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahido Church is one of the Oriental Orthodox churches. It was formerly a part of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church of Ethiopia, its autocephaly being reluctantly recognized by the Ethiopian Patriarchate after Eritrea was given independence in the 1990s. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church had been granted... Eritrean Orthodox Church similarly became independent of the Tewahedo Church during the 1990s. These three churches remain in Full communion is a kind of relationship between two or more organizations of Christians. It implies a unity between them unbroken by heresy or schism. Complete uniformity in theology and usage is not necessary for full communion: instead, different understandings and emphases are seen as mutually enriching. But agreement on... full communion with each other and with the other The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. The Oriental Orthodox churches rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. Thus, despite potentially... Oriental Orthodox churches.


Since the 1980s theologians from the two groups have been meeting in a bid to resolve the theological differences, and have concluded that many of the differences are caused by the two groups using different terminology to describe the same thing. In 1990, the Coptic and Antiochian Orthodox Churches agreed to mutually recognize baptisms performed in each other's churches, making rebaptisms unnecessary. In the summer of 2001, the Coptic Orthodox and Antiochian Orthodox agreed to recognize the sacrament of marriage as celebrated by the other. Previously, if a Coptic and Greek wanted to marry, the marriage had to be performed twice, once in each church, for it to be recognized by both. Now it can be done in only one church and be recognized by both.


In the Coptic Church only men may be ordained, and they must be married before they are ordained, if they wish to be married. In this respect they follow the same practices as does the Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. During the first millennium of Christendom, differences developed between the Christian East and West. By the 11th century, this had culminated in a Great Schism, separating the Roman Catholic Church... Eastern Orthodox Church.


Traditionally, the Coptic is an adjective referring to the original inhabitants of Egypt, the Copts. it can refer to: The Copts Coptic Christianity Coptic Language Coptic Alphabet See also: Coptic Art Coptic Calendar Coptic Music Egypt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Coptic language was used in church services, and the scriptures were written in the Coptic letters in a florid Bohairic script The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. It is based on the Greek alphabet, but contains some extra letters for sounds used in Coptic but not in Greek. Those letters are derived from the Demotic script, a highly... Coptic alphabet. However, due to the arabisation of Egypt, service in churches started to witness increased use of Arabic, while preaching is done entirely in Arabic. Native languages are used, in conjunction with Coptic, during services outside of Egypt.


Coptic Christians celebrate Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. According to the Christian gospels, Jesus was born to Mary in Bethlehem, where she and her... Christmas on the 7th of January which, since 2002, is an official national holiday in Egypt.


Prominent Copts

  • Origen was a Christian scholar and theologian and one of the most distinguished of the Fathers of the early Christian Church. He was born about 182, probably at Alexandria, and died at Caesarea not later than 251. Life Early training His full name was apparently Origenes Adamantius. He was educated... Origen of Alexandria
  • St. Abraam Bishop of Fayoum الأنبا إبرآم أسقف الفيوم
  • Saint Anthony the Great, Father of all Monks Saint Anthony the Great (251 - 356), Christian saint, also known as Saint Anthony of Egypt, Saint Anthony of the Desert, Saint Anthony the Anchorite, and The Father of All Monks was a leader among the Desert Fathers, who were Christian monks in... St. Anthony the Great القديس الأنبا أنطونيوس أب الرهبان
  • Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. He is revered as a saint by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Roman Catholics have declared him one of 33 Doctors of the Church. Born: 298 Died: May 2... St. Athanasius the Apostolic البابا أثناسيوس الرسولي
  • Pope Cyril I of Alexandria (376- June 27, 444), also known as The Pillar of Faith was Pope of Alexandria. He is revered as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. In 1883 the Holy See declared him a Doctor of... St. Cyril of Alexandria القديس البابا كيرلس السكندري عامود الدين
  • St Kyrellos VI, 116th Pope of Alexandria His Holiness Pope Cyril (Kyrellos) VI of Alexandria, born Azer Ioseph Atta ( August 8, 1902 – March 9, 1971), was Coptic Orthodox Pope from 1959 to 1971. Pope Cyril VI was born in Damanhour, Egypt, into a Christian family. He resigned a civil... Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria قداسة البابا كيرلس السادس
  • St Demiana and the Fourty Virgins the Martyrs her Companions Saint Demiana, the chaste and fighter virgin, was martyred on Tobi 13 ( January 22). She was the daughter of Mark, Governor of El-Borollus, El-Zaafran, and Wadi Al-Saysaban in the Northern delta of the Nile Valley. She was... St. Demiana الشهيدة دميانة
  • St. Didimos القديس ديديموس الضرير
  • St. Dioscores البابا ديسقوروس
  • Mary of Egypt (ca.344-ca.421) is revered as a saint most particularly in the Orthodox Church, but also in the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. She born in Egypt and was a prostitute in Alexandria from approximately 356 to 373. About that time, she travelled to Jerusalem to... St. Mary of Egypt القديسة مريم المصرية
  • St Mina the Wonders Maker Saint Mina, who is called the blessed faithful, was martyred on Hathor 15 ( November 24). His father, Eudoxius, was a native of the city of Nakiyos (Nikiu) in Egypt and was its Governor. His brother was envious of him and he brought charges against him... St. Mina الشهيد مارمينا العجايبي
  • St. Morris القديس موريس قائد الكتيبة الطيبية
  • St. Moses the Black (330 - 405) was born into slavery in Egypt. Because Moses was a thief, his owners decided to throw him out, and Moses joined a gang of bandits. At one point, Moses took refuge with the monks of the monastery of Petra in the desert of Skete... St. Moses the Black القديس موسى الأسود
  • St. Pakhom القديس باخوم أب الشركة
  • St. Parsoma الأنبا برسوم العريان
  • St. Pavly the Anchorite
  • St. Samuel the Confessor
  • St. Shenouty the Archmendrite
  • Saint Simon the Tanner (Samaan, in Arabic) lived towards the end of the tenth century when Egypt was ruled by the Fatimid Caliph, Al-Muizz, and Abraham the Syrian was the Coptic Pope. At the time, the many Copts ( Christians) in Egypt were engaged in handicrafts. Saint Simon worked... St. Simon the Shoemaker
  • This article is in need of attention. Please improve it in any way you see fit. Saint Takla Haymanot the Ethiopian Saint Takla Haymanot the Ethiopian (also known as St. Tekle Himanot) was a 7th century Ethiopian saint. Haymanots family In the 7th century, a Christian family lived in... St. Takla Haymanot القديس الأنبا تكلا هيمانوت الحبشي القس
  • St. Tigy
  • Saint Verena of the Theban Legion Saint Verena of the Theban Legion departed on the 4th day of Thout ( September 14). She was brought up in the Theban region (modern day Luxor in Upper Egypt) in a noble Christian family, who handed her over to Bishop Sherimon, Bishop of Bani... St. Verena القديسة فيرينا
  • HH Pope Shenouty III, 117th Pope of Alexandria and All Africa, and Patriarch of the Apostolic See of St Mark His Holiness Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria, born Nazeer Gayed, has been Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church since November 14, 1971. Pope Shenouda was born on August 3, 1923... HH Pope Shenouty III, the current Pope of Alexandria قداسة البابا شنوده الثالث
  • Boutros Ghali (1846 - February 20, 1910) was a Egypt from 1908 to 1910. He was accused of favouring the British in the Denshway incident and on February 20, 1910, Ghali was assassinated by Ibrahim Nassif al-Wardani, a young pharmacology graduate who had just returned from the United Kingdom. His... Boutros Ghali, Prime Minister of Egypt بطرس غالي
  • Order: 6th Secretary-General Term of Office: January 1, 1992–December 31, 1996 Predecessor: Javier P rez de Cu llar Successor: Kofi Annan Born: November 14, 1922 Place of birth: Cairo, Egypt Died: Place of death: Boutros Boutros-Ghali (born November 14, 1922) was the sixth Secretary_General of the... Boutros Boutros Ghali, Former The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. According to the United Nations Charter, the Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. The Secretary-General is described by the Charter... Secretary General of the United Nations بطرس بطرس غالي
  • Sir Magdi Yacoub, the leading cardiologist in the world Sir Magdi Habib Yacoub was born on November 16th 1935 in Cairo, Egypt to a Coptic Orthodox family. He studied at Cairo University. He taught at Chicago, and moved to Britain in 1962 where he became a consultant cardiothoracic surgeon at... Sir Magdi Yacoub , leading cardiologist in the world مجدي يعقوب
  • Makram Ebeid مكرم عبيد
  • Kamal Ramzi Stino was both the Agriculture Minister and Vice Prime Minister of Egypt under Nasser. He was also Director-General for the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development. Born to a Coptic Orthodox family, Stino became professor at Cairo University before being promoted to Minister of Agriculture. He is notable... Kamal Stino, Former Vice Prime Minister of Egypt كمال ستينو
  • Youssef Boutros Ghali يوسف بطرس غالي
  • Categories: People stubs | 1924 births | Art historians | Egyptian people ... Isaac Fanous, the father of modern Coptic is an adjective referring to the original inhabitants of Egypt, the Copts. it can refer to: The Copts Coptic Christianity Coptic Language Coptic Alphabet See also: Coptic Art Coptic Calendar Coptic Music Egypt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Coptic It has been said “A picture is worth a thousand words”, and so it is that iconography is the traditional art of portraying figures in pigment that symbolically mean more than a simple depiction of the person involved. Icons have been used by many different religions including Hindu... iconography ايزاك فانوس
  • Mary Moneib ماري منيب
  • Ester FanousEster Akhnoukh Fanous, also known as Ester Wissa (born February 19, 1895, Assiut, Egypt) was the daughter of doctor Akhnoukh Fanous and Balsam Wissa. The national and religious atmosphere dominating her parents house had a great influence on her personality; she accordingly knew the freedom through the ideas and... Ester Fanous إستر فانوس
  • Sobhi Gergis صبحي جرجس
  • Margret Nakhla مرجريت نخلة
  • Sandra Nashaat ساندرا نشأت
  • Michel Bakhoom ميشيل باخوم
  • Nabih Youssef Leading civil engineer in the U.S.

See also

  • The following list contains all the Popes who have held sway over the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. For the earlier Patriarchs of Alexandria prior to the schims, see List of Patriarchs of Alexandria; for the patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox church from which the Coptic Church... List of Coptic Popes
    • Mark the Evangelist (43-63) Anianus (61-82) Avilius (83-95) Kedron (96-106) Primus (106-118) Justus (118-129) Eumenes (131-141) Mark II (142-152) Celadion (152-166) Agrippinus (167-178) Julian (178-189) Demetrius (189-232) Heraclas (232-248) Dionysius (248-264) Maximus (265-282) Theonas (282... List of Patriarchs of Alexandria – prior to the schism
  • This article is currently undergoing a major rewrite using the template at Wikipedia:WikiProject Languages; please see Talk:Coptic language The Coptic Language is the last phase of the Egyptian language, and is the direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language written in the hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. Coptic... Coptic Language
  • Coptic letters in a florid Bohairic script The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. It is based on the Greek alphabet, but contains some extra letters for sounds used in Coptic but not in Greek. Those letters are derived from the Demotic script, a highly... Coptic Alphabet

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Coptic Christianity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2554 words)
Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60).
The Coptic Church believes that Christ is perfect in His divinity, and He is perfect in His humanity, but His divinity and His humanity were united in one nature called "the nature of the incarnate word", which was reiterated by Saint Cyril of Alexandria.
The current Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of the Holy See of Saint Mark is Pope Shenouda III (his title should not be confused with that of the Roman Catholic Pope).
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