FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Coptic Christianity
Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and of All Africa
Image:CopticCross.jpg
Coptic Orthodox Cross
Jesus Christ, the Son of God
Founder The Apostle and Evangelist Mark
Independence Traditional
Recognition Traditional
Primate H.H. Pope and Patriarch Shenouda III
Headquarters Alexandria and Cairo in Egypt
Territory Egypt, Nubia, Sudan, Pentapolis, Libya and All Africa
Possessions Middle East, United States, Canada, Great Britain, Western Europe, South America, Australia, Southeast Asia
Language Coptic, Greek, Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, English, French and German
Population ~11,000,000 in Egypt+ ~4,000,000 Abroad
Website Official Website of HH Pope Shenouda III
Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon.
Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon.
Part of the series on
Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity Portal

History
Byzantine Empire
Crusades
Ecumenical council
Great Schism
Image File history File links CopticCross. ... Mark the Evangelist (Greek: Markos) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark. ... HH Pope Shenouda III, 117th Pope of Alexandria and of the Apostolic See of St Mark His Holiness Pope Shenouda III, (August 3, 1923 – ), born Nazeer Gayed, is the 117th Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of the Holy See of Saint Mark of the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria. ... Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), It comes... Today Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan, but in ancient times it was an independent kingdom. ... A Pentapolis, from the Greek words penta five and polis city(-state) is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Coptic is the most recent phase of ancient Egyptian. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic and Aramaic. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ«, مصري) is part of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, descended mainly from a medieval dialect of Arabic. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Christ - Coptic Art This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... i hate god ... This page is about the title or the Divine Person. For the Christian figure, see Jesus. ... For other senses of this word, see icon (disambiguation). ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, the Balkans, the rest of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Image File history File links HY002563. ... What Up. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Traditions
Assyrian Church of the East
Oriental Orthodoxy
Syriac Christianity
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Rite Catholics
The Holy Apostolic and Catholic Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV, is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a religious organization which claims to be the continuation of the original Christian body, founded by Jesus and his Twelve Apostles. ... The domes of an Ukrainian Catholic parish in Simpson, Pennsylvania This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the See of Rome. ...

Liturgy and Worship
Divine Liturgy
Iconography
The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Iconography usually refers to the design or creation of images and more specifically to the historical study of art which aims at the identification, description and the interpretation of the content of images. ...

Theology
Apophaticism - Filioque clause
Miaphysitism - Monophysitism
Nestorianism - Panentheism
Theosis Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the Son) is a heavily disputed part of the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference between some Christian sects. ... Miaphysitism is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Nestorianism is the Christian doctrine that Jesus existed as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God; all-in-God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis, meaning divinization (or deification or, to become god), is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the Christianity of Egypt that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in the middle of the 1st century (approximately 42). The Church belongs to the Oriental Orthodoxy, and the See of Alexandria. Coptic Orthodox Christianity has been a distinct church body since the Council of Chalcedon in 451. The head of the church is the Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy See of Saint Mark, currently His Holiness Pope Shenouda III. More than 95% of Egypt's Christians belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, but other "Patriarchates/Patriarchs of Alexandria" also exist (Coptic Catholic, Greek/Latin Catholic and Greek Orthodox - see Coptic Christianity Today below). Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Consuls are Emperor Claudius and Gaius Caecina Largus Romans take control of Ceuta. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... The following is a list of all the Coptic Popes who have led the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... The following is a list of all the Coptic Popes who have led the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... HH Pope Shenouda III, 117th Pope of Alexandria and of the Apostolic See of St Mark His Holiness Pope Shenouda III, (August 3, 1923 – ), born Nazeer Gayed, is the 117th Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of the Holy See of Saint Mark of the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon. ...

Contents

History

Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the Holy Family sought in its flight[1] from Judea: "When he arose, he took the young Child and His mother by night and departed for Egypt, and was there until the death of Herod the Great, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt I called My Son" (Matthew 2:12-23). The Egyptian Church, which is now more than nineteen centuries old, was the subject of many prophecies in the Old Testament. Isaiah the prophet, in Chapter 19, Verse 19 says "In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar to the LORD at its border." The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity. ... The Holy Family is a liturgical celebration in the Roman Catholic Church in honor of the family of Jesus, his mother, the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Joseph. ... Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) (Greek: Ιουδαία) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael), an area now divided between Israel and the West Bank, and, in a few geographical definitions of Judea, Jordan. ... Hordos (Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, ; Greek: , ; trad. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ...


The first Christians in Egypt were mainly Alexandrian Jews such as Theophilus, whom Saint Luke the Evangelist addresses in the introductory chapter of his gospel. When the church was founded by Mark during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, a great multitude of native Egyptians (as opposed to Greeks or Jews) embraced the Christian faith. Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of Saint Mark's arrival in Alexandria as is clear from the New Testament writings found in Bahnasa, in Middle Egypt, which date around the year 200 A.D., and a fragment of the Gospel of John, written in Coptic, which was found in Upper Egypt and can be dated to the first half of the second century. In the second century, Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, and scriptures were translated into the local language, namely Coptic. A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as Christ. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria. ... Theophilus is the name to which the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles is addressed. ... Luke was, according to tradition, the painter of the first icon Luke the Evangelist (Greek Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Oxyrhynchus (Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important ever discovered. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... Coptic is the most recent phase of ancient Egyptian. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Coptic is the most recent phase of ancient Egyptian. ...


The Catechetical School of Alexandria, Egypt

The Catechetical School of Alexandria is the oldest catechetical school in the world. Founded around 190 A.D. by the scholar Pantanaeus, the school of Alexandria became an important institution of religious learning, where students were taught by scholars such as Athenagoras, Clement, Didymus, and the great Origen, who was considered the father of theology and who was also active in the field of commentary and comparative Biblical studies. Origen wrote over 6,000 commentaries of the Bible in addition to his famous Hexapla. Many scholars such as Jerome visited the school of Alexandria to exchange ideas and to communicate directly with its scholars. The scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects; science, mathematics and humanities were also taught there. The question-and-answer method of commentary began there, and 15 centuries before Braille, wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read and write. By A.D. 185 Pantanaeus was teaching at Alexandria. ... Athenagoras (circa 133-190) was a Christian apologist of the second half of the 2nd century of whom little is known for certain, besides that he was Athenian (though possibly not originally from Athens), a philosopher, and a convert to Christianity. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Didymus (?309-?394), surnamed the Blind, was an ecclesiastical writer of Alexandria, was born about the year 309. ... Origen (Greek: , 185–ca. ... The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity. ... Hexapla (Gr. ... Jerome (ca. ... PREMIER - first The information about the historic site of Safdarjung’s tomb in Delhi, India. ...


The Theological college of the catechetical school of Alexandria was re-established in 1893. The new school currently has campuses in Alexandria, Cairo, New Jersey, and Los Angeles, where Coptic priests-to-be and other qualified men and women are taught among other subjects Christian theology, history, Coptic language and art - including chanting, music, iconography, and tapestry. Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population    - City (2005) 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), It comes... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Coptic is the most recent phase of ancient Egyptian. ... Iconography usually refers to the design or creation of images and more specifically to the historical study of art which aims at the identification, description and the interpretation of the content of images. ...


Monasticism and missionary work

Many Egyptian Christians went to the desert during the 3rd century, and remained there to pray and work and give their lives to God. This was the beginning of the monastic movement, which was organized by Anthony the Great and Pachomius in the 4th century. By the end of the century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered throughout the Egyptian hills. A great number of these monasteries are still flourishing and have new vocations to this day. Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Saint Anthony the Great, Father of all Monks Saint Anthony the Great ( 251 - 356), Christian saint, also known as Saint Anthony of Egypt, Saint Anthony of the Desert, Saint Anthony the Anchorite, and The Father of All Monks was a leader among the Desert Fathers, who were Christian monks in... Pachomius, who died around AD 345 in Tabennisi, Egypt, was one of the founders of Christian monasticism. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...


Egyptian monasticism attracted the attention of Christians in other parts of the world, who visited Egypt, many bringing monastic ideas home with them, and spreading monasticism through the Christian world. Basil, organizer of the monastic movement in Asia Minor visited Egypt around 357 and his rule is followed by the eastern Churches; Jerome, en route to Jerusalem, stopped in Egypt and left details of his experiences in his letters; Benedict founded monasteries in the 6th century on the model of Pachomius, but in a stricter form. Basil (ca. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Events Battle of Strasbourg (357): Julian leads the Roman forces to victory against the Alamanni at Strasbourg Births Deaths Category: 357 ... Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds (the Holy); official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names) is the capital and largest city[1] of the State of Israel with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006[2... Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ...


Council of Nicea

In the 4th century, an Alexandrian presbyter named Arius began a theological dispute about the nature of Christ that spread throughout the Christian world and is now known as Arianism. The Ecumenical Council of Nicea (325) was convened by Constantine to resolve the dispute and eventually led to the formulation of the Symbol of Faith, also known as the Nicene Creed. The Creed, which is now recited throughout the Christian world, was based largely on the teaching put forth by a man who eventually would become Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, the chief opponent of Arius. Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, a synonym of episkopos, which has come to mean bishop. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... The First Council of Nicaea, convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in AD 325, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) (c. ...


Council of Constantinople

In the year 381, Saint Timothy I of Alexandria presided over the second ecumenical council known as the Ecumenical Council of Constantinople, which completed the Nicene Creed with this confirmation of the divinity of the Holy Spirit: Events First Council of Constantinople - second Ecumenical council of the Christian Church: The Nicene creed is affirmed and extended, Apollinarism is declared a heresy. ... Timothy served as Patriarch of Alexandria (head of the church that became the Coptic Church and the Orthodox Church of Alexandria) between 380 and 385. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...

"We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Life-giver, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified who spoke by the Prophets and in one Holy Universal Apostolic Church. We confess one Baptism for the remission of sins and we look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the coming age, Amen."

Council of Ephesus

Coptic Icon in the Coptic Altar of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem
Coptic Icon in the Coptic Altar of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem

Another theological dispute in the 5th century occurred over the teachings of Nestorius, a Patriarch of Constantinople who taught that God the Word was not hypostatically joined with human nature, but rather dwelt in the man Jesus. As a consequence of this, he denied the title "Mother of God" (Theotokos) to the Virgin Mary, declaring her instead to be "Mother of Christ" (Christotokos). When reports of this reached the Apostolic Throne of Saint Mark, the Coptic Orthodox Pope Saint Cyril I acted quickly to correct this breach with orthodoxy, requesting that Nestorius repent. When he would not, the Synod of Alexandria met in an emergency session and a unanimous agreement was reached. Pope Cyril I of Alexandria, supported by the entire See, sent a letter to Nestorius known as "The Third Epistle of Saint Cyril to Nestorius." This epistle drew heavily on the established Patristic Constitutions and contained the most famous article of Alexandrian Orthodoxy: "The Twelve Anathemas of Saint Cyril." In these anathemas, Cyril excommunicated anyone who followed the teachings of Nestorius. For example, "Anyone who dares to deny the Holy Virgin the title Theotokos is Anathema!" Nestorius however, still would not repent and so this led to the convening of the First Ecumenical Council of Ephesus (431), over which Cyril presided. Download high resolution version (887x580, 117 KB)Coptic Altar in Jerusalem This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (887x580, 117 KB)Coptic Altar in Jerusalem This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis in Greek and Surp Harutyun in Armenian) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Nestorius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, the mother of Jesus. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... Mark the Evangelist (Greek: Markos) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark. ... St. ... Anathema (Greek Word -Ανάθεμα-: meaning originally something lifted up as an offering to the gods; later, with evolving meanings, it came to mean 1. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ...

Coptic Language Hymn Book - otherwise know as the 'Tasbeha' or 'Holy Psalmody'
Coptic Language Hymn Book - otherwise know as the 'Tasbeha' or 'Holy Psalmody'

The First Ecumenical Council of Ephesus confirmed the teachings of Saint Athanasius and confirmed the title of the Holy Ever-Virgin Mary as "Mother of God". It also clearly stated that anyone who separated Christ into two hypostases was anathema, as Athanasius had said that there is "One Nature and One Hypostasis for God the Word Incarnate" (Mia Physis kai Mia Hypostasis tou Theou Logou Sasarkomeni). Also, the introduction to the creed was formulated as follows: Image File history File links Bibliacopt. ... Image File history File links Bibliacopt. ... The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) (c. ... This page is about the title or the Divine Person. For the Christian figure, see Jesus. ...

"We magnify you O Mother of the True Light and we glorify you O saint and Mother of God (Theotokos) for you have borne unto us the Saviour of the world. Glory to you O our Master and King: Christ, the pride of the Apostles, the crown of the martyrs, the rejoicing of the righteous, firmness of the churches and the forgiveness of sins. We proclaim the Holy Trinity in One Godhead: we worship Him, we glorify Him, Lord have mercy, Lord have mercy, Lord bless us, Amen."

The Orthodox faith is considered to have prevailed at the council. Unfortunately, Saint Cyril I of Alexandria died soon afterwards. Saint Dioscorus, the archdeacon of Alexandria (considered a saint by the non-Chalcedonians but a heretic by the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics) was elected as Saint Cyril's replacement. The Nestorians took the opportunity of Saint Cyril's death to revive their campaign against Cyrillian Christology. Dioscorus (or Dioscurus) (died c. ...


Council of Chalcedon

St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria

When the Emperor Marcianus interfered with matters of faith in the Church, the response of Saint Dioscorus – the Pope of Alexandria who was later exiled – was that the emperor had nothing to do with the Church. It was at Chalcedon that the emperor would take his revenge for the Pope's boldness. St Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... St Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Imperator Caesar Flavius Marcianus Augustus or Marcian (c. ... Dioscorus (or Dioscurus) (died c. ... Chalcedon (Χαλκεδον, sometimes transliterated by purists as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ...


The Council of Chalcedon abandoned Cyrillian terminology and declared that Christ was one hypostasis in two natures. However, in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, "Christ was conceived of the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary," thus the foundation according to non-Chalcedonians is made clear. In terms of Christology, the Oriental understanding is that Christ is "One Nature--the Logos Incarnate," of the full humanity and full divinity. The Byzantine understanding is that Christ is in two natures, full humanity and full divinity. Just as humans are of their mothers and fathers and not in their mothers and fathers, so too is the nature of Christ according to Oriental Orthodoxy. If Christ is in full humanity and in full divinity, then He is separate in two persons as the Nestorians teach.[2] This is the doctrinal difference which separated the Orientals from the Byzantines. The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Nestorianism is the Christian doctrine that Jesus existed as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ...


The Council's findings were rejected by many of the Christians on the fringes of the Byzantine Empire, including Egyptians, Syrians, Armenians, and others. From that point onward, Alexandria would have two patriarchs: the non-Chalcedonian national Egyptian one, now known as the Coptic Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy Apostolic See of St. Mark and the "Melkite" or Imperial Patriarch, now known as the Greek Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa.[3] Almost the entire Egyptian population rejected the terms of the Council of Chalcedon and remained faithful to the national Egyptian Church (now known as the Coptic Orthodox Church). Those who supported the Chalcedonian definition remained in communion with the other leading churches of Rome and Constantinople. The non-Chalcedonian party became what is today called the Oriental Orthodox Church. What Up. ... The following is a list of all the Coptic Popes who have led the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... The term Melkite (also written Melchite) is used to refer to various Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The History of the Roman Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years, making the Church one of the oldest religious institutions in history. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ...

Coptic Cathedral in Aswan
Coptic Cathedral in Aswan

The Coptic Orthodox Church regards itself as having been misunderstood at the Council of Chalcedon. Some Copts believe that perhaps the Council understood the Church correctly, but wanted to exile the Church to isolate it and to abolish the independent Egyptian Pope, who maintained that Church and State should remain separate. The Coptic Orthodox Church regarded that the ousting of Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria in the council of Chalcedon was in part due to the rivalry between the Bishops of Alexandria and Rome. The Tome of Pope Leo of Rome was considered influenced by Nestorian philosophy. It is important to note that Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria was never labeled as heretic by the council's canons. Copts also believe that the Pope of Alexandria was forcibly prevented from attending the third congregation of the council from which he was ousted, apparently the result of a conspiracy tailored by the Roman delegates.[4] Image File history File links CathedralAswan. ... Image File history File links CathedralAswan. ... Copts in Egypt A Copt is a native Egyptian Christian (also see Coptic Christianity). ...


Before the current positive era of Eastern and Oriental Orthodox dialogues, Chalcedonians sometimes used to call the non-Chalcedonians "monophysites", though the Coptic Orthodox Church in reality regards monophysitism as a heresy. The Chalcedonian doctrine in turn came to be known as "dyophysite". A term that comes closer to Coptic Orthodoxy is miaphysite, which refers to a conjoined nature for Christ, both human and divine, united indivisibly in the Incarnate Logos. The Coptic Orthodox Church believes that Christ is perfect in His divinity, and He is perfect in His humanity, but His divinity and His humanity were united in one nature called "the nature of the incarnate word", which was reiterated by Saint Cyril of Alexandria. Copts, thus, believe in two natures "human" and "divine" that are united in one hypostasis "without mingling, without confusion, and without alteration". These two natures "did not separate for a moment or the twinkling of an eye" (Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil of Caesarea). Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... The Chalcedonian churches are those Christian churches who follow the Christological teachings of the Council of Chalcedon, in contradistinction to Nestorians, Monophysites and Monothelites. ... Miaphysitism is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... St. ...


From Chalcedon to the Arab conquest of Egypt

St. Peter stands over an altar in the sanctuary of Ramses II's temple at Wadi es-Sebua
St. Peter stands over an altar in the sanctuary of Ramses II's temple at Wadi es-Sebua

Copts suffered under the rule of the Byzantine Eastern Roman Empire. The Melkite Patriarchs, appointed by the emperors as both spiritual leaders and civil governors, massacred the Egyptian population whom they considered heretics. Many Egyptians were tortured and martyred to accept the terms of Chalcedon, but Egyptians remained loyal to the faith of their fathers and to the Cyrillian view of Christology. One of the most renowned Egyptian saints of that period is Saint Samuel the Confessor. Image File history File links StPiterandRamses. ... Image File history File links StPiterandRamses. ... What Up. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The term Melkite (also written Melchite) is used to refer to various Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. ... Christology is that part of Christian theology which studies and attempts to define Jesus the Christ. ... St. ...


The Arab-Muslim conquest of Egypt

The Muslim conquest of Egypt took place in AD 639. Despite the political upheaval, Egypt remained a mainly Christian land, although gradual conversions to Islam over the centuries changed Egypt from a mainly Christian to a mainly Muslim country by the end of the 12th century. This process was sped along by persecutions during and following the reign of the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (reigned AD 996–1021) and the Crusades, and also by the acceptance of Arabic as a liturgical language by the Pope of Alexandria Gabriel ibn-Turaik.[5] Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Hakim bi-Amr Allah (literally: Ruler by Gods Command), known as the Mad Caliph, was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... The Crusades were a series of military campaigns conducted in the name of Christendom[1] and usually sanctioned by the Pope. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic and Aramaic. ... The following list contains all the Popes who have held sway over the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... His Holiness Gabriel II was the Coptic Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. ...


During Arab rule, the Copts needed to pay a special tax called the jizya in order to be defended by Muslim armies, as non-Muslims were not allowed to serve in the army. This tax was abolished in 1855. In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax imposed on non-Muslim adult males. ...


From the 19th century to the 1952 revolution

The position of the Copts began to improve early in the 19th century under the stability and tolerance of Muhammad Ali's dynasty. The Coptic community ceased to be regarded by the state as an administrative unit and, by 1855, the main mark of Copts' inferiority, the Jizya tax, was lifted. Shortly thereafter, Christians started to serve in the Egyptian army. The 1919 revolution in Egypt, the first grassroots display of Egyptian identity in centuries, stands as a witness to the homogeneity of Egypt's modern society with both its Muslim and Christian components. Muhammad `Alī Muhammad Ali Pasha (Arabic: محمد علي باشا) or Mehmet Ali Paşa (Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa) in Turkish (c. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The History of modern Egypt is generally accepted as beginning in 1882, when Egypt became a de facto British colony. ...


The Cradle of Monasticism

Monasticism was born in Egypt and was instrumental in the formation of the Coptic Church's character of submission and humility, thanks to the teachings and writings of the Great Fathers of Egypt's Deserts. Monasticism started in the last years of the third century, and flourished in the fourth century. Saint Anthony, the world's first Christian monk, was a Copt from Upper Egypt. Saint Pachomius, who established the rules of monasticism, was a Copt, and, Saint Paul, the world's first anchorite, was also a Copt. By the end of the fourth century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered throughout the Egyptian deserts. Many of these monasteries are still flourishing and have new vocations to this day. All Christian monasticism stems, either directly or indirectly, from the Egyptian example: Saint Basil, organiser of the monastic movement in Asia minor, visited Egypt around 357 A.D. and his rule is followed by the eastern Churches; Saint Jerome, who translated the Bible into Latin, came to Egypt around 400 A.D. and left details of his experiences in his letters; Saint Benedict founded monasteries in the sixth century on the model of Saint Pachom, but in a stricter form. Countless pilgrims have visited the "Desert Fathers" to emulate their spiritual, disciplined lives. Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Pachomius, who died around AD 345 in Tabennisi, Egypt, was one of the founders of Christian monasticism. ...


Coptic Christianity today

A modern Coptic monastery.
A modern Coptic monastery.

The current Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy See of Saint Mark is Pope Shenouda III (his title should not be confused with that of the Roman Catholic Pope). There is also a Greek Orthodox Pope & Patriarch of Alexandria. The most recent Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria is Pope Theodoros II.[6] There is a small Coptic Catholic Church which is headed by a Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria. The Melkite Catholic Church (Eastern Rite Catholic) has little presence in Egypt, but is headed by a Patriarch of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. Small Protestant and Anglican denominations also exist. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... HH Pope Shenouty III, 117th Pope of Alexandria and All Africa, and Patriarch of the Apostolic See of St Mark His Holiness Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria, born Nazeer Gayed, has been Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church since November 14, 1971. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... The Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria has the title Patriarch and Pope of Alexandria and all Africa. ... His Holiness Patriach Theodoros II of Alexandria is the current Eastern Orthodox Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Greek-Catholic Melkite Church. ... The domes of an Ukrainian Catholic parish in Simpson, Pennsylvania This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the See of Rome. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ...


By some accounts there are about 57 million Coptic Orthodox Christians in the world: they are found primarily in Egypt (roughly 11 million), Ethiopia (roughly 38 million & 1 million abroad, which is over half of Ethiopia's population[7]), and Eritrea (roughly 2.5 million), but there are significant numbers in North America, Europe, Australia, Sudan and Israel, and in diaspora throughout the world making approximately another 4 million. However, as applied to the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which in 1959 was granted its first own Patriarch by Coptic Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria, the word Coptic can be considered a misnomer because it means Egyptian. The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church similarly became independent of the Ethiopian Tewahedo Church during the early 1990s. These three churches remain in full communion with each other and with the other Oriental Orthodox churches. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church do acknowledge the Coptic Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria as their honorary Superior, since the Church of Alexandria is technically their Mother Church. Both Patriarchs (Ethiopian & Eritrean), upon their selection must receive the approval and communion from the Holy Synod of the Apostolic See of Alexandria before their enthronement. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... European redirects here. ... This Ethiopian icon shows St. ... St Kyrillos VI, 116th Pope of Alexandria: A man of prayer, who held daily masses and had his door open to everyone His Holiness Pope Cyril (Kyrillos) VI of Alexandria, born Azer Ioseph Atta (August 8, 1902 – March 9, 1971), was Coptic Orthodox Pope from 1959 to 1971. ... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... This Ethiopian icon shows St. ... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church. ... The following list contains all the Popes who have held sway over the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ...

Ethiopian priests (pictured here) are often mistaken for Coptic Priests
Ethiopian priests (pictured here) are often mistaken for Coptic Priests

Since the 1980s theologians from the Oriental (Non-Chalcedonian) Orthodox and Eastern (Chalcedonian) Orthodox churches have been meeting in a bid to resolve the theological differences, and have concluded that many of the differences are caused by the two groups using different terminology to describe the same thing (see Agreed Official Statements on Christology with the Eastern Orthodox Churches). In the summer of 2001, the Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Patriarchates of Alexandria[8] to mutually recognize baptisms performed in each other's churches, making re-baptisms unnecessary, and to recognize the sacrament of marriage as celebrated by the other. Previously, if a Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox wanted to marry, the marriage had to be performed twice, once in each church, for it to be recognized by both. Now it can be done in only one church and be recognized by both. Image File history File links DB003876. ... Image File history File links DB003876. ...


According to Christian Tradition and Canon Law, the Coptic Orthodox Church only ordains men, and if they wish to be married, they must be married before they are ordained. In this respect they follow the same practices as does the Eastern Orthodox Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church is a religious organization which claims to be the continuation of the original Christian body, founded by Jesus and his Twelve Apostles. ...

Egyptian Copt praying in church
Enlarge
Egyptian Copt praying in church

Traditionally, the Coptic language was used in church services, and the scriptures were written in the Coptic alphabet. However, due to the arabisation of Egypt, service in churches started to witness increased use of Arabic, while preaching is done entirely in Arabic. Native languages are used, in conjunction with Coptic and Arabic, during services outside of Egypt. Image File history File links 0000296712-027. ... Image File history File links 0000296712-027. ... Copts in Egypt A Copt is a native Egyptian Christian (also see Coptic Christianity). ... Coptic is the most recent phase of ancient Egyptian. ...   The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ...


Coptic Orthodox Christians celebrate Christmas on the 7th of January according to the Gregorian Calendar , which is the 25th of December according to the Julian Calendar, which the Alexandrine Church uses as its Ecclessiastical Calendar. It is known as the Coptic calendar and also known as the Alexandrian Calendar, which in turn, is based on the old Egyptian calendar of pharaonic Egypt. The Coptic Orthodox Church is thus considered an Old Calendrist Church. Christmas, according to the Julian based Calendar has been since 2002, an official national holiday in Egypt. Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar that is used nearly everywhere in the world. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ...


Official title of the Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa

The leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria , is known as Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of all Africa on the Holy See of St. Mark the Apostle. His full title is Pope and Lord Archbishop of the Great City of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy Orthodox and Apostolic Throne of Saint Mark the Evangelist and Holy Apostle that is, in Egypt, Pentapolis, Libya, Nubia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and all Africa. The Successor of St. Mark the Evangelist, Holy Apostle and Martyr, on the Holy Apostolic Throne of the Great City of Alexandria. Diocesan Bishop of Alexandria, Elder Metropolitan Archbishop of the Egyptian Province, Primate of Pentapolis, Libya, Nubia and Sudan and Patriarch of all Africa. The Pillar and Defender of the Holy, Catholic, Apostolic and Orthodox Faith. The Dean of the Great Catechetical School of Theology of Alexandria. The Ecumenical (Universal) Judge (Arbitrator) of the Holy Apostolic and Catholic (Universal) Church. The Thirteenth among the Holy Apostles; Father of Fathers, Shepherd of Shepherds and Hierarch of all Hierarchs. Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The following is a list of all the Coptic Popes who have led the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... The following is a list of all the Coptic Popes who have led the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... The following is a list of all the Coptic Popes who have led the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... A Pentapolis, from the Greek words penta five and polis city(-state) is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. ... Today Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan, but in ancient times it was an independent kingdom. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ... Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria. ... A mitre is used as a symbol of the bishops ministry. ... An elder can refer to various topics: Elder (administrative title) Elder (religious) Elder - person of knowledge or high degree Elderberry plant (Sambucus) Box-elder plant (maple) Box elder bug (Leptocoris trivittatus or Boisea trivittatus) Elderly person - see: Old age William Henry Elder bishop and Archbishop of Cincinnati Joycelyn Elders Elder... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, whose incumbent is usually called simply a metropolitan, apertains to the bishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... Catholic Patriarchal (non cardinal) coat of arms Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... A Pentapolis, from the Greek words penta five and polis city(-state) is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. ... Today Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan, but in ancient times it was an independent kingdom. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... Holiness means the state of being holy, that is, set apart for the worship or service of a god or gods. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... The Alexandrian school is a collective designation for certain tendencies in literature, philosophy, medicine and the sciences that developed in the cultural center of Alexandria, Egypt around the 1st century CE. Alexandia was a remarkable center of learning due to the blending of Greek and Oriental influences, its favorable situation... The Twelve Apostles (, apostolos, Liddell & Scott, Strongs G652, someone sent forth/sent out) were men that according to the Synoptic Gospels and Christian tradition, were chosen from among the disciples (students) of Jesus for a mission. ... In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ... A hierarch is a very high-ranking bishop; see also primate (religion) and metropolitan bishop. ...


Jurisdiction of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria

The Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria has under its jurisdiction the following:

  • 10 Metropolitanates with 9 Metropolitans (1 Vacant Metropolitanate)
  • 55 Dioceses in Egypt and outside Egypt with 52 Diocesan Bishops plus 2 Bishops shepherding a particular flock {the Eritreans} in the U.S.A. and the United Kingdom, while 3 Dioceses remain vacant.
  • 9 Auxiliary Bishops (1 in a Diocese in France, 2 in Dioceses in Egypt and 6 assistants to H.H. the Pope in the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Cairo, which is directly under the responsibility of H.H. the Pope)
  • 5 Patriarchal Exarchs (2 In the Archdiocese of North America, 1 in the United Kingdom and 2 in East and South Africa)
  • 9 Bishop Abbots of Patriarchal Monastaries, plus one Monastary awaiting the ordination of its Bishop Abbot.
  • 7 General Bishops, including 2 Bishops heading Patriarchal Institutions, 2 Bishops Secretaries of H.H. the Pope and 3 General Bishops without portfolios.
  • 1 Chor-bishop.

The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church is composed of the following:


1) His Holiness Shenouda III (Senouthius III), Pope and Lord Archbishop of the Great City of Alexandria, Primate of all the Egyptian Province & Patriarch of all Africa on the Holy Throne of St. Mark the Evangelist, the Holy Apostle & Martyr.


Metropolitans of the Throne:


2) His Eminence Mikhail (Michael), Metropolitan of the Holy Metropolitanate of Assiut (Lycopolis) & Abbot of St. Macarius the Great Monastery, in Scetis, Lower Egypt.


3) His Eminence Domadius (Dometius), Metropolitan of the Holy Metropolitanate of Giza (Memphis) & Atfieh (Aphroditopolis).


4) His Eminence Pachomius, Metropolitan of the Holy Metropolitanate of Beheira (Thmui & Hermopolis Parva), Mariout (Mariotis), Mersa Matrouh (Antiphrae & Paractorium), Libya (Livis) & Titular Bishop of Pentapolis (Cyrenica).


5) His Eminence Pishoy (Pisoios), Metropolitan of the Holy Metropolitanate of Damietta (Thamiates), Kafr El Sheikh (Xais) & Belquas & General Secretary of the Holy Synod.


6) His Eminence Marcus (Mark), Metropolitan of the Holy Metropolitanate of Toulon and all France, Primate of the French Orthodox Church, France.


7) His Eminence Abraham I, Metropolitan of the Holy and Great City of Our Lord, Jerusalem, Holy Zion, Archbishop of the Holy Archdiocese of Jerusalem (Ierosolimon), All Palestine, Philadelphia of Jordan & the Near East.


8) His Eminence Seraphim, Metropolitan of the Holy Metropolitanate of Glastonbury, Primate of the British Orthodox Church, United Kingdom.


9) His Eminence Hedra, Metropolitan of the Holy Metropolitanate of Aswan (Syene) & Abbot of St. Hedra Monastery.


10) His Eminence Wissa (Besa), Metropolitan of the Holy Metropolitanate of Balyanna (Abidos), Berdis, Awlad Tokh & its Jurisdictions.


Bishops of the Throne:


11) His Grace Arsenius, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of El Menia & Abou Qurquas.


12) His Grace Ammonius (Amon), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Luxor, Esna & Armant (Thebes, Maximianopolis, Latopolis, Hermonthis & Appolinopolis Magna) (Relieved from Eparchial Shepherding).


13) His Grace Benyamin (Benjamin), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Menoufia (Prosopolis).


14) His Grace Pavnotius, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Samalot & Taha El Aaameda.


15) His Grace Angelos, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of El Sharqueya (Facusa & Tannis).


16) His Grace Tadros (Theodoros), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Port Said (Pelusium & Farma).


17) His Grace Ignatius, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Suez (Klyzma).


18) His Grace Yacobos (Jacob), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Zaggazig (Bubastis) and Mina El Qamh


19) His Grace Kyrillos (Cyril), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Nag’Hammadi (Diospolis Parva) & Abou Tesht.


20) His Grace Paula (Paul), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Tanta (Tana).


21) His Grace Marcus (Mark), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Shoubra El Kheima.


22) His Grace Ashe’yia (Isaiah), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Tahta & Guehena (Aphroditopolis & Hispis)


23) His Grace Fam, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Tema.


24) His Grace Pissada, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Akhmim, Saqualta (Panopolis) & Mount Akhmim Holy Monasteries.


25) His Grace Andrawos (Andrew), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Abou Tig, Sedfa & Ghanayem.


26) His Grace Missael, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Birmingham and all the Midlands, England & Wales, UK.


27) His Grace Abram III, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of El Fayoum (Crocodilopolis, Arsinoe & Philadelphia) & Abbot of Archangel Gabriel Monastery in the Naqloun Mountain, Central Egypt.


28) His Grace Serapion, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Los Angeles, Southern California & Hawaii, USA.


29) His Grace Demetrius, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Malawy, Anssanna & El Ashmounin (Antinopolis & Hermopolis).


30) His Grace Lucas (Luke), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Abnoub & El Fatt’h.


31) His Grace Bakhoum (Pakhomius), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Sohag, Mansha’a & Maragha (Athribis & Ptolemais).


32) His Grace Barsoum (Parsoma), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Dairut & Sanabou.


33) His Grace Antonius (Anthony), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Manfalot.


34) His Grace Picenti (Pisentios), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Helwan & Maasara.


35) His Grace Kyrillos (Cyril), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Milano and Northern Italy & Abbot of St. Shenouda the Archimandrite Monastery in Milano, Italy.


36) His Grace Aghapius, Bishop the Holy Diocese of Deir Mouwas & Delgua.


37) His Grace Thomas, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of El Quousseya (Cusaie) & Meir.


38) His Grace Matthias, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of El Mahala El Kobra (Sebennitos). (Resigned & Deposed)


39) His Grace Cheroubim (Cherubim), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Quena, Qift & Jurisdictions.


40) His Grace Pimen, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Nekada (Appolinopolis Parva) & Qous.


41) His Grace Thecla, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Dishna (Tentyra) & Jurisdictions.


42) His Grace Macarius, Bishop of the Eritrean Church in the USA. Member of the Eritrean Holy Synod.


43) His Grace Marcus (Mark), Bishop of the Eritrean Church in the UK. Member of the Eritrean Holy Synod.


44) His Grace Theophilus, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Hurghada & the Red Sea.


45) His Grace Maximus, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Benha (Leontopolis) & Quouwaysena (Athribis).


46) His Grace Sarapamon (Serapis Amon), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Atbara, Um Dourman & the North of the Sudan & Titular Bishop of Nubia.


47) His Grace Antony, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Ireland, Scotland & Northeast England, UK.


48) His Grace Damianus (Damian), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Hoexter-Brenkenhausen, Kroeffelbach & All Germany & Abbot of the Monastery of St. Anthony the Great in Kroeffelbach, Germany


49) His Grace Youssef (Joseph), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Southern United States, USA.


50) His Grace Barnabas, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Torino and Southern Italy.


51) His Grace Suriel, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Melbourne, Victoria, Tasmania, ACT, South Australia, Western Australia, New Zealand, The Pacific Islands & Jurisdictions


52) His Grace Gabriel, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Beni Suef & Bahnasa (Heracleopolis Magna).


53) His Grace Georgios (George), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Matay (Ankyronpolis) & Jurisdictions.


54) His Grace Stephanos (Stephen), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Beba, Samasta & El Fashn (Oxyrhynchus).


55) His Grace Gabriel, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Vienna and all Austria.


56) His Grace Ilia (Elijah), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Khartoum & the South of the Sudan.


57) His Grace Seraphim, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Ismailia.


58) His Grace Appollo, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of El Tor, Sharm El Sheikh & All South Sinai.


59) His Grace Athanasius, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Beni Mazar.


60) His Grace Aghathon, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Maghagha & `Edwa.


61) His Grace Kosman (Cosmas), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of El Arish, Port Tawfik, El Quantara & All North Sinai.


62) His Grace Daniel, Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Sydney, New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory, Thailand, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore & Jurisdictions


63) His Grace Dawood (David), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Mansoura (Leontopolis) & Abbot of St. George Monastery at Meit Demsis, Lower Egypt.


64) His Grace Aghathon, Bishop the Holy Diocese of Sao Paolo and All Brazil.


65) His Grace Youssef (Joseph), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Santa Cruz and All Bolivia


Auxiliary Bishops of the Throne:


66) His Grace Athanasius, Auxiliary Bishop of the Holy Metropolitanate of Toulon and all France, Assistant to H.E Marcos, French Orthodox Church.


67) His Grace Daniel, Auxiliary Bishop for Maadi District in Cairo, Assistant to H.H. the Pope.


68) His Grace Raphael, Auxiliary Bishop for Central Cairo & Heliopolis in Cairo, Assistant to H.H. the Pope.


69) His Grace Tawadros (Theodorus), Auxiliary Bishop for the Holy Diocese of El Behera (Thumi & Hermopolis Parva), assistant to H.E. Pachomius.


70) His Grace Maximos (Maximus), Auxiliary Bishop for Irininoupolis (Dar El Salam) in Cairo, Assistant to H.H. the Pope.


71) His Grace Silwanos (Silvanus), Auxiliary Bishop for Old Cairo (Babylon) & Assistant to H.H. the Pope.


72) His Grace Timotheos (Timothy), Auxiliary Bishop for El Mataria, Ain Shams & Ezbet El Nakhl, Assistant to H.H. the Pope.


73) His Grace Martyros (Martyrus), Auxiliary Bishop for East of the Railroad District, Cairo, Assistant to H.H. the Pope.


74) His Grace Macarius, Auxiliary Bishop for the Holy Diocese of El Menia, Assistant to H.G. Arsenius.


Exarchs of the Throne:


75) His Grace Antonius Markos (Anthony Mark), General Bishop for African Affairs & Patriarchal Exarch in West & South Africa.


76) His Grace Youhanna (John), Auxiliary Bishop & Patriarchal Exarch in Cedar Grove, New Jersey, Archdiocese of North America.


77) His Grace Pavlos (Paul), General Bishop for Evangelization & Missionaries & Patriarchal Exarch in East & Central Africa.


78) His Grace David, General Bishop & Patriarchal Exarch in Cedar Grove, New Jersey, Archdiocese of North America.


79) His Grace Angelos, General Bishop & Patriarchal Exarch for the Youth Ministry at the Patriarchal Center and the Coptic Orthodox Theological College at Stevenage, U.K.


Bishop Abbots of the Holy and Sacred Monasteries of the Throne:


80) His Grace Sarapamon (Serapis Amon), Bishop & Abbot of St. Pishoy Monastery in the Scetis Desert, Lower Egypt.


81) His Grace Sawiros (Severus), Bishop & Abbot of the Most Holy Virgin Mary (aka El Moharraq) Monastery, Upper Egypt.


82) His Grace Mattheos (Matthew), Bishop & Abbot of the Most Holy Virgin Mary (aka El Sourian/The Syrian) Monastery, in the Scetis Desert, Lower Egypt.


83) His Grace Basilius (Basil), Bishop & Abbot of St. Samuel the Confessor Monastery, in the El Qualamon Mountain


84) His Grace Yustus (Justus), Bishop & Abbot of St. Anthony the Great Monastery, in the Eastern Desert


85) His Grace Isithoros (Isidore), Bishop & Abbot of the Most Holy Virgin Mary (aka Paromeos/The Romans) Monastery, in the Scetis Desert, Lower Egypt.


86) His Grace Kyrillos (Cyril), Bishop & Abbot of St. Minas the Wonder Worker Monastery, in the Mariut (Mariotis)Desert, Lower Egypt.


87) His Grace Minas, Bishop & Abbot of St. George the Victorious Prince and Great Martyr Monastery, in El Khatatba, Central Egypt.


88) His Grace , Bishop & Abbot of St. Paula the Hermit Monastery, in the Eastern Desert.


General Bishops & Administrators of the Bishoprics of the Throne:


89) His Grace Ruweis, General Bishop.


90) His Grace Moussa (Moses), General Bishop, Administrator for the Bishopric of Youth Affairs.


91) His Grace Dioscorus, General Bishop, Administrator of the Patriarchal Print Shop.


92) His Grace Petros (Peter), General Bishop.


93) His Grace Youannes (John), General Bishop, Patriarchal Secretary at the Patriarchal Residence in Cairo.


94) His Grace Armiah (Jeremiah), General Bishop, Patriarchal Secretary at the Patriarchal Residence in Cairo.


95) His Grace Apakir (Apa Cyrrhus), General Bishop.


96) His Grace Isaac, Chori-Episcopus.


Patriarchal Vicar for Alexandria:


97) The Very Reverend Hegumen Cheroubim the Pachomian, Grand Economos & Patriarchal Vicar in Alexandria.


Vacant Metropolitanate/Diocese/Abbey


98) His Eminence (Vacant), Metropolitan of the Holy Metropolitanate of Guergua (Thinis).


99) His Grace (Vacant), Bishop of the Holy Diocese of Shebin El Quanater, Toukh & El Khanka.


100) His Grace (Vacant), Bishop & Abbot of St. George the Victorious Prince and Great Martyr Monastery, in El Rozaiquat, Central Egypt.


Prominent Copts

A Coptic Orthodox Church in Amman, Jordan
A Coptic Orthodox Church in Amman, Jordan
  • 20th-century prominent Copts
    • Professor Naguib Pasha Mahfouz (1882-1974), Obstetric fistula pioneer and the father of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Egypt نجيب باشا محفوظ
    • Sir Magdi Yacoub, leading cardiologist in the world مجدي يعقوب
    • Isaac Fanous, the father of modern Coptic iconography ايزاك فانوس
    • Hany Ramzy, football player هاني رمزي
    • Mary Moneib ماري منيب
    • Ester Fanous إستر فانوس
    • Sobhi Gergis صبحي جرجس
    • Margret Nakhla مرجريت نخلة
    • Sally Bishai Director سالي بشاي
    • Sandra Nashaat ساندرا نشأت
    • Michel Bakhoum ميشيل باخوم Prominent Professor of Structural Engineering and Consulting Engineer
    • Nabih Youssef Leading structural engineer in the U.S. نبيه يوسف
    • Professor Alfy Morcos Fanous Leading civil engineer and one of the coastal engineering pioneers in the world الفي مرقس فانوس
    • Youssef Sidhom Prominent Journalist يوسف سيدهم
    • Onsi Sawiris Founder of Orascom Corp. and richest man in Egypt انسي ساويرس
    • Fayez Sarofim Billionaire Houston financier فايز صاروفيم
    • William Selim Hanna Minister of Housing (1952-54) Prominent Structural Engineer وليم سليم حنا
    • Salama Moussa Journalist, Reformer, Philosopher and Social Critic سلامه موسى

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 2095 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Coptic Christianity Amman User:Cybjorg/images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 2095 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Coptic Christianity Amman User:Cybjorg/images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Location of Amman within Jordan. ... Saint Abanoub of Nehesa (Abba Nob), the Child Saint and Martyr, was only twelve years old when he was martyred by the Roman ruler. ... Icon of St. ... St. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Saint Anthony the Great (251 - 356), also known as Saint Anthony of Egypt, Saint Anthony of the Desert, Saint Anthony the Anchorite, and The Father of All Monks, was an Egyptian Christian saint and the outstanding leader among the Desert Fathers, who were Christian monks in the Egyptian desert in... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) (c. ... St. ... St Kyrellos VI, 116th Pope of Alexandria His Holiness Pope Cyril (Kyrellos) VI of Alexandria, born Azer Ioseph Atta ( August 8, 1902 – March 9, 1971), was Coptic Orthodox Pope from 1959 to 1971. ... St Demiana and the Fourty Virgins the Martyrs her Companions Saint Demiana, the chaste and fighter virgin, was martyred on Tobi 13 ( January 22). ... Dioscorus (or Dioscurus) (died c. ... Mary of Egypt (344-421) is revered as a saint most particularly in the Orthodox Church, but also in the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... Coptic icon of St Menas the Wonder-worker St. ... Saint-Maurice may refer to: Saint-Maurice, a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Quebec Saint-Maurice, VS (Roman Agaunum) is a commune and a district in the Valais, Switzerland. ... St. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pachomius. ... Coptic Icon of St Parsoma Saint Parsoma the Naked, the great saint who was perfect in the love of God, departed on the 5th day of the Little Month (Koji Enavot) (10th of September) of the year 1033 A.M. Saint Parsoma was born in Misre (Cairo). ... Coptic icon of St. ... Coptic icon of St. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shenoute is considered to have been very austere as a person and an author of some of the best Coptic prose that has come down to us. ... Saint Simon the Tanner (Samaan, in Arabic) lived towards the end of the tenth century when Egypt was ruled by the Fatimid Caliph, Al-Muizz, and Abraham the Syrian was the Coptic Pope. ... Saint Takla Haymanot the Ethiopian Tekle Haymanot or Takla Haymanot (Geez ተክለ፡ ሃይማኖት takla hāymānōt, modern tekle hāymānōt, Plant of Faith; known in the Coptic Church as Saint Takla Haymanot of Ethiopia) (c. ... For other uses, see Verena von Strenge. ... HH Pope Shenouda III, 117th Pope of Alexandria and of the Apostolic See of St Mark His Holiness Pope Shenouda III, (August 3, 1923 – ), born Nazeer Gayed, is the 117th Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of the Holy See of Saint Mark of the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... Father Matta El Meskeen: Spiritual Father of the Monks in St. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... Monastery of St. ... Boutros Ghali (1846 - February 20, 1910) was a Egypt from 1908 to 1910. ... Boutros Boutros-Ghali CC (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي) (born 14 November 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Kamal Ramzi Stino (ar: كمال رمزي استينو) (also known as Dr. Ramzi Stino) was both the Agriculture Minister and Vice Prime Minister of Egypt under Nasser. ... Youssef Boutros Ghali is the Minister of Finance in Egypt since 2004. ... Naguib Mikhail Mahfouz was born on the January 5, 1882 in the city of Mansoura in the delta of Egypt. ... Sir Magdi Yacoub, the leading cardiologist in the world Sir Magdi Habib Yacoub was born on November 16th 1935 in Cairo, Egypt to a Coptic Orthodox family. ... Categories: People stubs | 1924 births | Art historians | Egyptian people ... Iconography has an organic link with Coptic theology indeed it is the other face and language in which its letters are being in harmony through colors and lines. ... Hany Guda Ramzy (born in March 3, 1969 in Cairo, Egypt) is the great egyptian international defender. ... Ester FanousEster Akhnoukh Fanous, also known as Ester Wissa (born February 19, 1895, Assiut, Egypt) was the daughter of doctor Akhnoukh Fanous and Balsam Wissa. ... Sally Bishai is a prolific Egyptian American writer who focuses on Middle Eastern culture, Americanization/assimilation issues, and Coptic issues. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Mr. ... Onsi Sawiris (Unsi Sawires, Arabic: أنسي ساويريس) is an Egyptian businessman, estimated to be worth approximatively $5. ... Fayez Sarofim is a Coptic Christian Egyptian-born naturalized US citizen and fund manager for a number of Janus stock funds. ... Salama Moussa (Arabic: سلامه موسى ) (1887 - 1958) was a famous writer and thinker of the Arab world. ...

See also

Copts in Egypt A Copt is a native Egyptian Christian (also see Coptic Christianity). ...   The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... Iconography has an organic link with Coptic theology indeed it is the other face and language in which its letters are being in harmony through colors and lines. ... Coptic is the most recent phase of ancient Egyptian. ... Coptic music is music that is played in the Coptic Orthodox Church (of Egypt). ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Coptic flag is a flag that is designed to represent all Coptic communities both inside Egypt and in the diaspora. ... Coptic Orphans Logo Coptic Orphans (CO) is a non-profit organization founded in 1989 with the goal of the long-term development of the physical and intellectual well being of children in Egypt. ... The following is a list of all the Coptic Popes who have led the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... Mark the Evangelist (43-63) Anianus (61-82) Avilius (83-95) Kedron (96-106) Primus (106-118) Justus (118-129) Eumenes (131-141) Mark II (142-152) Celadion (152-166) Agrippinus (167-178) Julian (178-189) Demetrius (189-232) Heraclas (232-248) Dionysius (248-264) Maximus (265-282) Theonas (282... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The 2005 Alexandria riot was an anti-Christian riot in the Egyptian port city of Alexandria. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links

Canonical hours are ancient divisions of time, developed by the Christian Church, serving as increments between the prescribed prayers of the daily round. ...

References

  1. ^ Holy Family in Egypt
  2. ^ Split of the Byzantine and Oriental Churches.
  3. ^ Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria.
  4. ^ Romanides, John S. Leo of Rome's Support of Theodoret.
  5. ^ Kamil, Jill (1997). Coptic Egypt: History and Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo.
  6. ^ Pope Theodoros II
  7. ^ World Council of Churches - News Release. 21 September, 2005.
  8. ^ Official Statements on Christology.

Bibliography

  • Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity by Dr. Otto F. A. Meinardus (368 pages - Cairo: AUC Press, 2002)
  • Traditional Egyptian Christianity: A History of the Coptic Orthodox Church by Rev. Fr. Prof. Theodore H. Partrick (226 pages - Fisher Park Press, 1996)
  • Story of the Church of Egypt - by Edith L Butcher (1897)
  • Selected Bibliography about Coptic Christianity
  • From Paris to Cairo: Resistance of the Unacculturated

  Results from FactBites:
 
Coptic Christianity (688 words)
Coptic Christianity is the indigenous Christianity that developed in Egypt in the 2nd century AD.
The Coptic Church is one of the Oriental Orthodox churches.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt is one of the Oriental Orthodox Churches.
Coptic Christianity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3422 words)
Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous Christianity of Egypt that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in the middle of the 1st century (approximately 42).
The Coptic Church regarded that the ousting of Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria in the council of Chalcedon was in part due to the rivalry between the Bishops of Alexandria and Rome.
Coptic Christians celebrate Christmas on the 7th of January which, since 2002, is an official national holiday in Egypt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m