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Encyclopedia > Copt
Copts
Aqba أقباط
ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙ'ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ 'ⲛ'Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ'ⲁⲛⲟⲥ
ni.Remenkīmi en Ekhristianos
Top row (left to right)
Saint Mary of EgyptBoutros Boutros GhaliEster FanousSaint Maurice
Bottom row (left to right)
Makram Pasha Ebeid • Meriam George • Saint Paul the Hermit and Saint Anthony the Great • Pope Cyril VI
Total population

8,000,000 to 18,000,000 (estimates vary) Venerable[2] Mary of Egypt (ca. ... Order: 6th Secretary-General Term of Office: January 1, 1992–December 31, 1996 Predecessor: Javier Pérez de Cuéllar Successor: Kofi Annan Born: November 14, 1922 Place of birth: Cairo, Egypt Died: Place of death: Boutros Boutros-Ghali (born November 14, 1922) was the sixth Secretary_General of the United Nations from... Ester FanousEster Akhnoukh Fanous, also known as Ester Wissa (born February 19, 1895, Assiut, Egypt) was the daughter of doctor Akhnoukh Fanous and Balsam Wissa. ... Saint-Maurice may refer to: Saint-Maurice, a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Quebec Saint-Maurice, VS (Roman Agaunum) is a commune and a district in the Valais, Switzerland. ... Makram Ebeid Pasha (Qina 1879 - Cairo 1961) was the most renowned Coptic politician in modern Egyptian history. ... Meriam George (born 1987 in Cairo, Egypt) was the official Pantene Miss Egypt 2005 titleholder, at age 18. ... Coptic icon of St. ... Saint Anthony the Great (c. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Egypt Egypt 7,500,000 - 16,600,000 (2008) [1]
Flag of the United States United States 300,000 - 1,000,000 [2]
Flag of Australia Australia 70,000+ (2003) [3] [4]
Flag of Kuwait Kuwait 65,000 [5]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 25,000 - 30,000 (2006) [6]
Flag of Canada Canada 25,000 (2008 est.) [7] [8]
Flag of Jordan Jordan 8,000+ (2005) [9]
Flag of Germany Germany 3,000 - 5,000 (2005) [10]
Flag of Austria Austria 2,000 (2001) [11]
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 1,000 (2004) [12]
Flag of France France
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
Flag of Brazil Brazil
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of Sudan Sudan
Flag of Bolivia Bolivia
Religions
Predominantly: Coptic Orthodox Christianity.
Minorities include: Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism
Scriptures
Bible
Languages
Liturgical: Coptic
In Egypt: Egyptian Arabic
In the diaspora: English, French, German and others
Part of the series on
Copts
ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙ'ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ
'ⲛ'Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ'ⲁⲛⲟⲥ
Culture

Architecture · Art · Calendar
Coptology · Cross · Fasting · Flag ·
History · Literature · Music · Monasticism
Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Coptic architecture is the architecture of the Copts, who form the majority of Christians in Egypt. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... Coptic is an adjective referring to the original inhabitants of Egypt, the Copts. ... Orginal Coptic cross The original Coptic cross has its origin in the Coptic ankh symbol and was adopted by early Christian Gnostics in Egypt. ... The Copts, the Christians of Egypt, who belong mostly to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, observe Fasting periods according to the Coptic Calendar. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Coptic flag was created in 2005 by Coptic activists in different countries to represent Coptic communities both in Egypt and in the diaspora. ... Coptic history is part of History of Egypt that begins with the introduction of Christianity in Egypt in the 1st century AD during the Roman period, and covers the history of the Copts to the present day. ... Coptic literature is the body of writings in the Coptic language of Egypt, the last stage of the indigenous Egyptian language. ... Coptic music is music that is played in the Coptic Orthodox Church (of Egypt). ...

Regions

Egypt · United States · Canada ·
Africa · Asia · Australia ·
Europe · South America
The word Copt signifies the natives of Egypt as a nationality, and in popular common culture in Egypt it is used to specifically signify Christian Egyptians, although its use to mean Egyptian is not unwitnessed. ... This article is about the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria in African countries other than Egypt. ... The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria has many churches and congregations in the continent of Asia As Egypt is the only Afro-Asian country then all the Coptic Orthodox Eparchies in the peninsula of Sinai are in Asia // Two Eparchies, each lead by a Bishop His Grace Kosman (Cosmas), Bishop... The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria has many churches and congregations in Europe and on 2 June 1974 His Holiness Pope Shenouda III has received in the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria a native Orthodox Church in France known as the French Orthodox Eparchy, along with their Primate, who in... Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria activities in South America started mainly in the 1990s, however the immigration of the Copts to South America started in the 1960s On Sunday 12 Februay 2006 His Holiness Pope Shenouda III consecrated Saint Mark Coptic Orthodox church in Sao Paolo , Brazil [1] On the...

Religions

Coptic Orthodox Church ·
Coptic Catholic Church ·
Coptic Evangelical Church ·
Other Protestants Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Evangelical Church of Egypt (Synod of the Nile), (in arabic El-Kanisah El-Injiliyah) and sometimes referred as the Coptic Evangelical Church of Egypt, started as a mission of the United Presbyterian Church of North America among Muslim and coptic Egyptians in the late Nineteenth century. ... The Coptic Evangelical Church (a Protestant Church) has between 750,000 and 800,000 members in Egypt. ...

Language

Egyptian language · Coptic language Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct (not spoken as a day-to-day language) by the 17th century. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...

Writing Systems

Hieroglyphs · Hieratic ·
Demotic · Coptic A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ... Demotic (from δημοτικά dimotika popular) refers to both the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Delta, as well as the stage of the Egyptian language following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. ... The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ...

v  d  e

A Copt (Coptic: ⲟⲩⲣⲉⲙ'ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ 'ⲛ'Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ'ⲁⲛⲟⲥ ou.Remenkīmi en.Ekhristianos, literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. Today, more than 95% of the Copts belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. The remaining (around 500,000) are divided between the Coptic Catholic and the Coptic Protestant churches. The Copts are by far the largest Christian community in North Africa and the Middle East. The word "Coptic" was originally used in Classical Arabic to refer to Egyptians in general (see etymology section), but it has undergone semantic shift over the centuries to mean more specifically Egyptian Christian after the bulk of the Egyptian population converted to Islam.[13] In modern usage, it is frequently applied to members of the Coptic Orthodox Church irrespective of ethnic origin. Thus Ethiopian and Eritrean Christians (and Nubians before their conversion to Islam) were traditionally referred to as Copts, though this has been falling out of use since their Tewahedo Churches were granted their own patriarchs. The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Semantic drift, in historical linguistics, is a phenomenon whereby words change in meaning over a period of time, resulting in semantic differences between cognates. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For the breed of goat of the same name, see Anglo-Nubian. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ...

Copts Around the world

The number of Copts in Egypt has been subject to some controversy. Coptic sources put forward figures ranging from 14% to 20% (between 10 and 15 million), but the Egyptian government insists that Copts represent about 6% (5 million) of the Egyptian population. Part of the controversy could be attributed to the increasing number of Copts born outside Egypt and who do not carry Egyptian passports. The number of Copts within Egypt may be very slowly declining due to higher emigration rates caused by harassment and discrimination at the hands of Islamist militants and the Egyptian government. Egyptian Copts have occasionally been on the receiving end of violent acts from Islamic extremist groups. Copts have leveled the accusation that the Egyptian government has sometimes been complicit or uncaring in the face of such incidents.[14] The 2006 World Factbook estimates that 7.6 million or 10% of Egyptians are Christian (9% Coptic and 1% other denominations).[15] This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ...

Contents

Etymology

The English word Copt is from New Latin Coptus, which is derived from Arabic qubṭi قبطي (pl: qubṭ قبط and aqbāṭ أقباط), an Arabisation of the Coptic word kubti (Bohairic) and/or kuptaion (Sahidic). This word is in turn derived from the Greek word Αἰγύπτιος, aiguptios: "Egyptian", from Αἴγυπτος, aiguptos: "Egypt". New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...

Hut-ka-Ptah
in hieroglyphs




The Greek term for "Egypt" has a long history. It goes back to the Mycenaean language (an early form of Greek) where the word a3-ku-pi-ti-jo (lit. "Egyptian"; used here as a man's name) was written in Linear B. This Mycenaean form is likely from Egyptian ḥwt-k3-ptḥ ("Hut-ka-Ptah"), literally "Estate (or 'House') of Ptah" (cf. Akkadian āluḫi-ku-up-ta-aḫ), the name of the temple complex of the god Ptah at Memphis. As the chief temple precinct of the capital of Egypt, the name was applied to the entire city of Memphis and ultimately to the country as a whole. A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Mycenaean is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, spoken on the Greek mainland and on Crete in the 16th to 11th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... Ptah also refers to the asteroid 5011 Ptah Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Ptah also refers to the asteroid 5011 Ptah Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... For other uses, see Memphis. ...


A similar situation is observed in the name Memphis [Greek Μέμφις], which comes from the Egyptian name of the pyramid complex of king Pepi II, mn nfr ppy (lit. "Established in Perfection or 'Beauty' is Pepy") at Saqqara but which was applied to the nearby capital city. Interestingly, this usage survived in Sahidic as Gupton and Kupton, meaning "Memphis". In modern Egyptian Arabic, Cairo is usually called Masr (Egyptian Arabic: مَصر), which is also the name of Egypt. A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... nomen or birth name Pepi II (c. ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


There is another theory which states that the Arabic word qibṭ "Copt" was an Arabisation of the Greek name of the town of Κόπτος Coptos (modern قفط Qifṭ; Coptic Kebt and Keft), but is generally no longer accepted. Qift (قفط) is a small town in the Qina governorate of Egypt about 43 km north of Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile. ...


References to Copts in the Coptic language are both Greek and Coptic in origin. The words kuptaion (Sahidic) and kubti (Bohairic) are attested, but are used in the surviving texts to refer to the language, rather than the people; these both derive from Greek Αἴγύπτιος aiguptios "Egyptian". The Coptic term for the word "Egyptian" is rem en kēme (Sahidic) ⲣⲙⲛⲕⲏⲙⲉ, lem en kēmi (Fayyumic), rem en khēmi (Bohairic) ⲣⲉⲙ'ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ , etc., literally "people of Egypt"; cf. Egyptian rmṯ n kmt, Demotic rmt n kmỉ. The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Demotic script on a replica of the Rosetta stone. ...


The etymological meaning of the word therefore pertains to all people of Egyptian origins, not only those who profess Coptic Orthodoxy. Medieval writers before the Mamluk period often used the words Copts (Arabic: قبط) and Egyptians (Arabic: مصريون) interchangeably to describe all the people of Egypt whether Christian or Muslim. After the bulk of the Egyptian population converted to Islam, the word Copt came to be associated with Egyptians who retained their Christianity. In the 20th century, some Egyptian nationalists and intellectuals began using the term Copts in the historical sense. For example, Markos Pasha Semeika, founder of the Coptic Museum, addressed a group of Egyptian students in these words: "All of you are Copts. Some of you are Muslim Copts, others are Christian Copts, but all of you are descended from the Ancient Egyptians".[16] Etymologies redirects here. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Coptic Museum The Coptic Museum is a museum in Coptic Cairo, Egypt with the largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world. ...


History

Coptic icon of St. Mark

The Copts are one of the oldest Christian communities in the Middle East. Although integrated in the larger Egyptian nation, the Copts have survived as a distinct religious community forming today between 10 and 20 percent of the native population. They pride themselves on the apostolicity of the Egyptian Church whose founder was the first in an unbroken chain of patriarchs. Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... Image File history File links StMarkcoptic. ... Image File history File links StMarkcoptic. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Foundation of the Egyptian Christian Church

According to ancient tradition, Christianity was introduced to the Egyptians by Saint Mark in Alexandria, shortly after the ascension of Christ and during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero. The legacy that Saint Mark left in Egypt was a considerable Christian community in Alexandria. From Alexandria, Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of Saint Mark's arrival in Alexandria, as is clear from a fragment of the Gospel of John, written in Coptic, which was found in Upper Egypt and can be dated to the first half of the second century, and the New Testament writings found in Oxyrhynchus, in Middle Egypt, which date around the year 200 A.D. In the second century, Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, and scriptures were translated into the local language, today known as the Coptic language (which was called the Egyptian language at the time). By the beginning of the 3rd century A.D., Christians constituted the majority of Egypt’s population, and the Church of Alexandria was recognized as one of Christendom's four Apostolic Sees, second in honor only to the Church of Rome.[17] The Church of Alexandria is therefore the oldest church in Africa. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Oxyrhynchus (Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important ever discovered. ... Middle Egypt refers to the northern section of Upper Egypt, stretching from El-Aiyat in the north to Asyut in the south. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Contributions to Christianity

The Egyptians contributed immensely to the formation of the worldwide Christian mind. To name a few examples, the Catechetical School of Alexandria was the oldest catechetical school in the world. Founded around 190 A.D. by the scholar Pantanaeus, the school of Alexandria became an important institution of religious learning, where students were taught by scholars such as Athenagoras, Clement, Didymus, and the great Origen, who was considered the father of theology and who was also active in the field of commentary and comparative Biblical studies. However, the scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects; science, mathematics and humanities were also taught there. The question-and-answer method of commentary began there, and 15 centuries before Braille, wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read and write. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... By A.D. 185 Pantanaeus was teaching at Alexandria. ... Athenagoras (circa 133-190) was a Christian apologist of the second half of the 2nd century of whom little is known for certain, besides that he was Athenian (though possibly not originally from Athens), a philosopher, and a convert to Christianity. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Didymus (?309-?394), surnamed the Blind, was an ecclesiastical writer of Alexandria, was born about the year 309. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... Listen to this article ( info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision dated 2006-09-06, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


Another major contribution made by the Egyptians to Christianity was the creation and organization of monasticism. The most prominent figures of the monastic movement were Anthony the Great, Paul of Thebes, Macarius the Great, Shenouda the Archimandrite and Pachomius the Cenobite. By the end of the fifth century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered throughout the Egyptian desert. Worldwide Christian monasticism stems, either directly or indirectly, from the Egyptian example. Thus, Saint Basil the Great Archbishop of Caesarea Mazaca, and the founder and organiser of the monastic movement in Asia Minor, visited Egypt around 357 A.D. and his monastic rules are followed by the Eastern Orthodox Churches; Saint Jerome, who translated the Bible into Latin, came to Egypt while en route to Jerusalem around 400 A.D. and left details of his experiences in his letters; and Saint Benedict founded the Benedictine Order in the sixth century on the model of Saint Pachomius, although in a stricter form. Countless pilgrims have visited the Egyptian Desert Fathers to emulate their spiritual, disciplined lives. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Saint Anthony the Great (c. ... Coptic icon of St. ... For the genus of jumping spider, see Pachomius (spider). ... Basil (ca. ... Caesarea Mazaca (modern Kayseri) is an ancient town of Anatolia which served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Saint-Jérôme, Quebec is a town in Quebec, near Mirabel, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northwest of Montreal along Autoroute des Laurentides. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Saint Benedict redirects here. ... The longest lasting of the western Catholic monastic orders, the Benedictine Order traces its origins to the adoption of the monastic life by St. ... Pachomius, who died around AD 345 in Tabennisi, Egypt, was one of the founders of Christian monasticism. ... The Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits who lived in the Sahara desert of Egypt, beginning in about the third century. ...


The Ecumenical Councils

The Egyptians also played a major role in the first three Ecumenical councils. Thus, the Council of Nicaea (325 AD) was presided over by Pope Alexander of Alexandria, along with Saint Hosius of Córdoba. In addition, the most prominent figure of the council was the future Pope of Alexandria Athanasius, who played the major role in the formulation of the Nicene Creed, recited today in all Christian churches of different denominations. One of the council's decisions was to entrust the Pope of Alexandria with calculating and annually announcing the exact date of Easter to the rest of the Christian churches. The Council of Constantinople (381 AD) was presided over by Pope Timothy of Alexandria, while the Council of Ephesus (431 AD) was presided over by Pope Cyril of Alexandria. Undoubtedly, the fact that the first three Ecumenical councils in the history of Christianity were headed by Egyptian patriarchs attested to the major contributions that the See of Alexandria has contributed to the establishment of early Christian theology and dogma. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... St. ... Hosius, or Osius (c. ... It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... A deputation from the Roman Senate delivers to Gratianus the robe of the Pontifex Maximus, which had been worn by every Roman Emperor since Augustus. ... Timothy served as Patriarch of Alexandria (head of the church that became the Coptic Church and the Orthodox Church of Alexandria) between 380 and 385. ... Cyril of Alexandria The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). ... Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ... St. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Council of Chalcedon

In 451 A.D., following the Council of Chalcedon, the Church of Alexandria was divided into two branches. Those who accepted the terms of the Council became known as Chalcedonians or Melkites. Those who did not abide by the Council's terms were labeled non-Chalcedonians or Monophysites (and later Jacobites after Jacob Baradaeus). The non-Chalcedonians, however, rejected the term Monophysites as erroneous and insisted on being called Miaphysites. The majority of the Egyptians belonged to the Miaphysite branch, which led to their persecution by the Byzantines in Egypt. Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... The Chalcedonian churches are those Christian churches who follow the Christological teachings of the Council of Chalcedon, in contradistinction to Nestorians, Monophysites and Monothelites. ... The term Melkite (also written Melchite) is used to refer to various Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keep the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus - and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Jacobus Baradaeus or James Baradaeus (other spellings of his surname include Al Baradai, Burdoho, Burdeono, Burdeana, or Burdeaya, also Phaselita, or Zanzalus), was ordained by the Monophysite bishop of Edessa (c. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keep the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus - and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ...


The Arab Invasion of Egypt

In 641 A.D., Egypt was invaded by the Arabs who faced off with the Byzantine army, but found little to no resistance from the native Egyptian population. Local resistance by the Egyptians however began to materialize shortly thereafter and would last until at least the ninth century.[18][19] Examples include the Revolt of the Beshmorites, a large-scale national resistance staged in the mid-eighth century in the Nile Delta. It was crushed by Marwan II, the Umayyad caliph. The last large-scale armed resistance of the Egyptians against the Arabs was towards the mid ninth century, which was brutally crushed by Al-Ma'mun, the Abbasid caliph. Local resistances against the Arabs and the Muslims remained through the 12th century, such as the 1176 revolt of the Christian inhabitants of Qift, which was promptly suppressed by Al-Adil, brother of Saladin, who hanged nearly 3000 Copts on the trees around the city. Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... Qift (قفط) is a small town in the Qina governorate of Egypt about 43 km north of Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile. ... Al-Adil I (1145-1218) (Arabic: ‎, in full al-Malik al-Adil Sayf al-Din Abu-Bakr ibn Ayyub, Arabic: ‎) was an Ayyubid-Egyptian general and ruler of Kurdish descent. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ...


The Arabs imposed a special tax, known as Jizya, on the Christians who acquired the status of dhimmis, and all native Egyptians were prohibited from joining the army. Egyptian converts to Islam in turn were relegated to the status of mawali. Heavy taxation was one of the reasons behind Egyptian organized resistance against the new occupying power, as well as the decline of the number of Christians in Egypt. Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ... Mawali is a term in ancient Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims. In the second half of the sixth century, the Malawi were considered the third class in society with the Sayyids at the top followed by the free tribesmen. ...

More than seven million Egyptians follow the Christian faith as members of the Coptic Church.
More than seven million Egyptians follow the Christian faith as members of the Coptic Church.

The Arabs in the 7th century seldom used the term Egyptian, and used instead the term Copt to describe the people of Egypt. Thus, Egyptians became known as Copts, and the non-Chalcedonian Egyptian Church became known as the Coptic Church. The Chalcedonian Church remained known as the Melkite Church. In their own native language, Egyptians referred to themselves as rem-en-kimi, which translates into those of Egypt. Religious life remained largely undisturbed following the Arab occupation, as evidence by the rich output of Coptic arts in monastic centers in Old Cairo (Fustat) and throughout Egypt. Conditions, however, worsened shortly after that, and in the eighth and ninth centuries, during the period of the great national resistance against the Arabs, Muslim rulers banned the use of human forms in art (taking advantage of an iconoclastic conflict in Byzantium) and consequently destroyed many Coptic paintings and frescoes in churches.[20] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (853x1280, 589 KB) Hanging Church inside Old Cairo, Cairo, Egypt. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (853x1280, 589 KB) Hanging Church inside Old Cairo, Cairo, Egypt. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The term Melkite (also written Melchite) is used to refer to various Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. ... A drawing of Fustat, from Rappoports History of Egypt Fustat (Arabic: ‎), also spelled Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Arab rule. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


The Fatimid period of Islamic rule in Egypt was tolerant with the exception of the violent persecutions of caliph Al-Hakim. The Fatimid rulers employed Copts in the government and participated in Coptic and local Egyptian feasts. Major renovation and reconstruction of churches and monasteries were also undertaken. Coptic arts flourished, reaching new heights in Middle and Upper Egypt.[21] Persecution of Egyptian Christians, however, reached a peak in the early Mamluk period following the Crusader wars. Many forced conversions of Christians took place. Monasteries were occasionally raided and destroyed by marauding Bedouin, but were rebuilt and reopened. The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Al-Hakim is one of the names of Allah and may also refer to Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah -- a Fatimid caliph Abdel-Aziz al-Hakim -- a Iraq, a President of Governing Council (2003) after the USA intervention in Iraq. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... This article is about historical Crusades . ...


Copts in modern Egypt

The position of the Copts did not begin to improve until the rule of Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century, who abolished the Jizya and allowed Egyptians (Copts as well as Muslims) to enroll in the army. Conditions continued to improve throughout the nineteenth century under the leadership of the great reformer Pope Cyril IV, and in the first half of the twentieth century (known as the Golden Age by the Copts) during Egypt's liberal period. Copts participated in the Egyptian national movement for independence and occupied many influential positions. Two significant cultural achievements include the founding of the Coptic Museum in 1910 and the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies in 1954. Some prominent Coptic thinkers from this period are Salama Moussa, Louis Awad and Secretary General of the Wafd Party Makram Ebeid. Following the 1952 coup d'état by the Free Officers, the conditions of the Copts have been slowly deteriorating and their human rights are often consistently violated. This article is about the leader of Egypt. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Icon of HH Pope St. ... Coptic Museum The Coptic Museum is a museum in Coptic Cairo, Egypt with the largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world. ... Salama Moussa (Arabic: سلامه موسى ) (1887 - 1958) was a famous writer and thinker of the Arab world. ... In post-World War I Egypt, the term wafd refers to a delegation, and more specifically the one that had the direct goal of achieving the complete and total independence of Egypt. ... Makram Ebeid Pasha (Qina 1879 - Cairo 1961) was the most renowned Coptic politician in modern Egyptian history. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In Egypt, the clandestine revolutionary Free Officers Movement was founded by Colonel Gamal Abdul Nasser in the aftermath of Egypts sense of national disgrace from the War of 1948. ...


Today, members of the non-Chalcedonian Coptic Orthodox Church constitute the majority of the Egyptian Christian population. Mainly through emigration and partly through European, American, and other missionary work and conversions, the Egyptian Christian community now also includes other Christian denominations such as Protestants (known in Arabic as Evangelicals), Roman and Eastern Rite Catholics, and other Orthodox congregations. The term Coptic remains exclusive however to the Egyptian natives, as opposed to the Christians of non-Egyptian origins. Some Protestant churches for instance are called "Coptic Evangelical Church", thus helping differentiate their native Egyptian congregations from churches attended by non-Egyptian immigrant communities such as Europeans or Americans. The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keep the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus - and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


In 2005 a group of Coptic activists created a flag to represent Copts worldwide[22]. This flag is not officially recognized by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Flag ratio: 2:3 The Coptic flag was created in 2005 by Coptic activists in different countries to represent Coptic communities both in Egypt and in the diaspora. ...


Human rights

Coptic priests and deacons during prayer

The religious freedom of Egypt's Coptic community is hampered to varying degrees by extremist Islamist groups and by discriminatory and restrictive government policies. Copts have faced increasing marginalization after the 1952 coup d'état led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. Until recently, Christians were required to obtain presidential approval for even minor repairs in churches. Although the law was eased in 2005 by handing down the authority of approval to the governors, Copts continue to face many obstacles in building new or repairing existing churches. These obstacles are not found in building mosques.[23][24] This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coup redirects here. ... Nasser redirects here. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Boutros Boutros-Ghali is a Copt who served as Egypt's acting foreign minister twice under President Anwar Sadat (1977 and 1978 - 1979).[25] Although Boutros Boutros-Ghali later became the United Nations Secretary-General, his appointment as an only acting foreign minister depicted Egypt's systematic elimination of Copts from all governmental influential positions. Today, only two Copts are on Egypt's governmental cabinet: Finance Minister Youssef Boutros Ghali and Environment Minister Magued George. There is also currently one Coptic governor out of 25, that of the Upper Egyptian governorate of Qena, and the first Coptic governor in a few decades. In addition, Naguib Sawiris, an extremely successful businessman and one of the world's 100 wealthiest people, is a Copt. In 2002, under the Mubarak government, Coptic Christmas (January 7) was recognized as an official holiday.[26] Nevertheless, the Coptic community has occasionally been the target of hate crimes and physical assaults. The most significant was the 2000-2001 El Kosheh attacks, in which 21 Copts and 1 Muslim were killed. A 2006 attack on three churches in Alexandria left one dead and 17 injured.[27] In addition, many Copts continue to complain of being minimally represented in law enforcement, state security and public office, and of being discriminated against in the workforce on the basis of their religion.[28][29] Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي, Coptic: Î’OΥΤΡΟC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي, Coptic: Î’OΥΤΡΟC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... The word Copt signifies the natives of Egypt as a nationality, and in popular common culture in Egypt it is used to specifically signify Christian Egyptians, although its use to mean Egyptian is not unwitnessed. ... Youssef Boutros Ghali is the Minister of Finance in Egypt since 2004. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Location of Qena on the map of Egypt. ... ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Hosni Mubarak, President of Egypt Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic : محمد حسنى سيد مبارك ) (born May 4, 1928) commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ) has been the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt for twenty-four years, since 14 October 1981. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... The word Copt signifies the natives of Egypt as a nationality, and in popular common culture in Egypt it is used to specifically signify Christian Egyptians, although its use to mean Egyptian is not unwitnessed. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article is about the year. ... The word Copt signifies the natives of Egypt as a nationality, and in popular common culture in Egypt it is used to specifically signify Christian Egyptians, although its use to mean Egyptian is not unwitnessed. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The word Copt signifies the natives of Egypt as a nationality, and in popular common culture in Egypt it is used to specifically signify Christian Egyptians, although its use to mean Egyptian is not unwitnessed. ...


Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Egyptian constitution, and Egyptians who convert to Islam face no complications. However, Egyptians converting from Islam to Christianity or any other religion face great troubles with the government including arrest and being tortured by the National Security "Amn El-Dawla" officers to force them to deny their new faith, as the Coptic file is considered, by the governmental authorities, a national security issue. Public officials, being conservative themselves, intensify the complexity of the legal procedures required to recognize the religion change as required by law. Security agencies claim that such conversions from Islam to Christianity may stir social unrest, and therefore take steps to prevent it from happening sometimes by detaining the subjects.[30][31] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Language

Main article: Coptic language

The Coptic language is the last stage of the Egyptian language. The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct (not spoken as a day-to-day language) by the 17th century. ...

"Coptic should more correctly be used to refer to the script rather than the language itself. Even though this script was introduced as far back as the 1st century BC, it is usually applied to the writing of the Egyptian language from the first century AD to the present day."[32]

Today, Coptic is the liturgical language of the Egyptian Church and is also taught in Egypt and worldwide in many prestigious institutions. A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ...


Dialects of Coptic language:

Coptic is the most recent phase of ancient Egyptian. ... Two important places in antiquity were called Thebes: Thebes, Greece – Thebes of the Seven Gates; one-time capital of Boeotia. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for an encyclopedia. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for an encyclopedia. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for an encyclopedia. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for an encyclopedia. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for an encyclopedia. ...

Calendar

Main article: Coptic calendar

The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and also by Ethiopia as its official calendar (with different names). This calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar. To avoid the calendar creep of the latter, a reform of the ancient Egyptian calendar was introduced at the time of Ptolemy III (Decree of Canopus, in 238 BC) which consisted of the intercalation of a sixth epagomenal day every fourth year. However, this reform was opposed by the Egyptian priests, and the idea was not adopted until 25 BC, when the Roman Emperor Augustus formally reformed the calendar of Egypt, keeping it forever synchronized with the newly introduced Julian calendar. To distinguish it from the Ancient Egyptian calendar, which remained in use by some astronomers until medieval times, this reformed calendar is known as the Coptic calendar. Its years and months coincide with those of the Ethiopian calendar but have different numbers and names. The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... The ancient civil Egyptian Calendar, known as the Annus Vagus or Wandering Year, had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. ... Ptolemy III Euergetes I, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (246 BC-222 BC). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 243 BC 242 BC 241 BC 240 BC 239 BC - 238 BC - 237 BC 236 BC... Intercalation is the insertion of a leap day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Ethiopian calendar (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ), also called the Geez calendar, is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and is also the liturgical year of Christians in Eritrea belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, Eastern Catholic Church of Eritrea and Lutheran (Evangelical Church of Eritrea), where it is commonly known...


Coptic year

Coptic Orthodox Cross with traditional Coptic script reading: 'Jesus Christ, the Son of God'
Coptic Orthodox Cross with traditional Coptic script reading: 'Jesus Christ, the Son of God'

The Coptic year is the extension of the ancient Egyptian civil year, retaining its subdivision into the three seasons, four months each. The three seasons are commemorated by special prayers in the Coptic Liturgy. This calendar is still in use all over Egypt by farmers to keep track of the various agricultural seasons. The Coptic calendar has 13 months, 12 of 30 days each and an intercalary month at the end of the year of 5 or 6 days, depending whether the year is a leap year or not. The year starts on 29 August in the Julian Calendar or on the 30th in the year before (Julian) Leap Years. The Coptic Leap Year follows the same rules as the Julian Calendar so that the extra month always has six days in the year before a Julian Leap Year. Image File history File links CopticCross. ... Image File history File links CopticCross. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ...


The Feast of Neyrouz marks the first day of the Coptic year. Its celebration falls on the 1st day of the month of Thout, the first month of the Coptic year, which for AD 1901 to 2098 usually coincides with 11 September, except before a Gregorian leap year when it's September 12. Coptic years are counted from AD 284, the year Diocletian became Roman Emperor, whose reign was marked by tortures and mass executions of Christians, especially in Egypt. Hence, the Coptic year is identified by the abbreviation A.M. (for Anno Martyrum or "Year of the Martyrs"). The A.M. abbreviation is also used for the unrelated Jewish year (Anno Mundi). Thout also known as Tout is the first month of the Coptic calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ...


Every fourth Coptic year is a leap year without exception, as in the Julian calendar, so the above mentioned new year dates apply only between AD 1900 and 2099 inclusive in the Gregorian Calendar. In the Julian Calendar, the new year is always 29 August, except before a Julian leap year when it's August 30. Easter is reckoned by the Julian Calendar in the Old Calendarist way. Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


To obtain the Coptic year number, subtract from the Julian year number either 283 (before the Julian new year) or 284 (after it).


More Information on the Coptic Calendar

See also: Computus

Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ...

Prominent Copts

Many Copts are internationally renowned. Some of the most well known Copts include Boutros Boutros-Ghali the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations, Sir Magdi Yacoub an internationally renowned heart surgeon, Hani Azer, a world leading civil engineer, and billionaire Fayez Sarofim, one of the richest men in America and the world. Boutros Boutros-Ghali This is a list of prominent Copts Origen This is a list of prominent Copts. ... Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي, Coptic: ΒOΥΤΡΟC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Sir Magdi Yacoub, the leading cardiologist in the world Sir Magdi Habib Yacoub was born on November 16th 1935 in Cairo, Egypt to a Coptic Orthodox family. ... Hani Azer (1948- ) is an Egyptian engineer of Coptic descent. ... Fayez Sarofim is a Coptic Christian Egyptian-born naturalized US citizen and fund manager for a number of Janus stock funds. ...


Related words

  • From the Greek word Αίγυπτος "Aiguptos" or "Aigyptos", the name for Egypt in many European languages was derived.
  • The word qabāṭī قباطي, a kind of textile import from Egypt and which was used to cover the Kaaba since before Islam, is derived from Arabic قبط qubṭ.
  • The English word gypsy is derived from the Middle English egypcien meaning "Egyptian". Likewise, the Spanish word gitano, also meaning gypsy, derives from a common Latin source. This is due to the mistaken belief that Gypsies were of Egyptian origin. Gypsy and the (probably) related term, gyp ("to swindle or cheat") are generally viewed as being pejorative; see the article Roma (people).
  • In modern Egyptian Arabic, the word koftes (pl. kafatsa), is a pejorative word used colloquially to refer to Christians. It is perhaps an Egyptianised form of the Latin Coptus, under phonetic and linguistic factors different from those which existed when qubṭ was derived from Greek aiguptios. This, however, seems unlikely.
  • Medieval sources mention one of the sons of Mitzrayim, who in turn descended from the Biblical Noah, as a possible source for the word 'Copt'.

For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Egyptian Arabic (Marī مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ...

See also

This article is about the Aegyptus from Egyptian mythology. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Egypt was one of the first countries to know Christianity and the Copts belive in Christianty goes back to the first cetury A.D. Coptic saints have been a part of history of Christianity since its beginings and a lot of them are recognised by other Churches like the Catholic... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Coptic flag was created in 2005 by Coptic activists in different countries to represent Coptic communities both in Egypt and in the diaspora. ... Egyptian Americans are Americans of Egyptian ancestry, first-generation Egyptian immigrants, or descendants of Egyptians who immigrated to the U.S. One large community of Egyptian Americans is located in northeastern Virginia, in the Washington DC metropolitan area. ... Coptic is an adjective referring to the original inhabitants of Egypt, the Copts. ... Coptic Museum The Coptic Museum is a museum in Coptic Cairo, Egypt with the largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world. ...

References

  • Courbage, Youssef and Phillipe Fargues. Judy Mabro (Translator) Christians and Jews Under Islam, 1997.
  • Denis, E. (2000). Cent ans de localisation de la population chrétienne égyptienne. Astrolabe(2).
  • Kamil, Jill. Coptic Egypt: History and a Guide. Revised Ed. Amrican University in Cairo Press, 1990.
  • The Coptic Calendar by Bishoy K. R. Dawood (1.29MB pdf file – historical development and technical discussion)
  • An introduction to the Coptic calendar (Gregorian equivalents are valid only between 1900 and 2099)
  • The Orthodox Ecclesiastical Calendar
  • Ancient Egyptian Calendar and Coptic Calendar

Footnotes

  1. ^ Official population counts put the number of Copts at around 6% of the population, while some Coptic voices claim figures as high as 15 to 20%. While some scholars defend the soundness of the official population census (cf. E.J.Chitham, The Coptic Community in Egypt. Spatial and Social Change, Durham 1986), most scholars and international observers assume that the Christian share of Egypt's population is higher than stated by the Egyptian government. Most independent estimates fall within range between 9% and 20%, for example the CIA World Factbook [1], or the Washington Institute [2]. For a projected 83,000,000+ Egyptians in 2008, this assumption yields the above figures.
  2. ^ According to the National Council of Churches of the U.S.A., the Coptic Orthodox Church has at least 300,000 members (as of the year 2000), [3] while US-Coptic Associations indicate 700,000 - 1,000,000 [4].
  3. ^ In the year 2003, there was an estimated 70,000 Copts in New South Wales alone: - Parliamentary Debates, Parliament of NSW - Legislative Council, 12 November 2003, page Page: 4772: - Coptic Orthodox Church (NSW) Property Trust Amendment Bill
  4. ^ The Coptic Orthodox Diocese of Sydney & its Affiliated Regions - Under the Guidance of His Grace Bishop Daniel
  5. ^ Kuwait
  6. ^ Copts number at least 20,000 in Britain [5] plus another 5,000 - 10,000 Copts who are directly under the British Orthodox Church (1999 figures)
  7. ^ Census — Growth rate from 1991 to 2001
  8. ^ Christian religious data from Canada
  9. ^ King commends Coptic Church's role in promoting coexistence
  10. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_Germany#Orthodoxy
  11. ^ Austria 2004 Religious Freedom news
  12. ^ Orthodox Copts open church in Switzerland
  13. ^ "The people of Egypt before the Arab conquest in the 7th century identified themselves and their language in Greek as Aigyptios (Arabic qibt, Westernized as Copt); when Egyptian Muslims later ceased to call themselves Aigyptioi, the term became the distinctive name of the Christian minority." Coptic Orthodox Church. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007
  14. ^ Imad Boles, Egypt - Persecution: Disappearing Christians of the Middle East, Middle East Quarterly (Winter 2001).
  15. ^ CIA World Factbook. Egyptian people section
  16. ^ qtd. in M. Hussein. el Ittigahat el Wataneyya fil Adab el Muʻaṣir [National Trends in Modern Literature]. Vol. 2. Cairo, 1954
  17. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentarchy
  18. ^ Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar (2 vols., Bulaq, 1854), by Al-Maqrizi
  19. ^ Chronicles, by John of Nikiû
  20. ^ Kamil, p. 41
  21. ^ Kamil, op cit.
  22. ^ The Free Copts - The Coptic Flag, Meanings and Colors
  23. ^ WorldWide Religious News. Church Building Regulations Eased. December 13, 2005.
  24. ^ Compass Direct News. Church Building Regulations Eased. December 13, 2005.
  25. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_Minister_of_Egypt
  26. ^ ArabicNews.com. Copts welcome Presidential announcement on Eastern Christmas Holiday. December 20, 2002.
  27. ^ BBC. Egypt church attacks spark anger, 15 April 2006.
  28. ^ Freedom House. Egypt's Endangered Christians.
  29. ^ Human Rights Watch. Egypt: Overview of human rights issues in Egypt. 2005
  30. ^ Egypt: Egypt Arrests 22 Muslim converts to Christianity. 3 November, 2003
  31. ^ EGYPT: NATIONAL UNITY AND THE COPTIC ISSUE. 2004
  32. ^ Hany N. Takla, History of Coptic Language

Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 - 1442); Arabic: ‎, was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. ... John of Nikiû was a Coptic bishop of Nikiû/Pashati in the Egyptian Delta and appointed general administrator of the monsteries of Upper Egypt in 696. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Coptic Cairo
  • Coptic Orthodox Church Network
  • Copts
  • Copts United
  • Free Copts
  • Coptic Museum
  • In Search of the Lost Egyptian Identity
  • Egypt's Copts After Kosheh
  • Egypt: Minorities and the State
  • International Religious Freedom Report: Egypt
  • United Copts of Great Britain
  • Coptic Orthodox Church in Denmark
  • Coptic Orthodox Church French texts
  • AM Coptic Association
  • Association des Coptes d'Europe Coptic Association of Europe.
  • Coptic Christians of Egypt- German Site
  • Coptic texts and manuscripts at Leiden University Library

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia Coptica: The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church Of Egypt (3365 words)
Copts believe that the Lord is perfect in His divinity, and He is perfect in His humanity, but His divinity and His humanity were united in one nature called "the nature of the incarnate word", which was reiterated by Saint Cyril of Alexandria.
Copts, thus, believe in two natures "human" and "divine" that are united in one "without mingling, without confusion, and without alteration" (from the declaration of faith at the end of the Coptic divine liturgy).
Copts take pride in the persecution they have sustained as early as May 8, 68 A.D., when their Patron Saint Mark was slain on Easter Monday after being dragged from his feet by Roman soldiers all over Alexandria's streets and alleys.
Copt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1758 words)
A Copt is a native Egyptian Christian, particularly one of the Coptic Orthodox faith.
Copts previously included Ethiopian and Eritrean Christians until their churches were granted their own Patriarchs.
Today, the Copts belong to three main churches: the Coptic Orthodox Church (the majority), the Coptic Catholic Church, and the Coptic Protestant Church.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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