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Encyclopedia > Copper Scroll

The Copper Scroll is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others. While they are written on leather or papyrus, this scroll is written on metal: copper mixed with about 1% tin. Unlike the others, it is not a literary work, but contains a listing of locations at which various items of gold and silver are buried or hidden. It is currently on display at the Archaeological Museum in Amman, Jordan. The treasure it describes is worth at least one billion dollars.[1] Image File history File links Information. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Shortcut: WP:CU Marking articles for cleanup This page is undergoing a transition to an easier-to-maintain format. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls (Hebrew: מגילות ים המלח) comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has, however, generally come to identify a collection of texts. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... Location of Amman Amman (Arabic عمان ʿAmmān), the capital of the Kingdom of Jordan, is a city of more than 1. ...

Contents

History and origin

The scroll was found in 1952 in Cave 3 at Qumran[2], the last of 15, and is thus referred to as 3Q15.[3] Two copper rolls were discovered off by themselves in the back of the cave. The metal being corroded, they could not be unrolled by conventional means. Professor H. Wright Baker, of the College of Technology at Manchester, England, cut the sheets into strips. It then became clear that the rolls were part of the same document. Low-quality photographs of the scrolls were taken and published. Scholars have found these to be difficult to work with, and have relied on a drawing of the text by scholar Józef Milik published in 1962. Another scholar, John Marco Allegro, published his translation in 1960. The scroll was rephotographed in 1988 with clearer precision, under an effort led by P. Kyle McCarter, Jr. 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... See corrosive for the hazard. ... UMISTs Main Building from Whitworth Street. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen (King) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Józef Tadeusz Milik (March 24, 1922 - January 6, 2006) was a Polish Catholic priest and Biblical scholar who worked in Jerusalem in the 1950s on deciphering the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... John Marco Allegro (17 February 1923 - 17 February 1988) was a controversial archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Writing style

The style of writing is unusual, different from the other scrolls. It is written in a style similar to Mishnaic Hebrew. There is an unusual orthography, and the script has the features resulting from someone writing on copper with a stylus. There is also the anomaly that seven of the names of locations are followed by a group of two or three Greek letters. The text is a listing of sixty-four locations; sixty-three of which are treasures of gold and silver, which have been estimated in the tons. The final listing points to a duplicate document with additional details. Some scholars believe that this document could be the Silver Scroll - a scroll which archaeologists are still searching for in the Israeli desert. The Mishnah ( Hebrew משנה, Repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ... Modern stylus, used for touch-screen enabled devices such as the Nintendo DS and personal digital assistants Styli used in writing in the Fourteenth Century. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ...


Scholars hold that the text was perhaps copied from another original document by an illiterate scribe who did not speak the language in which the scroll was written. Perhaps this was done so that the secrecy of the content of the text would be preserved. This scribe made a total of about thirty errors or mistakes in the copying of the text, mistakes that someone familiar with the original language would not have made.[citation needed]


The listings are a challenge to decipher. They contain city and street names. Only one of the treasures has been unearthed - a vase of anointing oil that dates back to the time of the First or Second Tabernacle and may have been used in ceremonial blessings in Jerusalem.


There is some dispute, however, that the Cave of Letters might have contained one of the listed treasures [1], and if the artifacts from this location may have been recovered. Although the scroll was obviously made of alloyed copper in order to last, the locations are written as if the reader would have an intimate knowledge of obscure references — e.g., "In the irrigation cistern(?) of the Shaveh, in the outlet that is in it, buried at eleven cubits: 70 talents of silver" (from Allegro's translation), or "In the cave that is next to the fountain belonging to the House of Hakkoz, dig six cubits. (There are) six bars of gold" (from McCarter's translation). The Cave of Letters is a cave located in the Dead Sea area that contained one of the largest caches of ancient documents and personal correspondence ever discovered in the land of Israel. ... Hakkoz or Koz was a priest of ancient Israel after the order of Aaron, during the reign of King David in the 10th century BCE. Hakkoz lead the seventh of the 24 priestly divisions. ...


Claims

The treasure of the scroll has been assumed to be treasure of the Jewish Temple, presumably the Second Temple. Professor McCarter makes a tentative identification of one location, found on the property of the "House of Hakkoz", with the family of Hakkoz being treasurers of the rebuilt Temple, following the return from Babylon, as listed in the Biblical Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. The theories of the origin of the treasure were broken down by Theodor H. Gaster: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... A stone (2. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... Site traditionally described as the tomb of Ezra at Al Uzayr near Basra. ... Nehemiah or Nechemya (נְחֶמְיָה Comforted of/is the LORD (YHWH), Standard Hebrew Nəḥemya, Tiberian Hebrew Nəḥemyāh, ) is a major figure in the post-exile history of the Jews as recorded in the Bible, and is believed to be the primary author of the Book of Nehemiah. ... Theodor Herzl Gaster (1906 - 1992) was an American Biblical scholar known for work on comparative religion, mythology and the history of religions. ...

  • First, the treasure could be that of the Qumran community. The difficulty here is that the community is assumed to be an ascetic brotherhood, with which vast treasures are difficult to reconcile.
  • Secondly, the treasure could be that of the Second Temple. However, Gaster cites Josephus as stating that the main treasure of the Temple was still in the building when it fell to the Romans, and also that other Qumranic texts appear to be too critical of the priesthood of the Temple for their authors to have been close enough to take away their treasures for safekeeping.
  • Thirdly, the treasure could be that of the First Temple, destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, in 586 BC. This would not seem to fit with the character of the other scrolls, unless perhaps the scroll was left in a cave during the Babylonian Exile, possibly with a small community of caretakers who were precursors of the Dead Sea Scrolls community.
  • Fourthly, Gaster's own favourite theory is that the treasure is a hoax. If so, it is an elaborate hoax by an ancient people not known primarily for their sense of humor.

The idea of ancient, lost, hidden treasures in the Holy Land is not without fascination. The Second Book of Maccabees describes the prophet Jeremiah bringing the Ark of the Covenant and other items to be hidden in a cave on Mount Nebo. The very matter-of-factness of the listings in the Copper Scroll would seem to indicate that somewhere in the area from Hebron to Mount Gerizim there might just be some treasure, if it has not already been discovered within the last 2000 years. The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD/CE)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and Trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC _ Nebuchadnezzar II of... The Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem by Rembrandt van Rijn. ... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone... The Cave of the Patriarchs, also site of the Ibrahimi Mosque. ... Mount Gerizim; archaeological research Mount Gerizim (Samaritan Hebrew Ar-garízim, Arabic جبل جرزيم Jabal Jarizīm, Tiberian Hebrew הַר גְּרִזִּים Har Gərizzîm, Standard Hebrew הַר גְּרִיזִּים Har Gərizzim) is a mountain in the West Bank near Nablus which is sacred to the Samaritan sect. ...


Media

The Copper Scroll is the subject of bestselling political thriller, The Copper Scroll, by Joel C. Rosenberg, published in 2006. This book implements its author's theory that the treasures listed in the Copper Scroll (and the Ark of the Covenant) will be found in the End Times to refurnish the Third Temple. Joel C. Rosenberg in Jerusalem with the Dome of the Rock in the background. ... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone... // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ...


It also features in Sean Young's[4] novel,[5]. In this Historical Novel, Barabbas is the sworn protector of the Copper Scroll and the treasure it points to. He is under orders to protect this document at all costs. A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Give us Barabbas!, from The Bible and its Story Taught by One Thousand Picture Lessons, 1910 In the Christian narrative of the Passion of Jesus, Barabbas, according to some texts Jesus bar-Abbas, (Aramaic Bar-abbâ, son of the father), was the insurrectionary whom Pontius Pilate freed at the Passover...


The scroll--and a search for its treasures-- was featured in a 2007 episode of The History Channel series Digging For The Truth. The program gives a basic knowledge of the research of the Copper Scroll and all the major theories of its interpretation. For the Canadian equivalent of this channel, see History Television. ... Digging For The Truth is a History Channel series. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ "Lost Treasuries of the Copper Scroll", Digging for the Truth, Season Three (2007) (The History Channel)
  2. ^ the first cave to be explored by archaeologists
  3. ^ http://home.flash.net/~hoselton/deadsea/cave03.htm
  4. ^ http://www.dreamcoatpublishing.com
  5. ^ http://www.breakneckbooks.com/sands.html Violent Sands

Digging For The Truth is a History Channel series. ... For the Canadian equivalent of this channel, see History Television. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...

See also

Kohlit is a city mentioned on the Copper Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, as the location where several boxes containing gold and silver are buried, in various parts of the city. ...

References

John Marco Allegro is a controversial archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Doubleday is one of the largest book publishing companies in the world. ... Hershel Shanks (born March 8, 1930, Sharon, Pennsylvania) is the founder of the Bible Archaeology Society and the editor of the Biblical Archaeology Review and has written and edited works on the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ... Inner Traditions - Bear & Company (or just Inner Traditions) is a book publisher founded in 1975 and based in Rochester, Vermont in the United States. ... Theodor Herzl Gaster (1906 - 1992) was an American Biblical scholar known for work on comparative religion, mythology and the history of religions. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the 1976 Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Copper Scroll - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (841 words)
The scroll was found in 1952 in Cave 3 at Qumran, the first cave to be explored by archaeologists, and is thus referred to as 3Q15.
Two copper rolls were discovered off by themselves in the back of the cave, but being made of corroded metal they could not be merely unrolled by conventional means.
Low-quality photographs of the scrolls were taken and published, but scholars have found these to be difficult to work with, and have relied on a drawing of the text by scholar Józef Milik.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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