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Encyclopedia > Copper(II) chloride
Copper(II) chloride
sample of copper(II) chloride dihydrate (top)
atomic connectivity of anhydrous copper(II) chloride (middle)
a pair of CuCl2 sheets (bottom)

Crystal structure of anhydrous copper(II) chloride
Crystal structure of anhydrous copper(II) chloride
General
Systematic name Copper(II) chloride
Copper dichloride
Other names Cupric chloride
Molecular formula CuCl2
Molar mass 134.45 g/mol (anhydrous)
170.48 g/mol (dihydrate)
Appearance blue-green solid (dihydrate)
yellow-brown solid (anhydrous)
CAS number [7447-39-4] (ahydrous)
10125-13-0] (dihydrate)
Properties
Density and phase 3.386 g/cm3, solid
Solubility in water 70.6 g/100 mL (0 °C)
75.7 g/100 mL (25 °C)
Solubility in methanol 68 g/100 mL (15 °C)
Solubility in ethanol 53 g/100 mL (15 °C)
Melting point 100 °C (dehydration
of dihydrate)
Boiling point decomposes at 993°C
(anhydrous)
Structure
Coordination
geometry
Octahedral
Crystal structure distorted CdI2 structure
Hazards
MSDS ScienceLab.com
EU classification not listed
NFPA 704 Image:nfpa_h3.png Image:nfpa_f0.png Image:nfpa_r0.png
Flash point nonflammable
RTECS number GL7000000
Supplementary data page
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Related compounds
Other anions Copper(II) fluoride
Copper(II) bromide
Copper(I) iodide
Other cations Copper(I) chloride
Silver chloride
Gold(III) chloride
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula CuCl2. This a yellow-brown solid which slowly absorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate. It occurs naturally as the very rare mineral eriochalcite. Download high resolution version (804x424, 45 KB)Copper(II) chloride dihydrate This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 444 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 610 pixel, file size: 345 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 425 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 585 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... The coordination geometry of an atom is the geometrical pattern formed by its neighbors in a molecule or a crystal. ... An octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Cadmium iodide, CdI2, is a chemical compound of cadmium and iodine. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the IR region of the EM spectrum. ... It has been suggested that NMR Data Processing be merged into this article or section. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Copper(II) fluoride has formula CuF2. ... Copper(II) bromide (CuBr2) is a chemical compound. ... The chemical compound copper(I) iodide has the formula CuI, more commonly known as cuprous iodide. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Copper(I) chloride (quite commonly called cuprous chloride), is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. ... Related Compounds Other anions silver(I) fluoride, silver bromide, silver iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl. ... Gold(III) chloride, traditionally called auric chloride, is one of the most common compounds of gold. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hydrate is a term which means different things in inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. ...

Contents

Structure

Anhydrous CuCl2 adopts a distorted cadmium iodide structure. Most copper(II) compounds exhibit distortions from idealized octahedral geometry due to the Jahn-Teller effect, which in this case describes the localisation of one d-electron into a molecular orbital that is strongly antibonding with respect to a pair of ligands. In CuCl2(H2O)2 the copper can be described as a highly distorted octahedral complex, the Cu(II) center being surrounded by two water ligands and four chloride ligands, which bridge asymmetrically to other Cu centers.[1] Cadmium iodide, CdI2, is a chemical compound of cadmium and iodine. ... The Jahn-Teller effect, sometimes also known as Jahn-Teller distortion, describes the geometrical distortion of the electron cloud in a non-linear molecule under certain situations. ... In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a region in which an electron may be found in a molecule. ... A bridging ligand is essentially a ligand that acts as a bridge connecting two metal centres in a complex. ...


Properties

Copper(II) chloride dissociates in aqueous solution to give the blue color of [Cu(H2O)6]2+ and yellow or red color of the halide complexes of the formula [CuCl2+x]x-. Concentrated solutions of CuCl2 appear green because of the combination of these various chromophores.


It is a weak Lewis acid, and a mild oxidising agent. It has a crystal structure consisting of polymeric chains of flat CuCl4 units with opposite edges shared. It decomposes to CuCl and Cl2 at 1000 °C: In chemistry, a Lewis acid can accept a pair of electrons and form a coordinate covalent bond, after the American chemist Gilbert Lewis. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Copper(I) chloride (quite commonly called cuprous chloride), is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...

2 CuCl2(s) → 2 CuCl(s) + Cl2(g)

In its reaction with HCl (or other chloride sources) to form the complex ions CuCl3- and CuCl42-.[2] For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Copper(I) chloride (quite commonly called cuprous chloride), is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ...


Equilibria of CuCl2 with chloride ion Download high resolution version (2015x275, 3 KB)Anionic equilibria involving copper(II) and chloride ions This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ...


Some of these complexes can be crystallized from aqueous solution, and they adopt a wide variety structural types (Fig. 1). Structure of some chloride complexes of CuCl2 Download high resolution version (2039x800, 27 KB)Structures of anionic chloride complexes of copper(II) This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ...


Copper(II) chloride also forms a rich variety of other coordination complexes with ligands such as pyridine or triphenylphosphine oxide: Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... Triphenylphosphine oxide usually appears as white crystals. ...

CuCl2 + 2 C5H5N → [CuCl2(C5H5N)2] (tetragonal)
CuCl2 + 2 (C6H5)3P=O → [CuCl2((C6H5)3P=O)2] (tetrahedral)

However "soft" ligands such as phosphines (e.g., triphenylphosphine), iodide, and cyanide as well as some tertiary amines cause reduction to give copper(I) complexes. To convert copper(II) chloride to copper(I) derivatives it is generally more convenient to reduce an aqueous solution with the reducing agent sulfur dioxide: Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... Triphenylphosphine oxide usually appears as white crystals. ... Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and, occasionally, phosphamine. ... Triphenylphosphine (in Europe: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P. It is widely used in the synthesis of organic and organometallic compounds. ... Ammonia Amines are organic compounds containing nitrogen as the key atom in the amine functional group. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...

2 CuCl2(aq) + SO2 → 2 CuCl(s) + 2 HCl(aq) + H2SO4(aq)

CuCl2 can simply react as a source of Cu2+ in precipitation reactions for making insoluble copper(II) salts, for example copper(II) hydroxide, which can then decompose above 30 °C to give copper(II) oxide: Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is the higher oxide of copper. ...

CuCl2(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) → Cu(OH)2(s) + 2 NaCl(aq)

Followed by Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda or sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ...

Cu(OH)2(s) → CuO(s) + H2O(l)

For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is the higher oxide of copper. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ...

Preparation

Copper(II) chloride is prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid on copper(II) oxide, copper(II) hydroxide or copper(II) carbonate, for example: The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is the higher oxide of copper. ... Copper(II) carbonate (often called copper carbonate or cupric carbonate) is a blue-green compound (chemical formula CuCO3) forming most of the patina one sees on weathered brass, bronze, and copper. ...

CuO(s) + 2 HCl(aq) → CuCl2(aq) + H2O(l) Anhydrous CuCl2 may be prepared directly by union of the elements, copper and chlorine.

CuCl2 may be purified by crystallisation from hot dilute hydrochloric acid, by cooling in a CaCl2-ice bath[7]. Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is the higher oxide of copper. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Calcium chloride is a chemical compound of calcium and chlorine. ...


Uses

A major industrial application for copper(II) chloride is as a co-catalyst (along with palladium(II) chloride) in the Wacker process. In this process, ethene (ethylene) is converted to ethanal (acetaldehyde) using water and air. In the process PdCl2 is reduced to Pd, and the CuCl2 serves to re-oxidise this back to PdCl2. Air can then oxidise the resultant CuCl back to CuCl2, completing the cycle. Palladium(II) chloride, also known as palladium dichloride, is a common starting material in palladium chemistry. ... The Wacker process or the Hoechst-Wacker process (named after the chemical companies of the same name) originally referred to the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde by oxygen in the presence of a palladium(II) chloride catalyst. ... Ethylene or ethene is the simplest alkene hydrocarbon, consisting of two carbon atoms and four hydrogens. ... Acetaldehyde, also known as ethanal, is a chemical compound, an aldehyde with formula CH3CHO and structure It is a highly reactive flammable liquid with a strong fruity smell. ... Palladium(II) chloride, also known as palladium dichloride, is a common starting material in palladium chemistry. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... General Name, Symbol, Number palladium, Pd, 46 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 106. ... Copper(I) chloride (quite commonly called cuprous chloride), is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. ...


(1) C2H4(g) + PdCl2(aq) + H2O (l) → CH3CHO (aq) + Pd(s) + 2 HCl(aq) Ethylene or ethene is the simplest alkene hydrocarbon, consisting of two carbon atoms and four hydrogens. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...


(2) Pd(s) + 2 CuCl2(aq) → 2 CuCl(s) + PdCl2(aq)


(3) 2 CuCl(s) + 2 HCl(aq) + 1/2O2(g) → 2 CuCl2(aq) + H2O(l) General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Overall process: C2H4 + 1/2O2 → CH3CHO


Copper(II) chloride has a variety of applications in organic synthesis[7]. It can effect chlorination of aromatic hydrocarbons- this is often performed in the presence of aluminium oxide. It is able to chlorinate the alpha position of carbonyl compounds[8]: Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Aluminium oxide is an amphoteric oxide of aluminium with the chemical formula Al2O3. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ...


Alpha chlorination of an aldehyde using CuCl2 Download high resolution version (1144x278, 4 KB)Alpha chlorination of butanal using copper(II) chloride This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ...


This reaction is performed in a polar solvent such as DMF, often in the presence of lithium chloride, which speeds up the reaction rate. Dimethylformamide (DMF, N,N-dimethylformamide) is a clear liquid, miscible with water and majority of organic solvents. ... Lithium chloride behaves as a fairly typical ionic compound, although the Li+ ion is very small. ...


CuCl2, in the presence of oxygen, can also oxidise phenols. The major product can be directed to give either a quinone or a coupled product from oxidative dimerisation. The latter process provides a high-yield synthesis of 1,1-binaphthol (also called BINOL) and its derivatives, these can even be made as a single enantiomer in high enantiomeric excess[9]: General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... A quinone (or benzoquinone) is either one of the two isomers of cyclohexadienedione or a derivative thereof. ... 1,1-bi-2-naphthol or 1,1-binaphthol or 1,1-binaphthalene]-2,2-diol or BINOL is an organic compound which is often used as a ligand for transition-metal catalysed asymmetric synthesis. ... In chemistry, enantiomers (from the Greek ἐνάντιος, opposite, and μέρος, part or portion) are stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable complete mirror images of each other, much as ones left and right hands are the same but opposite. ... In chemistry two stereoisomers are said to be enantiomers if one can be superimposed on the mirror image of the other. ...


Coupling of beta-naphthol using CuCl2 Download high resolution version (2162x762, 10 KB)Oxidative coupling of 2-naphthol to BINOL using copper(II) chloride This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ...


Such compounds are valuable intermediates in the synthesis of BINAP and its derivatives, popular as chiral ligands for asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts. (S)- and (R)-BINAP Ball and stick model of BINAP viewed as above In organic chemistry, BINAP, an acronym used for 2,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1-binaphthyl, is an important chiral ligand widely used in asymmetric synthesis. ... The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ...


CuCl2 also catalyses the free radical addition of sulfonyl chlorides to alkenes; the alpha-chlorosulfone may then undergo elimination with base to give a vinyl sulfone product. In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... Elimination is a residence hall game where every player is both the hunter and the hunted. ... A sulfone is a chemical compound containing a sulfonyl functional group attached to two carbon atoms. ...


Copper(II) chloride is also used in pyrotechnics as a green colouring agent. Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ...


Precautions

Although copper is an essential element, all metal salts are potentially toxic if mishandled. See MSDS. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


References

  1. Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Edition, Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  2. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st edition, CRC Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990.
  3. The Merck Index, 7th edition, Merck & Co, Rahway, New Jersey, USA, 1960.
  4. D. Nicholls, Complexes and First-Row Transition Elements, Macmillan Press, London, 1973.
  5. A. F. Wells, 'Structural Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1984.
  6. J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., p. 723, Wiley, New York, 1992.
  7. S. H. Bertz, E. H. Fairchild, in Handbook of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Volume 1: Reagents, Auxiliaries and Catalysts for C-C Bond Formation, (R. M. Coates, S. E. Denmark, eds.), pp. 220-3, Wiley, New York, 1999.
  8. C. E. Castro, E. J. Gaughan, D. C. Owsley, Journal of Organic Chemistry, 30, 587 (1965).
  9. J. Brussee, J. L. G. Groenendijk, J. M. Koppele, A. C. A. Jansen, Tetrahedron, 41, 3313 (1985).
  10. Fieser & Fieser Reagents for Organic Synthesis Volume 5, p158, Wiley, New York, 1975.
  11. D. W. Smith (1976). "Chlorocuprates(II)". Coordination Chemistry Reviews 21 (2-3): 93-158. DOI:10.1016/S0010-8545(00)80445-2. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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However, in testing copper (I) chloride, made by electrolyzing hydrochloric acid with copper electrodes, a voltage was noticed when bright light preferentially illuminated one of two copper electrodes in a beaker.
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