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Encyclopedia > Copper(I) chloride
Copper(I) chloride
General
Systematic name Copper(I) chloride
Other names Cuprous chlorideno way
Molecular formula CuCl
Molar mass 98.99 g/mol
Appearance white powder, slightly
green from oxidation
CAS number [7758-89-6]
Properties
Density and phase 4.140 g/cm3, solid
Solubility in water 0.0062 g/100 ml (20 °C)
in ethanol insoluble
Melting point 430 °C (703 K)
Boiling point 1490 °C (1760 K),
decomposes
Structure
Crystal structure Tetrahedral close packed
(Zinc blende structure)
Dipole moment  ? D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Irritant
NFPA 704 Image:nfpa_h3.png Image:nfpa_f0.png Image:nfpa_r0.png
Flash point n/a
R/S statement R: 22, 50, 53 S: 22, 60/61
RTECS number GL6990000
Supplementary data page
Structure & properties n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic data Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Related compounds
Other anions Copper(I) bromide
Copper(I) iodide
Other cations Copper(II) chloride
Silver(I) chloride
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25°C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Copper(I) chloride (quite commonly called cuprous chloride), is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. It occurs naturally as the mineral nantokite. It is a white solid which is almost insoluble in water, and which tends to oxidise in air to green CuCl2. It is a Lewis acid which reacts with suitable ligands such as ammonia or chloride ion to form [[Complex (chemistry)|complexes]NOW WAY JOSE], many of which are water-soluble. It is even able to form a stable complex with carbon monoxide. Copper(I) chloride This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... In physics, density is defined as mass m per unit volume V. Mathematically, it is expressed as where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is the volume of the substance... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ... Fig. ... Sphalerite sample Another sphalerite sample Sphalerite (ZnS) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture with air. ... Risk and Safety Statements, also known as R/S statements, R/S numbers, R/S phrases, and R/S sentences, is a system of hazard codes and phrases for labeling dangerous chemicals and compounds. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a material is the factor by which the phase velocity of electromagnetic radiation is slowed in that material, relative to its velocity in a vacuum. ... The dielectric constant εr (represented as or K in some cases) is defined as the ratio: where εs is the static permittivity of the material in question, and ε0 is the vacuum permittivity. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... It has been suggested that NMR Data Processing be merged into this article or section. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or in common speech mass-spec) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... “Multivalent” redirects here. ... Copper(I) bromide (CuBr) is a chemical compound. ... The chemical compound copper(I) iodide has the formula CuI, more commonly known as cuprous iodide. ... “Multivalent” redirects here. ... Copper(II) chloride is the higher chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl2. ... Silver chloride (also called silver(I) chloride) is a chemical compound with chemical formula AgCl. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Copper(II) chloride is the higher chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl2. ... In chemistry, a Lewis acid can accept a pair of electrons and form a coordinate covalent bond, after the American chemist Gilbert Lewis. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas. ...


In aqueous solution, CuCl would be unstable with respect to disproportionation into Cu and CuCl2, but its low solubility allows it to be a stable compound[1]. Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Disproportionation is a concept in chemistry and is a redox reaction where a reactant is both oxidised and reduced in the same chemical reaction. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Copper(II) chloride is the higher chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl2. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ...

Contents

Chemical Properties

Copper(I) chloride is a Lewis acid, classified as soft according to the Hard-Soft Acid-Base concept. Thus it tends to form stable complexes with soft Lewis bases such as triphenylphosphine: In chemistry, a Lewis acid can accept a pair of electrons and form a coordinate covalent bond, after the American chemist Gilbert Lewis. ... The HSAB concept, also known as HSAB theory, is widely used in chemistry for explaining stability of compounds, reaction paths etc. ... Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... A Lewis base is any molecule or ion that can form a new covalent bond by donating a pair of electrons. ... Triphenylphosphine (in Europe: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P. It is widely used in the synthesis of organic and organometallic compounds. ...


CuCl + PPh3 → [CuCl(PPh3)]4 (Ph = phenyl) Triphenylphosphine (in Europe: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P. It is widely used in the synthesis of organic and organometallic compounds. ... In chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring (often abbreviated as -Ph) is the functional group with the formula -C6H5 Picture where the six carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic manner. ...


Although CuCl is insoluble in water, it dissolves in aqueous solutions containing suitable donor molecules. It readily forms complexes with halide ions, for example forming H3O+ CuCl2- with concentrated hydrochloric acid. It also dissolves readily in solutions containing CN-, S2O32- or NH3 A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... Thiosulfates contain the anion S2O32-. Thiosulfates are only stable in neutral or alkaline solutions, but not in acidic solutions, due to decomposition to sulfite and sulfur, the sulfite being expelled as sulfur dioxide: S2O32-(aq) + 2H+(aq) → SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O This reaction is usually used to generate a... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ...


Solutions of CuCl in HCl or NH3 absorb carbon monoxide to form colourless complexes such as the crystalline halogen-bridged dimer [CuCl(CO)]2. The same HCl solution can also react with acetylene gas to form [CuCl(C2H2)], while an NH3 solution of CuCl forms an explosive copper(I) acetylide with acetylene. Complexes of CuCl with alkenes can be made by reduction of CuCl2 by sulfur dioxide in the presence of the alkene in alcohol solution. Complexes with chelating alkenes such as 1,5-cyclooctadiene are particularly stable[4]: The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas. ... Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the simplest alkyne hydrocarbon, consisting of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms connected by a triple bond. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... Copper(I) acetylide, or cuprous acetylide, is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula Cu2C2. ... Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the simplest alkyne hydrocarbon, consisting of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms connected by a triple bond. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... Copper(II) chloride is the higher chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl2. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... Chelation (from Greek χηλή, chelè, meaning claw) is the process of reversible binding (complexation) of a ligand - the chelant, chelator, chelating agent, sequestering agent, or complexing agent - to a metal ion, forming a metal complex, the chelate. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... 1,5-Cyclooctadiene, (abb. ...


Structure of COD complex of CuCl Formation of a dimer of a CuCl complex with 1,5-cycloocatadiene This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ...


CuCl reacts with organometallic compounds such as methyllithium (CH3Li) to form "Gilman reagents" such as (CH3)2CuLi, which find extensive use in organic synthesis. Grignard reagents react similarly. Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... A Grignard Reagent is an alkyl- or aryl- magnesium halide. ...


Preparation

Copper(I) chloride may be prepared by the reduction of copper(II) salts such as CuSO4 using sulfur dioxide or copper metal. SO2 may be prepared in situ from sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) or sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) and acid. The reduction is carried out in hydrochloric acid, and the resulting CuCl2- complex is diluted to precipitate white CuCl (by driving the equilibrium using Le Chatelier's principle). Copper(II) sulfate, the chemical compound with the formula CuSO4, is a common salt of copper. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Sodium hydrogen sulfite or sodium bisulfite is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NaHSO3. ... Sodium metabisulfite or sodium pyrosulfiteis a sterilizer and antioxidant/preservative. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Chemical equilibrium is the state in which the concentrations of the reactants and products have no net change over time. ... In chemistry, Le Chateliers principle can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. ...


(1) NaHSO3(aq) + HCl (aq) → SO2(aq) + NaCl + H2O(l) Sodium hydrogen sulfite or sodium bisulfite is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NaHSO3. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... This articles section called Other facts does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ...


(2) 2 CuSO4(aq) + SO2(aq) + 2 H2O(l) + 4 HCl(aq) → 2 HCuCl2(aq) + 3 H2SO4(aq) Copper(II) sulfate, the chemical compound with the formula CuSO4, is a common salt of copper. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ...


(3) HCuCl2(aq) + H2O(l) → CuCl(s) + H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ...


Uses

A major chemical use for copper(I) chloride is as a catalyst for a variety of organic reactions. Compared to other "soft" Lewis acids, it is much more affordable than non-toxic silver(I) chloride and palladium(II) chloride, and much less toxic than lead(II) chloride and mercury(II) chloride. In addition, it can undergo redox chemistry via copper(II) or copper(III) intermediates. This combination of properties make copper(I) salts invaluable reagents. Silver chloride (also called silver(I) chloride) is a chemical compound with chemical formula AgCl. ... Palladium(II) chloride, also known as palladium dichloride, is a common starting material in palladium chemistry. ... Lead(II) chloride Lead(II) chloride is the insoluble salt made by adding sodium chloride to soluble lead(II) compounds such as lead(II) nitrate. ... Mercury(II) chloride (also called mercuric chloride and corrosive sublimate) is a poisonous white soluble crystalline salt of mercury. ...


One such application is in the Sandmeyer reaction[5]. Treatment of an arenediazonium salt with CuCl leads to an aryl chloride, for example: The Sandmeyer reaction is a chemical reaction used to synthesize aryl halides from aryl diazonium salts. ...


(Example Sandmeyer reaction using CuCl) An example of a Sandmeyer reaction using cuprous chloride This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ...


The reaction has wide scope, and usually gives good yields.


The observation that copper(I) halides catalyse 1,4-addition of Grignard reagents to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones[6] led to the development of organocuprate reagents that are widely used today in organic synthesis [7]: A Grignard Reagent is an alkyl- or aryl- magnesium halide. ... A Gilman reagent is a lithium and copper (diorganocopper) reagent compound, , where R is an organic radical. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ...


(Addition of RMgX to C=C-C=O mediated by CuCl) An example of a Kharasch reaction using CuCl. ...


Although other copper(I) compounds such as copper(I) iodide are now more often used for this type of reaction, there are cases where copper(I) chloride is particularly effective[8]:


(Alkylation of sorbate ester at 4-position mediated by CuCl) An example showing use of CuCl to direct alkylation to the 6-position. ...


Here, Bu indicates an n-butyl group. Without CuCl, the Grignard reagent alone gives a mixture of 1,2 and 1,4-addition products (i.e., the butyl adds at the closer to the C=O). In organic chemistry, butyl is a four-carbon alkyl substituent with chemical formula -C4H9. ... A Grignard Reagent is an alkyl- or aryl- magnesium halide. ...


Copper(I) chloride is also an intermediate formed from copper(II) chloride in the Wacker process. Copper(II) chloride is the higher chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl2. ... The Wacker process or the Hoechst-Wacker process (named after the chemical companies of the same name) originally referred to the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde by oxygen in the presence of a palladium(II) chloride catalyst. ...


Precautions

Copper salts do have some toxicity and should be handled with care; wear gloves and goggles. Avoid bringing CuCl into contact with alkynes. Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms. ...


Template: inorganic stylesheet1


References

  1. N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  2. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st edition, CRC Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990.
  3. The Merck Index, 7th edition, Merck & Co, Rahway, New Jersey, USA, 1960.
  4. D. Nicholls, Compleses and First-Row Transition Elements, Macmillan Press, London, 1973.
  5. (a) L. G. Wade, Organic Chemistry, 5th ed., p. 871, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RIver, New Jersey, 2003. (b) J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., p. 723, Wiley, New York, 1992.
  6. M. S. Kharasch, P. O. Tawney, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 63, 2308 (1941).
  7. J. T. B. H. Jasrzebski, G. van Koten, in Modern Organocopper Chemistry, (N. Krause, ed.), p. 1, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2002.
  8. (a) S. H. Bertz, E. H. Fairchild, in Handbook of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Volume 1: Reagents, Auxiliaries and Catalysts for C-C Bond Formation, (R. M. Coates, S. E. Denmark, eds.), pp. 220-3, Wiley, New York, 1999. (b) J. Munch-Petersen et al., Acta Chimica Scand., 15, 277 (1961).
  9. A. F. Wells, 'Structural Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1984.

External links

  • National Pollutant Inventory - Copper and compounds fact sheet
  • Links to external chemical sources

  Results from FactBites:
 
Copper(I) chloride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (731 words)
Copper(I) chloride (quite commonly called cuprous chloride), is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl.
Copper(I) chloride is a Lewis acid, classified as soft according to the Hard-Soft Acid-Base concept.
Copper(I) chloride is also an intermediate formed from copper(II) chloride in the Wacker process.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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