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Encyclopedia > Copper(II) sulfate
Copper(II) sulfate
Crystal of copper(II)sulfate4 · 5H2O
Photo of powdered copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate
Ball-and-stick model of the unit cell of anhydrous copper(II) sulfate
Space-filling model of part of the crystal structure of anhydrous copper(II) sulfate
IUPAC name Copper(II) sulfate
pentahydrate
Other names Copper(II) sulfate
Copper(II)sulfate
Cupric sulfate
Blue vitriol
Bluestone
Chalcanthite
Identifiers
CAS number [7758-98-7]
EINECS number 231-847-6
RTECS number GL8800000
Properties
Molecular formula CuSO4·5H2O (pentahydrate)
CuSO4 (anhydrous)
Molar mass 249.684 g/mol (pentahydrate)
159.608 g/mol (anhydrous)
Appearance blue crystalline solid (pentahydrate)
gray-white powder (anhydrous)
Melting point

110 °C (− 4H2O)
150 °C (423 K) (− 5H2O)
650 °C decomp. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 750 pixel, file size: 583 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 761 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 867 pixel, file size: 356 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 522 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (958 × 1100 pixel, file size: 560 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... Chalcanthite, whose name derives from the Greek, chalkos and anthos, meaning copper flower, is a richly-colored blue/green water-soluble sulfate mineral, commonly found in the late-stage oxidation zones of copper deposits. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The EINECS number (for European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances) is a registry number given to each chemical substance commercially available in the European Union between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Solubility in water 31.6 g/100 ml (0 °C)
Structure
Crystal structure Triclinic
Coordination
geometry
Octahedral
Thermochemistry
Standard molar
entropy
So298
109.05 J.K−1.mol−1
Hazards
EU classification Harmful (Xn)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
NFPA 704
0
2
0
 
Flash point non flammable
Related compounds
Other cations Nickel(II) sulfate
Zinc sulfate
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Copper(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula CuSO4. This salt exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydration. The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, whereas the pentahydrate, the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. This hydrated copper sulfate occurs in nature as the mineral called chalcanthite. Archaic names for copper(II) sulfate are "blue vitriol" and "bluestone".[1] Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In crystallography, the triclinic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... The coordination geometry of an atom is the geometrical pattern formed by its neighbors in a molecule or a crystal. ... In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under conditions of standard temperature and pressure. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Nickel(II) sulfate or just nickel sulfate, is the chemical compound NiSO4. ... Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) is a colorless crystalline, water-soluble chemical compound. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Water of crystallization (alt. ... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Chalcanthite, whose name derives from the Greek, chalkos and anthos, meaning copper flower, is a richly-colored blue/green water-soluble sulfate mineral, commonly found in the late-stage oxidation zones of copper deposits. ...

Contents

Preparation

Since it is available commercially, a copper sulfate is usually purchased, not prepared in the laboratory. It can be made by the action of sulfuric acid on a variety of copper(II) compounds, for example copper(II) oxide. Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate decomposes before melting, losing four water molecules at 110 °C and all five at 150 °C. At 650 °C, copper(II) sulfate decomposes into copper(II) oxide (CuO) and sulfur trioxide (SO3). When heated in an open flame the crystals are dehydrated and turn grayish-white.[2] Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is the higher oxide of copper. ... Chemical decomposition or analysis is the fragmentation of a chemical compound into elements or smaller compounds. ... “SO3” redirects here. ...


Uses

As an herbicide, fungicide, pesticide

Copper sulfate pentahydrate is a fungicide. Mixed with lime it is called Bordeaux mixture to control fungus on grapes, melons and other berries,[3] another application is Cheshunt compound, a mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate used in horticulture to prevent damping off in seedlings. Its use as an herbicide is not agricultural, but instead for control of invasive exotic aquatic plants and the roots of other invasive plants near various pipes that contain water. A dilute solution of copper sulfate is used to treat aquarium fish of various parasitic infections,[4] and is also used to remove snails from aquariums. However, as the copper ions are also highly toxic to the fish, care must be taken with the dosage. Most species of algae can be controlled with very low concentrations of copper sulfate. Copper sulfate inhibits growth of bacteria such as E. coli. A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bordeaux mixture is a combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime, invented in the vineyards of the Bordeaux region of France, and used mainly to control garden, vineyard, nursery and farm infestations of fungus. ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ...


Analytical reagent

Several chemical tests utilize copper sulfate. It is used in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution to test for reducing sugars, which reduce the soluble blue copper(II) sulfate to insoluble red copper(I) oxide. Copper(II) sulfate is also used in the Biuret reagent to test for proteins. Fehlings solution is a solution used to differentiate between water soluble aldehyde and ketone functional groups, although ketose monosaccharides (such as fructose) will also test positive, due to conversion to aldoses by the base in the reagent [1]. For this reason, Fehlings reagent is sometimes referred to as... Benedicts reagent (also called Benedicts solution or Benedicts Test) is a reagent used as a test for the presence of reducing sugars (such as glucose, lactose, and fructose, but not sucrose) in a solution. ... A reducing sugar is any sugar that, in basic solution, forms some aldehyde or ketone. ... Copper(I) Oxide or Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an oxide of copper. ... The Biuret reagent is made of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4), together with potassium sodium tartrate (KNaC4H4O6·4H2O). ...


Copper sulfate is also used to test blood for anemia. The blood is tested by dropping it into a solution of copper sulfate of known specific gravity — blood which contains sufficient hemoglobin sinks rapidly due to its density, whereas blood which does not, floats or sinks slowly.[5] This article discusses the medical condition. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...


In a flame test, its copper ions emit a deep blue-green light, much more blue than the flame test for barium. The flame test carried out on a copper halide. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ...


Organic synthesis

Copper sulfate is employed in organic synthesis.[6] The anhydrous salt catalyses the transacetalization in organic synthesis.[7] The hydrated salt reacts with potassium permanganate to give an oxidant for the conversion of primary alcohols.[8] Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... An acetal is a functional group or molecule containing the functional group of a carbon bonded to two -OR groups. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ...


Chemistry education

Copper sulfate is a commonly included chemical in children's chemistry sets and is often used to grow crystals in schools and in copper plating experiments. Due to its toxicity, it is not recommended for small children. Copper sulfate is often used to demonstrate an exothermic reaction, in which steel wool or magnesium ribbon is placed in an aqueous solution of CuSO4. It is used in school chemistry courses to demonstrate the principle of mineral hydration. The pentahydrate form, which is blue, is heated, turning the copper sulfate into the anhydrous form which is white, while the water that was present in the pentahydrate form evaporates. When water is then added to the anhydrous compound, it turns back into the pentahydrate form, regaining its blue color, and is known as blue copperas.[9] A chemistry set is an educational toy allowing the user (typically a teenager) to perform simple chemistry experiments. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Copper plating is the process in which a layer of copper is deposited on the item to be plated by using an electric current. ... In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat. ... A piece of steel wool Steel wool is a bundle of strands of very fine soft steel filaments, used in finishing and repairing work to polish wood or metal objects, as well as for household cleaning. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... The first solvation shell of a sodium ion dissolved in water An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Mineral hydration is an inorganic chemical reaction where water is added to the crystal structure of a mineral, usually creating a new mineral. ... Pentahydrate is a hydrate that contains five molecules of water. ...


In an illustration of a "single metal replacement reaction," iron is submerged in a solution of copper sulfate. Upon standing, iron dissolves and copper precipitates.

Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + Cu

The copper can also be electroplated to the iron.


Other uses

Other applications include hair dyes, coloring glass, processing of leather and textiles and in pyrotechnics as a green colorant.[10] Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... This article is about the type of fabric. ...


References

  1. ^ Copper(II) sulfate MSDS. Oxford University. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  2. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. Inorganic Chemistry Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  3. ^ Uses of Copper Compounds: Copper Sulfate's Role in Agriculture. Copper.org. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  4. ^ All About Copper Sulfate. National Fish Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  5. ^ Barbara H. Estridge, Anna P. Reynolds, Norma J. Walters (2000). Basic Medical Laboratory Techniques. Thomson Delmar Learning, 166. ISBN 0766812065. 
  6. ^ Hoffman, R. V. "Copper(II) Sulfate" Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, 2001 John Wiley & Sons. DOI: 10.1002/047084289X.rc247
  7. ^ Hulce, M. Mallomo, J. P.; Frye, L. L.; Kogan, T. P.; Posner, G. H. (1990). "(S)-( + )-2-(p-Toluenesulfinyl)-2-Cyclopentanone: Precursor for Enantioselective Synthesis of 3-Substituted Cyclopentanones". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 7: 495. 
  8. ^ Jefford, C. W.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.. "A Selective, Heterogeneous Oxidation using a Mixture of Potassium Permanganate and Cupric Sulfate: (3aS,7aR)-Hexahydro-(3S,6R)-Dimethyl-2(3H)-Benzofuranone". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 9: 462. 
  9. ^ http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:Jj02FqBkPCAJ:www.freepatentsonline.com/4315915.html+Blue+copperas&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=uk
  10. ^ Uses of Copper Compounds: Table A - Uses of Copper Sulfate. Copper.org. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.

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External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0751 (anhydrous)
  • International Chemical Safety Card 1416 (pentahydrate)
  • National Pollutant Inventory - Copper and compounds fact sheet
  • UNCP Copper
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Copper Sulfate (2504 words)
Copper sulfate is a naturally-occurring inorganic salt and copper is an essential trace element in plant and animal nutrition (5, 6, 7, 13, 16).
When copper sulfate is given intravenously, or injected into the vein, as little as 2 mg/kg copper sulfate is lethal to guinea pigs; and 4 mg/kg is lethal to rabbits (13).
Although copper sulfate is highly water soluble-that is, it dissolves very easily in water-the copper ions are strongly adsorbed or precipitated to soil particles when it is applied to soil (13).
Copper(II) sulfate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (385 words)
Copper sulfate exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydration.
It is made by the action of sulfuric acid on a variety of copper(II) compounds, such copper(II) oxide and copper carbonate.
Copper sulfate is a commonly included chemical in children's chemistry sets and is often used in high school crystal growing and copper plating experiments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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