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Encyclopedia > Copper
29 nickelcopperzinc
-

Cu

Ag
General
Name, symbol, number copper, Cu, 29
Chemical series transition metals
Group, period, block 114, d
Appearance metallic bronze
Standard atomic weight 63.546(3) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 1
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 8.96 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 8.02 g·cm−3
Melting point 1357.77 K
(1084.62 °C, 1984.32 °F)
Boiling point 2835 K
(2562 °C, 4643 °F)
Heat of fusion 13.26 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 300.4 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 24.440 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1509 1661 1850 2089 2404 2836
Atomic properties
Crystal structure face centered cubic
0.3610 nm
Oxidation states +1, +2, +3, +4
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.90 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 745.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1957.9 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3555 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 128 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 145 pm
Covalent radius 138 pm
Van der Waals radius 140 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 16.78 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 401 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 16.5 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (annealed)
3810 m·s−1
Young's modulus 110 - 128 GPa
Shear modulus 48 GPa
Bulk modulus 140 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.34
Mohs hardness 3.0
Vickers hardness 369 MPa
Brinell hardness 874 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-50-8
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of copper
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
63Cu 69.15% 63Cu is stable with 34 neutrons
65Cu 30.85% 65Cu is stable with 36 neutrons
References
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Copper (pronounced /ˈkɒpɚ/) is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with excellent electrical conductivity and is rather supple in its pure state and has a pinkish luster which is (beside gold) unusual for metals which are normally silvery white. It finds use as a heat conductor, an electrical conductor, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys. Look up Copper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Copper table image created for Wikipedia by Schnee on June 25, 2003, 10:37 UTC. Licensed under the terms of the GNU FDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Copper User:Femto/elements e4 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... A Group 11 element is one in the series of elements in group 11 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, consisting of transition metals which are the traditional coinage metals of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au). ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Copper sample. ... Stylized lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons & 3 electrons (~1800 times smaller than protons/neutrons). ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius Van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Levitating pyrolytic carbon Diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that is only exhibited by a substance in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Shear strain In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; is the force which acts is the area on which the force acts = shear strain; is... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Copper (Cu) Standard atomic mass: 63. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... Ductility is the physical property of being capable of sustaining large plastic deformations without fracture (in metals, such as being drawn into a wire). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Not to be confused with electrical conductance, a measure of an objects or circuits ability to conduct an electric current between two points, which is dependent on the electrical conductivity and the geometric dimensions of the conducting object. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ...


Copper is an essential trace nutrient to all high plants and animals. In animals, including humans, it is found primarily in the bloodstream, as a co-factor in various enzymes, and in copper-based pigments. However, in sufficient amounts, copper can be poisonous and even fatal to organisms. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ...


Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for thousands of years. Several early civilizations have early evidence of using copper. During the Roman Empire, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, hence the origin of the name of the metal as Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


A number of countries, such as Chile and the United States, still have sizable reserves of the metal which are extracted through large open pit mines, however like tin there may be insufficient reserves to sustain current rates of consumption.[1] High demand relative to supply has caused a price spike in the 2000s[2]. This article is about the metallic chemical element. ...


Copper also has a significant presence as a decorative metal art. It can also be used as an anti-germ surface that can add to the anti-bacterial and antimicrobial features of buildings such as hospitals. [3]

Contents

History

Copper, as native copper, is one of the few metals to naturally occur as an uncompounded mineral. Copper was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record, and has a history of use that is at least 10,000 years old. No one knows exactly when copper was first discovered, but earliest estimates place this event around 9000 BCE.[4] A copper pendant was found in what is now northern Iraq that dates to 8700 BCE. By 5000 BCE, there are signs of copper smelting: the refining of copper from simple copper compounds such as malachite or azurite. Among archaeological sites in Anatolia, Çatal Höyük (~6000 BCE) features native copper artifacts and smelted lead beads, but no smelted copper. But Can Hasan (~5000 BCE) had access to smelted copper; this site has yielded the oldest known cast copper artifact, a copper mace head. Although copper most commonly occurs in oxidized states and mixed with other elements, it is found in its native form in various regions of the world. ... BCE redirects here. ... Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... For other uses, see Malachite (disambiguation). ... // Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without accent marks -- Çatal is Turkish for fork and Höyük is Turkish for mound) was a very large Neolithic and... A development of the club, a mace consists of a strong, heavy wooden, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel. ...

Ancient Copper ingot from Zakros, Crete is shaped in the form of an animal skin typical for that era.
Ancient Copper ingot from Zakros, Crete is shaped in the form of an animal skin typical for that era.

Copper smelting appears to have been developed independently in several parts of the world. In addition to its development in Anatolia by 5000 BCE, it was developed in China before 2800 BCE, in the Andes around 2000 BCE, in Central America around 600 CE, and in West Africa around 900 CE.[5] Copper is found extensively in the Indus Valley Civilization by the 3rd millennium BCE.[6] In Europe, Ötzi the Iceman, a well-preserved male dated to 3300-3200 BCE, was found with an axe tipped with copper that was 99.7% pure. High levels of arsenic in his hair suggest he was involved in copper smelting. Download high resolution version (1264x803, 352 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1264x803, 352 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Modern gold ingots from the Bank of Sweden An Ingot is a mass of material cast into a shape which is easy to handle. ... Zakros (Greek Ζάκρος) is a site on the eastern coast of the island of Crete (in modern-day Greece) containing ruins from the Minoan civilization. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... “Ötzi” redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ...


There exist copper and bronze artifacts from Sumerian cities that date to 3000 BCE, and Egyptian artifacts of copper and copper-tin alloys nearly as old. In one pyramid, a copper plumbing system was found that is 5000 years old. The Egyptians found that adding a small amount of tin made the metal easier to cast, so copper-tin (bronze) alloys were found in Egypt almost as soon as copper was found. Very important sources of copper in the Levant were located in Timna valley (Palestine) and Faynan (biblical Punon, Jordan).[7] This article is about the metal alloy. ... Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, Land of the Lords of Brightness[1], or land of the Sumerian tongue[2][3], Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The Timna Valley is located in the southwestern Arabah, approximately 30 km (18. ... Punon (Hebrew: פּוּנֹן) is an ancient city in the Arava, Jordan. ...


In the Americas production in the Old Copper Complex, located in present day Michigan and Wisconsin, was dated back to between 6000 to 3000 BCE.[8] The Old Copper Complex is a term used for the cultural complex associated with the earliest known use of metal in the Americas. ...


By 2000 BCE, Europe was using bronze. The use of bronze became so pervasive in a certain era of civilization (approximately 2500 BCE to 600 BCE in Europe) that it has been named the Bronze Age. The transitional period in certain regions between the preceding Neolithic period and the Bronze Age is termed the Chalcolithic ("copper-stone"), with some high-purity copper tools being used alongside stone tools. Brass (copper-zinc) was known to the Greeks, but only became a significant supplement to bronze during the Roman empire. This article is about the metal alloy. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... Brazen redirects here. ...

In alchemy the symbol for copper, perhaps a stylized mirror, was also the symbol for the goddess and planet Venus.
In alchemy the symbol for copper, perhaps a stylized mirror, was also the symbol for the goddess and planet Venus.

In Greek the metal was known by the name chalkos (χαλκός). Copper was a very important resource for the Romans, Greeks and other ancient peoples. In Roman times, it became known as aes Cyprium (aes being the generic Latin term for copper alloys such as bronze and other metals, and Cyprium because so much of it was mined in Cyprus). From this, the phrase was simplified to cuprum and then eventually Anglicized into the English copper. Copper was associated with the goddess Aphrodite/Venus in mythology and alchemy, owing to its lustrous beauty, its ancient use in producing mirrors, and its association with Cyprus, which was sacred to the goddess. Image File history File links Venus_symbol. ... Image File history File links Venus_symbol. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Venus is the Roman goddess of love, equivalent to Greek Aphrodite and Etruscan Turan. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ...


British Isles

West Mine at Alderley Edge
West Mine at Alderley Edge

During the Bronze Age, copper was mined in the British Isles mainly in the following locations: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 538 KB) Summary Picture taken by N J Dibben in September 2004 using a series of flashes and combining the results with Adobe Photoshop. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 538 KB) Summary Picture taken by N J Dibben in September 2004 using a series of flashes and combining the results with Adobe Photoshop. ...

At Great Orme in North Wales, such working extended for a depth of 70 metres.[9] At Alderley Edge in Cheshire, carbon dates have established mining at around 2280 to 1890 BCE (at 95% probability).[10] Statistics Province: Munster County seat: Cork Code: C Area: 7,457 km² (2,879 sq mi) Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county and principal area in mid Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... Almost all that remains above ground of the Bishop of Bangors 13th century palace at Gogarth is the short wall on the left, the narrow column to the right of centre collapsed into the sea during the storms of March 2005 Saint Tudnos church, the original parish church... Conlaig is a vilseage situated halfway between Bangor and Newtownards in County Down, Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the constituent country. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... Parys Mountain – in the Welsh language Mynydd Parys – is located south of Amlwch which is in north east Anglesey. ... For other uses, see Cheshire (disambiguation). ... , Alderley Edge is a village and civil parish in Cheshire, England. ... Staffordshire Moorlands is a local government district in Staffordshire, England. ... Ecton is a hamlet in the Staffordshire Peak District (Grid reference SK096584). ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Almost all that remains above ground of the Bishop of Bangors 13th century palace at Gogarth is the short wall on the left, the narrow column to the right of centre collapsed into the sea during the storms of March 2005 Saint Tudnos church, the original parish church... , Alderley Edge is a village and civil parish in Cheshire, England. ... For other uses, see Cheshire (disambiguation). ...


United States

Miners at the Tamarack Mine in Copper Country, Michigan, USA in 1905.
Miners at the Tamarack Mine in Copper Country, Michigan, USA in 1905.

Copper mining in the United States began with marginal workings by Native Americans. Native copper is known to have been extracted from sites on Isle Royale with primitive stone tools between 800 and 1600. Europeans mined copper in Connecticut as early as 1709. Perhaps the oldest large-scale copper mine in the US was the historic Elizabeth Mine in Vermont. Dating to the 1700s, "the Liz" produced copper until it was closed in 1958. Spanish began mining copper at Santa Rita, New Mexico about 1800. Westward movement also brought an expansion of copper exploitation with development of significant deposits in Michigan during the 1850s and then in Arizona and Montana during the 1870s. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1661, 537 KB) Summary Miners pose with lunch pails in hand on a mine rock pile outside of the Tamarack mineshaft. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1661, 537 KB) Summary Miners pose with lunch pails in hand on a mine rock pile outside of the Tamarack mineshaft. ... The Copper Country is an area in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in the United States, including most of Keweenaw, Houghton, Baraga and Ontonagon counties. ... Copper mining in the United States has been a major industry since the rise of the northern Michigan copper district in the 1840s. ... Isle Royale is an island of the Great Lakes, located in the northwest of Lake Superior. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... Santa Rita, NM is the birthplace of Hall of Famer Ralph Kiner. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Native copper was mined extensively in Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula with the heart of extraction at the productive Calumet and Hecla Mining Company mines. Arizona had many notable deposits including the Copper Queen Mine in Bisbee and the United Verde in Jerome. The Anaconda in Butte, Montana became the nation's chief copper supplier in 1892, a title it held for more than a decade. This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Keweenaw Peninsula is the most northern part of Michigans Upper Peninsula. ... The Calumet and Hecla Mining Company was a major copper-mining company based in the Michigan Copper Country. ... Bisbee is a city in Cochise County, Arizona, USA, 82 miles (132 km) southeast of Tucson. ... Jerome is a town in Yavapai County, Arizona, United States. ... The Anaconda Copper Mine was a large copper mine in Butte, Montana. ... Uptown Butte 1942 view of the city Butte is a city in Silver Bow County, Montana and is the county seat. ...


Copper is mined in many other areas of the United States, including Utah, Nevada and (formerly) in Tennessee. (See Copper mining in the United States) Copper is the state mineral for Utah. This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Copper mining in the United States has been a major industry since the rise of the northern Michigan copper district in the 1840s. ... // Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone. ...


Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of copper

There are two stable isotopes, 63Cu and 65Cu, along with a couple dozen radioisotopes. The vast majority of radioisotopes have half lives on the order of minutes or less; the longest lived, 67Cu, has a half life of 61.8 hours. See also isotopes of copper. Copper (Cu) Standard atomic mass: 63. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Copper (Cu) Standard atomic mass: 63. ...


Notable characteristics

Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color.
Copper exists as a metallically bonded substance, allowing it to have a wide variety of metallic properties.
Copper exists as a metallically bonded substance, allowing it to have a wide variety of metallic properties.

Copper is a reddish-colored metal; it has its characteristic color because of its band structure. In its liquefied state, a pure copper surface without ambient light appears somewhat greenish, a characteristic shared with gold. When liquid copper is in bright ambient light, it retains some of its pinkish luster. Image File history File linksMetadata 029-Cu. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 029-Cu. ... Image File history File links Metallic_bond_Cu. ... Image File history File links Metallic_bond_Cu. ... Metallic bonds are found in metals like copper. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... In solid state physics, the electronic band structure, or simply band structure, refers to the dispersion relation (the relation between energy versus momentum) of electrons in a crystal. ...


Copper occupies the same family of the periodic table as silver and gold, since they each have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled electron shell. This similarity in electron structure makes them similar in many characteristics. All have very high thermal and electrical conductivity, and all are malleable metals. This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ...


Conductivity

Copper has a high electrical and thermal conductivity, second only to silver among pure metals at room temperature.[11] Not to be confused with electrical conductance, a measure of an objects or circuits ability to conduct an electric current between two points, which is dependent on the electrical conductivity and the geometric dimensions of the conducting object. ... K value redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ...


Corrosion

Pure water and air
Copper is a metal that does not react with water (H2O), but the oxygen of the air will react slowly at room temperature to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide on copper metal.

The Pourbaix diagram for copper in pure water, perchloric acid or sodium It can be seen that copper in "pure" water is more noble than hydrogen. As a result it does not corrode in oxygen free water and the corrosion rate in oxygenated water is low. hydroxide
The Pourbaix diagram for copper in pure water, perchloric acid or sodium It can be seen that copper in "pure" water is more noble than hydrogen. As a result it does not corrode in oxygen free water and the corrosion rate in oxygenated water is low. hydroxide[12]

It is important to note that in contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air that the layer formed by the reaction of air with copper has a protective effect against further corrosion. On old copper roofs a green layer of copper carbonate, called verdigris or patina, can often be seen. Another notable example of this is on the Statue of Liberty. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ... Verdigris is the common name for the chemical Cu(CH3COO)2. ... The Statue of Liberty gets its green color from the patina formed on its copper surface Patinas are chemical compounds formed on the surface of metals. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ...


In contact with other metals

Main article: Galvanic corrosion

Copper should not be in only mechanical contact with metals of different electropotential (for example, a copper pipe joined to an iron pipe), especially in the presence of moisture, as the completion of an electrical circuit (as through the common earth ground) will cause the juncture to act as an electrochemical cell (as is a single cell of a battery). The weak electrical currents themseves are harmless but the electrochemical reaction will cause the conversion of the iron to other compounds, eventually destroying the functionality of the union. This problem is usually solved in plumbing by separating copper pipe from iron pipe with some non-conducting segment (usually plastic or rubber). The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two metals connected by an electrolyte which forms a salt bridge between the metals. ... The galvanic series determines the nobility of metals and semi-metals. ... Fe redirects here. ... A demonstration electrochemical cell setup resembling the Daniell cell. ... For other uses, see Battery. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ...


Sulfide media


Copper metal does react with hydrogen sulfide- and sulfide-containing solutions. A series of different copper sulfides can form on the surface of the copper metal. Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ...

The Pourbaix diagram for copper in a sulfide containing aqueous medium
The Pourbaix diagram for copper in a sulfide containing aqueous medium[12]

Note that the copper sulfide area of the plot is very complex due to the existence of many different sulfides, a close up is also provided to make the graph more clear. It is clear that the copper is now able to corrode even without the need for oxygen as the copper is now less noble than hydrogen. This can be observed in every day life when copper metal surfaces tarnish after exposure to air which contains sulfur compounds. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Tarnish is a layer of corrosion that develops over copper, brass, silver, aluminum as well as a degree of semi-reactive metals as they undergo oxidation. ...

The Pourbaix diagram for copper in a sulfide containing aqueous medium
The Pourbaix diagram for copper in a sulfide containing aqueous medium[12]

Ammonia media Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ...


Copper does react with oxygen-containing ammonia solutions because the ammonia forms water-soluble copper complexes. The formation of these complexes causes the corrosion to become more thermodynamically favored than the corrosion of copper in an identical solution that does not contain the ammonia.

The Pourbaix diagram for copper in 10 M ammonia solution
The Pourbaix diagram for copper in 10 M ammonia solution[12]

Chloride media Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ...


Copper does react with a combination of oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form a series of copper chlorides. It is interesting to note that if copper(II) chloride (green/blue) is boiled with copper metal (with little or no oxygen present) then white copper(I) chloride will be formed.

The Pourbaix diagram for copper in a chloride solution
The Pourbaix diagram for copper in a chloride solution[12]

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ...

Mechanical properties

A single crystal copper consists of a few micrometres of small crystals. In this form of crystal (c), the yield stress is high and crystal undergoes a large amount of elastic deformation before going into the plastic deformation region. The plastic deformation region has an unpredictable outcome. The stress level decreases significantly as necking begins to occur.


Polycrystal copper has many crystal of different geometries combined. The plastic deformation of polycrystal is similar to mild steel. Copper has a high ductility and will continue to elongate as stress is applied. It is very useful in copper wire drawing.


Numerous copper alloys exist, many with important historical and contemporary uses. Speculum metal and bronze are alloys of copper and tin. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Monel metal, also called cupronickel, is an alloy of copper and nickel. While the metal "bronze" usually refers to copper-tin alloys, it also is a generic term for any alloy of copper, such as aluminium bronze, silicon bronze, and manganese bronze. Copper alloys are alloys with Copper as their principial component. ... Speculum metal is an alloy of four parts copper to one part tin. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Brazen redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Monel is a trademark comprising a series of rustless (stainless) metal alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper, with some iron and other trace elements. ... Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, nickel and strengthening impurities, such as iron and manganese. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Aluminium bronze is a type of bronze in which aluminium is the main alloying metal added to copper. ...


Germicidal effect

Copper is germicidal, via the oligodynamic effect. For example, brass doorknobs disinfect themselves of many bacteria within a period of eight hours.[13] Antimicrobial properties of copper are effective against MRSA,[14] Escherichia coli[15] and other pathogens.[16][17][18] In colder temperature, longer time is required to kill bacteria. The oligodynamic effect (greek oligos = few, dynamis = force ) was discovered in 1893 by the Swiss KW Nägeli as a toxic effect of metal-ions on living cells, algae, moulds, spores, fungi, virus, procariotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, even in relatively low concentrations. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria. ... MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin in 1947, and later to methicillin. ... E. coli redirects here. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...


Occurrence and modern industry

Further information: Peak copper
Chuquicamata (Chile). The largest open pit copper mines in the world.
Chuquicamata (Chile). The largest open pit copper mines in the world.
Copper output in 2005
World production trend
World production trend
Evolution of the historical copper pricesource : minerals.usgs.gov (XLS) Current price is at least four times higher than the 2002 value.
Evolution of the historical copper price
source : minerals.usgs.gov (XLS)
Current price is at least four times higher than the 2002 value.
Native Copper Placer Nuggets
Native Copper Placer Nuggets
Native copper
Native copper
Copper Prices 2003 - 2008 in USD
Copper Prices 2003 - 2008 in USD

In 2005, Chile was the top mine producer of copper with at least one-third world share followed by the USA, Indonesia and Peru, reports the British Geological Survey. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2126x1369, 3674 KB) Description = Coppermine Chuquicamata, Chile Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created March 1984 Author = Reinhard Jahn, Mannheim nanosmile Wikipedia account please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2126x1369, 3674 KB) Description = Coppermine Chuquicamata, Chile Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created March 1984 Author = Reinhard Jahn, Mannheim nanosmile Wikipedia account please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... One of the larger pits in the base of the open cast mine Chuquicamata copper mine in 1984 Chuquicamata, or Chuqui, as it is commonly called, is the second largest open pit copper mine in the world. ... El Chino, located near Silver City, New Mexico, is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining, or opencast mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mined output of copper in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Chile - 5,320,500 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mined output of copper in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Chile - 5,320,500 tonnes). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Historical_copper_price. ... Image File history File links Historical_copper_price. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...


Copper can be found as native copper in mineral form. Minerals such as the sulfides: chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), bornite (Cu5FeS4), covellite (CuS), chalcocite (Cu2S) are sources of copper, as are the carbonates: azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2) and malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2) and the oxide: cuprite (Cu2O). Although copper most commonly occurs in oxidized states and mixed with other elements, it is found in its native form in various regions of the world. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Chalcopyrite (sometimes called peacock pyrite) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. ... Bornite (Copper Iron Sulfide) Tarnish of Bornite Bornite is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the cubic system. ... Covellite (also know as covelline) is a crystalline form of copper(II) sulfide (CuS). ... Chalcocite, copper(I) sulfide (Cu2S), is an important copper mineral ore. ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... // Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. ... For other uses, see Malachite (disambiguation). ... Cuprite Cuprite is a mineral composed of copper(I) oxide Cu2O, and is a minor ore of copper. ...


Most copper ore is mined or extracted as copper sulfides from large open pit mines in porphyry copper deposits that contain 0.4 to 1.0 percent copper. Examples include: Chuquicamata in Chile and El Chino Mine in New Mexico. The average abundance of copper found within crustal rocks is approximately 68 ppm by mass, and 22 ppm by atoms. The Chino open-pit copper mine in New Mexico. ... The El Chino mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ... porphyry copper ... One of the larger pits in the base of the open cast mine Chuquicamata copper mine in 1984 Chuquicamata, or Chuqui, as it is commonly called, is the second largest open pit copper mine in the world. ... The El Chino mine located near Silver City, New Mexico The El Chino (or just Chino) Mine is an open-pit copper mine located near Silver City, New Mexico. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ...


The Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), defunct since 1992, once tried to play a similar role for copper as OPEC does for oil, but never achieved the same influence, not least because the second-largest producer, the United States, was never a member. Formed in 1967, its principal members were Chile, Peru, Zaire, and Zambia. The Intergovernmental Council of Countries Exporters of Copper, CIPEC from french Conseil intergouvernemental des pays exportateurs de cuivre, was created in 1967 in Lusaka with the objective of coordinating policies of the countries members looking for a bigger growth in the revenues coming from this metal. ... The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a group of thirteen states[1][2] made up of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Indonesia. ... Petro redirects here. ...


The copper price has quintupled from the 60-year low in 1999, rising from US$0.60 per pound (US$1.32/kg) in June 1999 to US$3.75 per pound (US$8.27/kg) in May 2006, where it dropped to US$2.40 (US$5.29/kg) in February 2007 then rebounded to US$3.50 (US$7.71/kg = £3.89 = 5.00) in April 2007.[19] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ... GBP redirects here. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


The Earth has an estimated 61 years of copper reserves remaining.[20] Environmental analyst, Lester Brown, however, has suggested copper might run out within 25 years based on a reasonable extrapolation of 2% growth per year.[21] Lester R. Brown is an environmental analyst who has written several books on global environmental issues. ...


Copper has been in use at least 10,000 years, but more than 95 percent of all copper ever mined and smelted has been extracted since 1900. And as India and China race to catch up with the West, copper supplies are getting tight.[22] Copper is among the most important industrial metals. Like fossil fuels, copper is a finite resource. Peak copper is the point in time at which the maximum global copper production rate is reached, according to Hubbert peak theory, the rate of production enters its terminal decline. The Hubbert peak theory posits that for any given geographical area, from an individual oil field to the planet as a whole, the rate of petroleum production tends to follow a bell-shaped curve. ...

Further information: Copper extraction techniques

The Chino open-pit copper mine in New Mexico. ...

Compounds

Common oxidation states of copper include the less stable copper(I) state, Cu+; and the more stable copper(II) state, Cu2+, which forms blue or blue-green salts and solutions. Under unusual conditions, a 3+ state and even an extremely rare 4+ state can be obtained. Using old nomenclature for the naming of salts, copper(I) is called cuprous, and copper(II) is cupric. In oxidation copper is mildly basic. In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In...


Copper(II) carbonate is green from which arises the unique appearance of copper-clad roofs or domes on some buildings. Copper(II) sulfate forms a blue crystalline pentahydrate which is perhaps the most familiar copper compound in the laboratory. It is used as a fungicide, known as Bordeaux mixture. Copper(II) carbonate (often called copper carbonate or cupric carbonate) is a blue-green compound (chemical formula CuCO3) forming most of the patina one sees on weathered brass, bronze, and copper. ... Copper(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula CuSO4. ... Hydrate is a term which means different things in inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ...


There are two stable copper oxides, copper(II) oxide (CuO) and copper(I) oxide (Cu2O). Copper oxides are used to make yttrium barium copper oxide (YBa2Cu3O7-δ) or YBCO which forms the basis of many unconventional superconductors. Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is the higher oxide of copper. ... Copper(I) Oxide or Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an oxide of copper. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... Yttrium barium copper oxide, or YBCO, chemical formula YBa2Cu3O7-δ, is a high-temperature superconductor with a superconducting temperature of 94K. Its discovery by C.W. Chu in 1987 launched the era of high-temperature superconductors. ... Unconventional superconductors are materials that display superconductivity but that do not conform to BCS theory or its extensions. ...

  • Copper(III) compounds, rare: potassium hexafluorocuprate (K3CuF6)
  • Copper(IV) compounds, extremely rare: caesium hexafluorocuprate (Cs2CuF6)
See also: Category:Copper compounds

Copper(I) chloride (quite commonly called cuprous chloride), is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. ... Copper(I) bromide (CuBr) is a chemical compound. ... The chemical compound copper(I) iodide has the formula CuI, more commonly known as cuprous iodide. ... Copper(I) Oxide or Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an oxide of copper. ... Flash point Non-flammable R/S statement R: 22-36/37/38-50/53 S: 26-60-61 Copper(II) acetate, also referred to as cupric acetate, is an inorganic compound consisting of two copper atoms and four acetate groups. ... Copper(II) carbonate (often called copper carbonate or cupric carbonate) is a blue-green compound (chemical formula CuCO3) forming most of the patina one sees on weathered brass, bronze, and copper. ... Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula CuCl2. ... Copper(II) hydroxide is the hydroxide salt of the metal copper, with atomic mass approximately 97. ... Copper(II) nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(NO3)2. ... Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is the higher oxide of copper. ... Copper(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula CuSO4. ... Copper sulfides occur in a number of different forms and are minerals often used as copper ore. ... Copper (II) triflate, Cu(OSO2CF3)2, is the copper (II) salt of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (triflic acid), a superacid. ...

Tests for copper(II) ion

Add aqueous sodium hydroxide. A blue precipitate of copper(II) hydroxide should form. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Copper(II) hydroxide is the hydroxide salt of the metal copper, with atomic mass approximately 97. ...


Ionic equation:

Cu2+(aq) + 2OH(aq) → Cu(OH)2(s)

The full equation shows that the reaction is due to hydroxide ions deprotonating the hexaaquacopper (II) complex:

[Cu(H2O)6]2+(aq) + 2 OH(aq) → Cu(H2O)4(OH)2(s) + 2 H2O (l)

Adding ammonium hydroxide (aqueous ammonia) causes the same precipitate to form. It then dissolves upon adding excess ammonia, to form a deep blue ammonia complex, tetraamminecopper(II). Ammonium hydroxide(NH4OH), also known as ammonia water, aqua ammonia, or aqueous ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water. ...


Ionic equation:

Cu(H2O)4(OH)2(s) + 4 NH3(aq) → [Cu(H2O)2(NH3)4]2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2 OH(aq)

A more delicate test than ammonia is potassium ferrocyanide, which gives a brown precipitate with copper salts. Potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6·3H2O), also known as yellow prussiate of potash, is a coordination compound forming lemon-yellow monoclinic crystals at room temperature and decomposing at its boiling point. ...


Applications

Native copper specimen (~ 4 cm in size)
Native copper specimen (~ 4 cm in size)
Copper piping system with intumescent firestop being installed by an insulator in Vancouver, Canada
Copper piping system with intumescent firestop being installed by an insulator in Vancouver, Canada

Copper is malleable and ductile, a good conductor of heat and, when very pure, a good conductor of electricity. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3443 × 2288 pixel, file size: 654 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3443 × 2288 pixel, file size: 654 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An intumescent is a substance which swells as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing in volume, and decreasing in density. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Malleability is a physical property of matter, signifying its capability of deformation, especially by hammering or rolling. ... Ductility is the physical property of being capable of sustaining large plastic deformations without fracture (in metals, such as being drawn into a wire). ... Heat conduction or Thermal conduction is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy through matter, from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature, and hence acts to even out temperature differences. ... In science and engineering, conductors are materials that readily conduct electric current through electrical conduction. ...


The purity of copper is expressed as 4N for 99.99% pure or 7N for 99.99999% pure. The numeral gives the number of nines after the decimal point when expressed as a decimal (e.g. 4N means 0.9999, or 99.99%). Copper is often too soft for its applications, so it is incorporated in numerous alloys. For example, brass is a copper-zinc alloy , and bronze is a copper-tin alloy. [23] An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resultant material has metallic properties. ... Brazen redirects here. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ...


It is used extensively, in products such as:


Piping

  • including water supply.

Piping is used to convey fluids (usually liquids and gases but sometimes loose solids) from one location to another. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

Electronics

Copper roof on the Minneapolis City Hall, coated with Patina
Copper roof on the Minneapolis City Hall, coated with Patina

... An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of an electric current. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... An electrical generator is a device that produces electrical energy from a mechanical energy source. ... Automotive style miniature relay A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. ... 1500 amp busbars within a power distribution rack for a large building A busbar (often pronounced buzz bar) refers in electrical power distribution to thick strips of Copper or other material that conduct electricity around a switchboard or distribution board. ... Electrical switches. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... A cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates coherent microwaves. ... Microwave oven A microwave oven, or microwave, is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook or heat food. ... Look up waveguide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips (EPROM memory) with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... This article is about the substance or device. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3200x2400, 1513 KB) Summary Photo taken by Micah Clemens. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3200x2400, 1513 KB) Summary Photo taken by Micah Clemens. ... Minneapolis City Hall, Franklin Bidwell Long and Frederick G. Kees, architects, finished 1906 (view from northeast) Minneapolis City Hall and Hennepin County Courthouse (also known as the Municipal Building) is the main building used by the city government of Minneapolis, Minnesota, also serving Hennepin County. ... The Statue of Liberty gets its green color from the patina formed on its copper surface Patinas are chemical compounds formed on the surface of metals. ...

Architecture / Industry

Old copper utensils in a Jerusalem restaurant
Old copper utensils in a Jerusalem restaurant

A metal roof is a roofing system made from metal pieces or tiles. ... Copper forms two oxides, copper(I) oxide (cuprous oxide, Cu2O) a red powder and copper(II) oxide (cupric oxide, CuO) a black powder. ... Copper sulfides describe a family of chemical compounds and minerals with the formula CuxSy. ... Copper(II) carbonate (often called copper carbonate or cupric carbonate) is a blue-green compound (chemical formula CuCO3) forming most of the patina one sees on weathered brass, bronze, and copper. ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... The Statue of Liberty gets its green color from the patina formed on its copper surface Patinas are chemical compounds formed on the surface of metals. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Rodins The Thinker is a man leaning onto the top of his penis. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, nickel and strengthening impurities, such as iron and manganese. ... Monel is a trademark comprising a series of rustless (stainless) metal alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper, with some iron and other trace elements. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... The word nail has several meanings: In anatomy, a nail is a hard covering to the tip of fingers or toes In engineering, a nail is a metal pin-shaped object used to hold things together This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Dry rot is a disease of trees, often caused by the fungal species Merulis lacrymans, Poria incrassata, and/or Serpula lacrymans. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 390 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (488 × 750 pixel, file size: 359 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Gila Brand, my own work. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 390 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (488 × 750 pixel, file size: 359 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Gila Brand, my own work. ...

Household products

  • Copper plumbing fittings and compression tubes.
  • Doorknobs and other fixtures in houses.
  • Roofing, guttering, and rainspouts on buildings.
  • In cookware, such as frying pans.
  • Most flatware (knives, forks, spoons) contains some copper (nickel silver).
  • Sterling silver, if it is to be used in dinnerware, must contain a few percent copper.
  • Copper water heating cylinders
  • Copper Range Hoods
  • Copper Bath Tubs
  • Copper Counters
  • Copper Sinks
  • Copper slug tape

A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... A roof tiled in imitation of thatch at Croyde, north Devon, England Rooftops in Vietnam A roof is the top covering of a building that prevents the ingress of weather into the building interior. ... cast-iron iron enamel stainless steel The cooking pan is a type of food preparation utensil commonly found in the kitchen which includes many more specific cooking vessels such as saucepans and frying pans (or fry pans). ... “Skillet” redirects here. ... Starch_polyester disposable cutlery Cutlery refers to any hand utensil used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food. ... This article is about the tool. ... For other uses, see Fork (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spoon (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Alpaca, see Alpaca (disambiguation). ... Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92. ...

Coinage

This article is about monetary coins. ... Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, nickel and strengthening impurities, such as iron and manganese. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... GBP redirects here. ... The United States five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of currency equaling one-twentieth, or five hundredths, of a United States dollar. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ...

Biomedical applications

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Barnacle (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats. ... Muntz metal is a form of alpha-beta brass with about 40% zinc and 60% copper. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about the handle. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Legionellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. ... The term air conditioning refers to the cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for thermal comfort. ... Copper(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula CuSO4. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... Mildew is a grey, mold-like growth caused by one of two different types of micro-organisms. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Copper-64 is a radioactive nuclide which has unique decay properties making it useful in nuclear medicine for both imagining and therapy. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Medical imaging designates the ensemble of techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function). ... Chelation (from Greek, claw like) describes the reversible binding of an organic ligand, the chelator or chelating agent, to a metal ion, forming a metal complex, the chelate. ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ...

Chemical applications

Fehlings solution is a solution used to differentiate between water soluble aldehyde and ketone functional groups, although ketose monosaccharides (such as fructose) will also test positive, due to conversion to aldoses by the base in the reagent [1]. For this reason, Fehlings reagent is sometimes referred to as... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... This article is about the material. ...

Other

A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbalum instrument. ... Contains either Sodium Chloride or Copper Powder and pressurized with Nitrogen. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Biological role

Rich sources of copper include oysters, beef or lamb liver, Brazil nuts, blackstrap molasses, cocoa, and black pepper. Good sources include lobster, nuts and sunflower seeds, green olives, avocados and wheat bran.
Rich sources of copper include oysters, beef or lamb liver, Brazil nuts, blackstrap molasses, cocoa, and black pepper. Good sources include lobster, nuts and sunflower seeds, green olives, avocados and wheat bran.

Copper is essential in all plants and animals. Copper is carried mostly in the bloodstream on a plasma protein called ceruloplasmin. When copper is first absorbed in the gut it is transported to the liver bound to albumin. Copper is found in a variety of enzymes, including the copper centers of cytochrome c oxidase and the enzyme superoxide dismutase (containing copper and zinc). In addition to its enzymatic roles, copper is used for biological electron transport. The blue copper proteins that participate in electron transport include azurin and plastocyanin. The name "blue copper" comes from their intense blue color arising from a ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) absorption band around 600 nm. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixelsFull resolution (2700 × 1776 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixelsFull resolution (2700 × 1776 pixel, file size: 5. ... Blood proteins are proteins found in blood plasma. ... Ceruloplasmin Ceruloplasmin (or caeruloplasmin), officially known as ferroxidase or iron(II):oxygen oxidoreductase, is a copper transport protein found in the blood. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... You may be looking for albumen, or egg white. ... Human glyoxalase I. Two zinc ions that are needed for the enzyme to catalyze its reaction are shown as purple spheres, and an enzyme inhibitor called S-hexylglutathione is shown as a space-filling model, filling the two active sites. ... Cytochrome c oxidase The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (PDB 2OCC, EC 1. ... Structure of the monomeric unit of human superoxide dismutase 2 The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1. ... Plastocyanin is a single strand protein of the thylakoid membrane, (molecular weight 10,500), that plays an integral part in photosynthesis. ...


Most molluscs and some arthropods such as the horseshoe crab use the copper-containing pigment hemocyanin rather than iron-containing hemoglobin for oxygen transport, so their blood is blue when oxygenated rather than red.[31] Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The horseshoe crab, horsefoot, king crab, or sauce-pan (Limulus polyphemus, formerly known as Limulus cyclops, Xiphosura americana, Polyphemus occidentalis) is a chelicerate arthropod. ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ... Fe redirects here. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...


It is believed that zinc and copper compete for absorption in the digestive tract so that a diet that is excessive in one of these minerals may result in a deficiency in the other. The RDA for copper in normal healthy adults is 0.9 mg/day. On the other hand, professional research on the subject recommends 3.0 mg/day.[32] Because of its role in facilitating iron uptake, copper deficiency can often produce anemia-like symptoms. In humans, the symptoms of Wilson's disease are caused by an accumulation of copper in body tissues. General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Daily values. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... Copper deficiency can cause a syndrome of anemia or pancytopenia and a neurodegeneration in humans or other mammals. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Wilsons disease or hepatolenticular degeneration is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease, with an incidence of about 1 in 30,000 in most parts of the world and a male preponderance. ...


Chronic copper depletion leads to abnormalities in metabolism of fats, high triglycerides, non-alkoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fatty liver disease and poor melanin and dopamine sythesis causing depression and sun-burns. Food rich in copper should be eaten away from any milk or egg proteins as they block absorption.


Toxicity

Toxicity can occur from eating acid food that had been cooked in Copper cookware. Cirrhosis of the liver in children (Indian Childhood Cirrhosis) has been linked to boiling milk in copper cookware. The Merck Manual states that recient studies suggest that a genetic defect is associated with this cirrhosis, but this should not be regarded as an endorsement of the practice since other toxicity besides cirrhosis can occur as in adults. see: http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec01/ch005/ch005c.html?qt=copper%20and%20milk&alt=sh Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


With an LD50 of 30 mg/kg in rats, "gram quantities" of copper sulfate are potentially lethal in humans.[33] The suggested safe level of copper in drinking water for humans varies depending on the source, but tends to be pegged at 1.5 to 2 mg/L[citation needed]. The DRI Tolerable Upper Intake Level for adults of dietary copper from all sources is 10 mg/day[citation needed]. In toxicity, copper can inhibit the enzyme dihydrophil hydratase, an enzyme involved in haemopoiesis[citations needed]. An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... Copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4) is the most common copper salt, made by the action of sulfuric acid on the base copper oxide. ... Lethal is something that is capable of causing death to a living being. ... Tap water Mineral Water Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. ... The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). ... Human glyoxalase I. Two zinc ions that are needed for the enzyme to catalyze its reaction are shown as purple spheres, and an enzyme inhibitor called S-hexylglutathione is shown as a space-filling model, filling the two active sites. ... ...


Symptoms of copper poisoning are very similar to those produced by arsenic. Fatal cases are generally terminated by convulsions, palsy, and insensibility.[citations needed] For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ...


In cases of suspected copper poisoning, Ovalbumin is to be administered in either of its forms which can be most readily obtained, as milk or whites of eggs. Vinegar should not be given. The inflammatory symptoms are to be treated on general principles, and so are the nervous.[citations needed] The egg white is a clear liquid (also called albumen or ovalbumin) contained within a birds egg. ... Albumen redirects here. ...


A significant portion of the toxicity of copper comes from its ability to accept and donate single electrons as it changes oxidation state. This catalyzes the production of very reactive radical ions such as hydroxyl radical in a manner similar to Fenton chemistry.[34] This catalytic activity of copper is used by the enzymes that it is associated with and is thus only toxic when unsequestered and unmediated. This increase in unmediated reactive radicals is generally termed oxidative stress and is an active area of research in a variety of diseases where copper may play an important but more subtle role than in acute toxicity. Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... Fentons reagent is a solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters. ... Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological systems ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage. ...

A Kayser-Fleischer ring. Copper deposits are found in the iris. This is an indication that the body is not metabolizing copper properly.
A Kayser-Fleischer ring. Copper deposits are found in the iris. This is an indication that the body is not metabolizing copper properly.

An inherited condition called Wilson's disease causes the body to retain copper, since it is not excreted by the liver into the bile. This disease, if untreated, can lead to brain and liver damage. In addition, studies have found that people with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia had heightened levels of copper in their systems. However it is unknown at this stage whether the copper contributes to the mental illness, whether the body attempts to store more copper in response to the illness, or whether the high levels of copper are the result of the mental illness.[citations needed] Kayser-Fleischer rings are pigmented rings in the peripheral cornea, resulting from copper deposition in Descemets membrane. ... Wilsons disease or hepatolenticular degeneration is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease, with an incidence of about 1 in 30,000 in most parts of the world and a male preponderance. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ...


Too much copper in water has also been found to damage marine life. The observed effect of these higher concentrations on fish and other creatures is damage to gills, liver, kidneys, and the nervous system. It also interferes with the sense of smell in fish, thus preventing them from choosing good mates or finding their way to mating areas.[citations needed]


Miscellaneous hazards

The metal, when powdered, is a fire hazard. At concentrations higher than 1 mg/L, copper can stain clothes and items washed in water. Gas stoves are often considered a fire hazard A fire hazard is any situation in which there is a greater than normal risk of harm to people or property due to fire. ...


See also

Look up Acierage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anaconda Copper Mining Company (until 1915 known as the Amalgamated Copper Mining Company), one of the largest trusts of the early 20th century which owned all the mines on Butte Hill, Montana, USA. The Anaconda Company was purchased by Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) on January 12, 1977. ... Antifagass plc (LSE: ANTO) is a mining company which specialises in copper. ... CODELCO (full name in Spanish: Corporación Nacional del Cobre de Chile; in English: Chilean National Copper Corporation) is a state-owned company in Chile and the worlds largest copper producer with estimated 200 years of copper reserves. ... Copper water tubes are usually guaranteed by the manufacturer against manufacturing defects for a period of 25 years. ... The Chino open-pit copper mine in New Mexico. ... Erosion corrosion, also known as impingement damage, is the combined effect of corrosion and erosion caused by rapid flowing turbulent water. ... Although copper most commonly occurs in oxidized states and mixed with other elements, it is found in its native form in various regions of the world. ... Operation Tremor is a joint operation between British Transport Police, Lancashire Constabulary and Network Rail to combat thieves who have been stealing copper boilers and piping and taking copper cables from train tracks, which can disable signalling equipment and safety devices. ... Historic smelter in Florence, Colorado In extractive metallurgy, a smelter is a factory for producing metal by the reduction of ore. ...

References

  1. ^ Earth's Limited Supply of Metals Raises Concern. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  2. ^ Copper Grade A Prices on The London Metal Exchange. Retrieved on 2008-05-29.
  3. ^ Barnaby J. Feder. "Regulators Stamp Copper as a Germ Killer", New York Times, March 26, 2008. 
  4. ^ CSA - Discovery Guides, A Brief History of Copper
  5. ^ Richard Cowen, Essays on Geology, History, and People, Chapter 3: "Fire and Metals: Copper".
  6. ^ harappa.com (Web archive)
  7. ^ J.M. Tebes "A Land whose Stones are Iron, and out of whose Hills You can Dig Copper": The Exploitation and Circulation of Copper in the Iron Age Negev and Edom, DavarLogos 6/1 (2007)]
  8. ^ Thomas C. Pleger, Ph.D. (2000). The Old Copper Complex of the Western Great Lakes. UW-Fox Valley Anthropology. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  9. ^ O’Brien, W. (1997). Bronze Age Copper Mining in Britain and Ireland. Shire Publications Ltd. ISBN 0747803218. 
  10. ^ Timberlake and Prag, 2005
  11. ^ Los Alamos National Laboratory - Copper
  12. ^ a b c d e Ignasi Puigdomenech, Hydra/Medusa Chemical Equilibrium Database and Plotting Software (2004) KTH Royal Institute of Technology, freely downloadable software at [1]
  13. ^ Phyllis J. Kuhn, Ph.D. (1983). Doorknobs: A Source of Nosocomial Infection?. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  14. ^ Noyce JO, Michels H, Keevil CW (2006). "Potential use of copper surfaces to reduce survival of epidemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare environment". J. Hosp. Infect. 63 (3): 289–97. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2005.12.008. PMID 16650507. 
  15. ^ Noyce JO, Michels H, Keevil CW (2006). "Use of copper cast alloys to control Escherichia coli O157 cross-contamination during food processing". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72 (6): 4239–44. doi:10.1128/AEM.02532-05. PMID 16751537. 
  16. ^ Mehtar S, Wiid I, Todorov SD (2008). "The antimicrobial activity of copper and copper alloys against nosocomial pathogens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from healthcare facilities in the Western Cape: an in-vitro study". J. Hosp. Infect. 68 (1): 45–51. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2007.10.009. PMID 18069086. 
  17. ^ Gant VA, Wren MW, Rollins MS, Jeanes A, Hickok SS, Hall TJ (2007). "Three novel highly charged copper-based biocides: safety and efficacy against healthcare-associated organisms". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60 (2): 294–9. doi:10.1093/jac/dkm201. PMID 17567632. 
  18. ^ Noyce JO, Michels H, Keevil CW (2007). "Inactivation of influenza A virus on copper versus stainless steel surfaces". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73 (8): 2748–50. doi:10.1128/AEM.01139-06. PMID 17259354. 
  19. ^ Copper Trends: Live Metal Spot Prices, MetalSpotPrice.com
  20. ^ New Scientist. May 26, 2007.
  21. ^ Brown, Lester (2006). Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble. New York: W.W. Norton, 109. ISBN 0393328317. 
  22. ^ Andrew Leonard (2006-03-02). Peak copper? (English). Salon - How the World Works. Retrieved on 2008-03-23.
  23. ^ Applications for Copper
  24. ^ Berg, Jan. Why did we paint the library's roof?. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
  25. ^ Copper Development Association, UK
  26. ^ a b US Mint specifications.
  27. ^ Royal (i.e. United Kingdom) Mint specifications.
  28. ^ Royal Australian Mint specifications.
  29. ^ Change For The Better/Q & A/Technical Questions
  30. ^ Cupron Antimicrobial
  31. ^ Horseshoe Crab Fun Facts NOAA and Univ. of Delaware
  32. ^ National Research Council. Copper. In: Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington, D.C.: Food Nutrition Board, NRC/NAS, 1980: 151-154.
  33. ^ Copper Sulfate
  34. ^ Held KD et al. (May 1996). "Role of Fenton chemistry in thiol-induced toxicity and apoptosis". Radiat Res. 145 (5): 542–53. doi:10.2307/3579272. 

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Further reading

  • Copper: Technology & Competitiveness (Summary) Chapter 6: Copper Production Technology. Office of Technology Assessment (2005).
  • Current Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 12, Number 10, May 2005, pp. 1161-1208(48) Metals, Toxicity and Oxidative Stress
  • William D. Callister (2003). Materials Science and Engineering: an Introduction, 6th Ed.. Table 6.1 p137.: Wiley, New York. ISBN 0471736961. 
  • Material: Copper (Cu), bulk, MEMS and Nanotechnology Clearinghouse.
  • Kim BE, Nevitt T, Thiele DJ (2008). "Mechanisms for copper acquisition, distribution and regulation". Nat. Chem. Biol. 4 (3): 176–85. doi:10.1038/nchembio.72. PMID 18277979. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Copper
Look up copper in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • National Pollutant Inventory - Copper and compounds fact sheet
  • Copper Resource Page. Includes 12 PDF files detailing the material properties of various kinds of copper, as well as various guides and tools for the copper industry.
  • The Copper Development Association has an extensive site of properties and uses of copper; it also maintains a web site dedicated to brass, a copper alloy.
  • The Third Millennium Online page on Copper
  • The WebElements page on Copper
  • Picture in the Element collection from Heinrich Pniok

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Brazen redirects here. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Fe redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [289] g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...


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Copper Mountain Ski Resort - Official Website - Copper Mountain, Colorado (0 words)
Copper Mountain is located in Summit County, Colorado, 75 miles west of Denver in the Colorado Rocky Mountains.
With 2,450 acres of ski and snowboard terrain Copper is perfect for your Colorado winter ski vacation or summer vacation getaway.
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Copper is a metal that occurs naturally in the environment, and also in plants and animals.
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