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Encyclopedia > Copernican system
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Nicolaus Copernicus
Portrait from his hometown, beginning of 16th century
Portrait from his hometown, beginning of 16th century
Born February 19, 1473
Toruń (Thorn), Royal Prussia, (Kingdom of Poland)
Died May 24, 1543
Frombork (Frauenburg), Ermeland, (Kingdom of Poland)
Field Catholic cleric, Mathematician, Astronomer
Alma Mater Cracow Academy
Known for The first modern formulation of a heliocentric theory of the solar system.
Religion Roman Catholic

Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473May 24, 1543) was the astronomer who formulated the first modern heliocentric theory of the solar system. His epochal text, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), is often conceived as the starting point of modern astronomy, as well as a central and defining epiphany in the history of all science. Image File history File links Padlock. ... Copernicus can refer to the following: Nicolaus Copernicus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (556x648, 99 KB) de: Nikolaus Kopernikus (Portrait aus Thorn - Beginn des 16. ... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... Flag Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) Government Monarchy History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... The state formed by Boleslaus I of Poland in 1025 during his coronation. ... Frombork Cathedral, with the Vistula Lagoon in the background Frombork (German: ) is a town in northern Poland, on the Vistula Lagoon in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship, with a population of 2,602 in 2005. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... The state formed by Boleslaus I of Poland in 1025 during his coronation. ... Leonhard Euler is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is the person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet JagielloÅ„ski, often shortened to UJ) is located in Krakow, Poland, and has been ranked by the Times Higher Education Supplement as the best Polish university. ... Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparsion to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the belief that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparsion to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the belief that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... Title page of De revolutionibus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Polish: O obrotach sfer niebieskich) is the seminal work on heliocentric theory and the masterpiece of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant. ... This article is about a feeling, for other meanings see epiphany (disambiguation). ...


Among the great polymaths of the Scientific Revolution, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, jurist, physician, classical scholar, Catholic cleric, governor, administrator, diplomat, economist. Amid these extensive responsibilities, astronomy served as no more than an avocation. Nonetheless, his conception that the sun (rather than the Earth) at the center of the solar system is considered among the most important landmarks in the history of science. Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath. ... // The event which most historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... Leonhard Euler is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is the person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Classics, particularly within the Western University tradition, when used as a singular noun, means the study of the language, literature, history, art, and other aspects of Greek and Roman culture during the time frame known as classical antiquity. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus of Nazareth, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and... A governor or governour (archaic) is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the Head of state; furthermore the title applies to officials with a similar mandate as representatives of a chartered... An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Paul Samuelson, Nobel Prize in Economics winner. ... Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale, from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, a comet, Jupiter, Ceres which lies in the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth & Moon, and Mars. ... Originally, a landmark literally meant a geographic feature used by explorers and others to find their way back or through an area. ... Science is a body of empirical and theoretical knowledge, produced by a global community of researchers, making use of specific techniques for the observation and explanation of real phenomena, this techne summed up under the banner of scientific method. ...

Contents

Biography

Copernicus was born in 1473 in the city of (as then spelled) Thorun in Royal Prussia. He was educated in Cracow, Bologna and Padua, and spent most of his working life in the town (as then spelled) Frawenburg in Warmia, where he died in 1543. Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... Flag Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) Government Monarchy History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Tronco Maestro Riviera: a pedestrian walk along a section of the inland waterway or naviglio interno of Padua. ... Frombork Cathedral, with the Vistula Lagoon in the background Frombork (German: ) is a town in northern Poland, on the Vistula Lagoon in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship, with a population of 2,602 in 2005. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ...


Childhood

Copernicus' childhood home
Copernicus' childhood home

When he was ten years old, his father, a wealthy businessman, copper trader, and respected citizen of Toruń, died. Little is known of Copernicus' mother, Barbara Watzenrode. She was born into a rich merchant's family. It appears she predeceased her husband. Copernicus' maternal uncle, Lucas Watzenrode, a church canon and later Prince-Bishop governor of the Archbishopric of Warmia, reared him and his three siblings after the death of his father. His uncle's position helped Copernicus in the pursuit of a career within the Church, enabling him to devote much time to his astronomy studies. Copernicus had a brother and two sisters: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2112x2917, 1489 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nicolaus Copernicus ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2112x2917, 1489 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nicolaus Copernicus ... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Lucas Watzenrode the Younger (sometimes also Watzelrode), (*30 October 1447 in Thorun, † 29 March 1512, ibi) was bishop of Warmia (Ermland) and uncle of the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ... A canon (from the Latin canonicus and Greek κανωνικωσ relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon). ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ... The Archbishopric of Warmia (formerly Bishopric of Warmia) (Polish: Archidiecezja warmiÅ„ska, Latin: Archidioecesis Varmiensis, German: Erzbistum Ermland) is a bishopric in Poland. ...

  • Andreas became a Augustinian canon at Frombork (Frauenburg).
  • Barbara became a Benedictine nun.
  • Katharina married Barthel Gertner, a businessman and city councilor.

A canon (from the Latin canonicus and Greek κανωνικωσ relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon). ... A Benedictine is a person who follows the Rule of St Benedict. ...

Education

In 1491, Copernicus enrolled at the Cracow Academy (today the Jagiellonian University), where he probably first encountered astronomy. This science soon fascinated him, as shown by his books, which would later be carried off as war booty by the Swedes, during "The Deluge", to the Uppsala University Library. After four years at Cracow, followed by a brief stay back home at Toruń, he went to Italy, where he studied law and medicine at the universities of Bologna and Padua. His bishop-uncle financed his education and wished for him to become a bishop as well. However, while studying canon and civil law at Ferrara, Copernicus met the famous astronomer, Domenico Maria Novara da Ferrara. Copernicus attended Novara's lectures and became his disciple and assistant. The first observations that Copernicus made in 1497, together with Novara, are recorded in Copernicus' epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet JagielloÅ„ski, often shortened to UJ) is located in Krakow, Poland, and has been ranked by the Times Higher Education Supplement as the best Polish university. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Carolina Rediviva, the main building of the library, built 1816-1841 according to the design of Carl Fredrik Sundvall Uppsala University Library in Sweden consists of 19 different branch libraries, with the largest being that housed in the old main library building, Carolina Rediviva. ... Equality and the balancing of our interests under law is symbolised by a blindfold and weighing scales For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ... Medicine is a branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment and possible prevention of disease and injury. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Tronco Maestro Riviera: a pedestrian walk along a section of the inland waterway or naviglio interno of Padua. ... Two bishops assist at the Exhumation of Saint Hubert, who was a bishop too, at the église Saint-Pierre in Liège. ... Canon law is the term used for the internal ecclesiastical law which governs various churches, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion of churches. ... Civil law is the predominant system of law in the world, with its origins in Roman law, and sets out a comprehensive system of rules, usually codified, that are applied and interpreted by judges. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Domenico Maria Novara (Ferrara, 1454-1504) was an astronomer and for 21 years was a professor at Bolognas university, where he became famous as Nicolaus Copernicus teacher. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Title page of De revolutionibus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Polish: O obrotach sfer niebieskich) is the seminal work on heliocentric theory and the masterpiece of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ...

Statue of a seated Copernicus holding a armillary sphere, by Bertel Thorvaldsen, in front of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

In 1497 Copernicus' uncle was ordained Bishop of Warmia, and Copernicus was named a canon at Frauenburg Cathedral, but he waited in Italy for the great Jubilee of 1500. Copernicus went to Rome, where he observed a lunar eclipse and gave some lectures in astronomy and mathematics. Download high resolution version (498x673, 157 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (498x673, 157 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Armillary sphere An armillary sphere (also known as spherical astrolabe) is a model of the celestial sphere, invented by Eratosthenes in 255 BC. Its name comes from the Latin armilla (circle, bracelet), since it has a skeleton made of graduated metal circles linking the poles and representing the equator, the... Bertel Thorvaldsen, portrait by Karl Begas, c. ... Categories: PAN | PAU | Scientific societies | Polish scientific societies | Stub | Education in Poland | Polish institutions | National academies ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Bishops / Bishops of Warmia: 1250-1274 Anselm of Meissen 1278-1300 Heinrich I Fleming 1301-1326 Eberhard of Neisse 1327-1328 Jordan 1329-1334 Heinrich II Wogenap 1337-1349 Herman of Prague 1350-1355 Joannes I of Meissen 1355-1373 Joannes II Stryprock 1373-1401 Heinrich III Sorbom 1401... A canon (from the Latin canonicus and Greek κανωνικωσ relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon). ... Frombork Cathedral, with the Vistula Lagoon in the background Frombork (German: ) is a town in northern Poland, on the Vistula Lagoon in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship, with a population of 2,602 in 2005. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Anglican, Catholic and some Lutheran churches, which serves as the central church of a diocese, and thus as a bishops seat. ... The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi... Total eclipse redirects here. ...


He would thus have visited Frombork (Frauenburg) only in 1501. As soon as he arrived, he requested and obtained permission to return to Italy to complete his studies at Padua (with Guarico and Fracastoro) and at Ferrara (with Giovanni Bianchini), where in 1503 he received his doctorate in canon law. It has been surmised that it was in Padua that he encountered passages from Cicero and Plato about opinions of the ancients on the movement of the Earth, and formed the first intuition of his own future theory. It was in 1504 that Copernicus began collecting observations and ideas pertinent to his theory. 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Guárico State Anthem State motto: Si amas la libertad, ven a mis pampas (English: If you love liberty, come to my plains) Location whithin Venezuela Created (given current status) 1900 State capital San Juan de los Morros Area 64,986 km² Population (2001 est. ... Girolamo Fracastoro (Fracastorius) (1478‑1553) was an Italian physician, scholar and poet. ... Giovanni Bianchini (in Latin, Johannes Blanchinus) (1410-ca. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Classical pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Work

Having left Italy at the end of his studies, he came to live and work at Frombork (Frauenburg). Some time before his return to Warmia, he had received a position at the Collegiate Church of the Holy Cross in Breslaw in Silesia in Germania 1635 map, which he would attend to for many years and only resign for health reasons shortly before his death. Through the rest of his life, he performed astronomical observations and calculations, but only as time permitted and never in a professional capacity. Wrocław ( ; German: ; Czech: ; Latin: Wratislavia or Vratislavia) is the capital of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River (Odra). ... Prussian Silesia, 1871, outlined in yellow; Silesia at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763, outlined in cyan (areas now in the Czech Republic were Austrian-ruled at that time) Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślonsk / Ślónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ...


Copernicus as monetary reformer

Copernicus worked for years with the Royal Prussian Diet on monetary reform and published studies on the value of money; as governor of Warmia, he administered taxes and dealt out justice. It was at this time (beginning in 1519, the year of Thomas Gresham's birth) that Copernicus formulated one of the earliest iterations of the theory that 'bad' (or debased) money will drive 'good' legal-tender money out of circulation, now known as "Gresham's Law." During these years, he also traveled extensively on government business and as a diplomat, on behalf of the Prince-Bishop of Warmia. In 1505, Nicolaus Copernicus moved to the Prussian Prince-Bishopric of Warmia,(now in northern Poland). ... Flag Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) Government Monarchy History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... Economics offers various definitions for money, though it is now commonly defined by the functions attached to any good or token that functions in trade as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Portrait by Anthonis Mor, c. ... Greshams law is commonly stated as: When there is a legal tender currency, this bad money drives good money out of circulation. A more correct rendering of Greshams Law is that When there is a legal tender currency, this bad money drives out good if they exchange for... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ...


Development of his Heliocentric model

In 1514 he made his Commentariolus (Little Commentary) — a short handwritten text describing his ideas about the heliocentric hypothesis — available to friends. Thereafter he continued gathering data for a more detailed work. During the war between the Teutonic Order and the Kingdom of Poland (15191524), Copernicus at the head of royal troops successfully defended Allenstein, besieged by the forces of Albert of Brandenburg. 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commentariolus (litte commentary) is a manuscript of Nicolaus Copernicus in which he outlines his revolutionary theory of the solar system. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Olsztyn ( ; German: ; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini) is a city in northeast Poland, on the Łyna river. ... Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Albrecht in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello grand duke of Lithuania and...

The astronomer Copernicus: Conversation with God. Painting by Jan Matejko
The astronomer Copernicus: Conversation with God. Painting by Jan Matejko

In 1533, Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter delivered a series of lectures in Rome, outlining Copernicus' theory. These lectures were heard with interest by several Catholic cardinals and Pope Clement VII. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter (born 1506 in Nellingen/Blaubeuren near Ulm; died 28 March 1557 in Regensburg), also called Widmestadius or Albert Widmannstadt, was a humanist, orientalist, philologer, and theologer In 1533, as secretary of Nikolaus Cardinal von Schönberg, he delivered a series of lectures in Rome, outlining Nicolaus Copernicus... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII and other Popes named Clement see Pope Clement. ...


By 1536, Copernicus' work was nearing its definitive form, and rumors about his theory had reached educated people all over Europe. From many parts of the continent, Copernicus was urged to publish. Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


In a letter dated Rome, 1 November 1536, the Archbishop of Capua Nikolaus Cardinal von Schönberg asked Copernicus to communicate his ideas more widely and requested a copy for himself: Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Capua, also called the Archdiocese of Capua, is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ... Nikolaus Cardinal von Schönberg (born 11 August 1472 in Roth-Schönberg near Meissen, Saxony/Germany, died 7 September 1537 in Capua, Italy) was an Archbishop of Capua. ...

"Therefore, learned man, without wishing to be inopportune, I beg you most emphatically to communicate your discovery to the learned world, and to send me as soon as possible your theories about the Universe, together with tables and whatever else you have pertaining to the subject."

It has been suggested that this letter may have made Copernicus leery of publication[1], while others have suggested that it indicated that the Church wanted to ensure that his ideas were published[citation needed].


Despite urgings from many quarters, Copernicus delayed with the publication of his book — perhaps from fear of criticism delicately expressed in the "Dedication to Pope Paul III" associated with his great book. About this, historians of science David Lindberg and Ronald Numbers wrote: In his 1543 book entitled, The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Nicolaus Copernicus outlined his mathematical exposition which revived the concept -- and more importantly confirmed -- that the Earth was not the center of the universe, but instead rotated around the Sun. ... Title page of De revolutionibus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Polish: O obrotach sfer niebieskich) is the seminal work on heliocentric theory and the masterpiece of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ... Science is a body of empirical and theoretical knowledge, produced by a global community of researchers, making use of specific techniques for the observation and explanation of real phenomena, this techne summed up under the banner of scientific method. ...

"If Copernicus had any genuine fear of publication, it was the reaction of scientists, not clerics, that worried him. Other churchmen before him — Nicole Oresme (a French bishop) in the fourteenth century and Nicolaus Cusanus (a German cardinal) in the fifteenth — had freely discussed the possible motion of the earth, and there was no reason to suppose that the reappearance of this idea in the sixteenth century would cause a religious stir." [3].

Nicolas Oresme (c. ... Two bishops assist at the Exhumation of Saint Hubert, who was a bishop too, at the église Saint-Pierre in Liège. ... Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa (ca. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ...

Publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium

Copernicus was still working on De revolutionibus (even if not convinced that he wanted to publish it) when in 1539 Georg Joachim Rheticus, a mathematician from Wittenberg, arrived in Frombork. Philipp Melanchthon had arranged for Rheticus to visit several astronomers and study with them. Rheticus became a pupil of Copernicus, staying with him for two years, during which he wrote a book, Narratio prima (First Account), outlining the essence of Copernicus' theory. In 1542, Rheticus published a treatise on trigonometry by Copernicus (later included in the second book of De revolutionibus). Under strong pressure from Rheticus, and having seen the favorable first general reception of his work, Copernicus finally agreed to give the book to his close friend, Tiedemann Giese, bishop of Chełmno (Kulm), to be delivered to Rheticus for printing by Johannes Petreius at Nuremberg (Nürnberg). Title page of De revolutionibus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Polish: O obrotach sfer niebieskich) is the seminal work on heliocentric theory and the masterpiece of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Georg Joachim von Lauchen Rheticus was born in 1514 at Feldkirch, Austria and died in 1574 at Kosice, Hungary. ... Leonhard Euler is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is the person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Georg Joachim von Lauchen a. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Trigonometry Trigonometry (from the Greek trigonon = three angles and metron = measure [1]) is a branch of mathematics which deals with triangles, particularly triangles in a plane where one angle of the triangle is 90 degrees (right triangles). ... Title page of De revolutionibus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Polish: O obrotach sfer niebieskich) is the seminal work on heliocentric theory and the masterpiece of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ... Tiedemann Giese (June 1, 1480 - October 23, 1550) of the Patrician family Giese from Gdańsk became bishop of Chełmno, then bishop of Warmia. ... Two bishops assist at the Exhumation of Saint Hubert, who was a bishop too, at the église Saint-Pierre in Liège. ... CheÅ‚mno (-Polish, German: Kulm) is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995) and the historical capital of CheÅ‚mno Land. ... Johann(es) Petreius (died 1550) was a German printer in Nuremberg. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ...


Legend has it that the first printed copy of De revolutionibus was placed in Copernicus' hands on the very day he died, allowing him to take farewell of his opus vitae (life's work). He is reputed to have woken from a stroke-induced coma, looked at his book, and died peacefully. Title page of De revolutionibus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Polish: O obrotach sfer niebieskich) is the seminal work on heliocentric theory and the masterpiece of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ... A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA),[1] is an acute neurological injury in which the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted. ... Comatose redirects here. ...


Copernicus was buried in Frombork Cathedral. Archeologists had long searched vainly for his remains when, on November 3, 2005, it was announced that in August that year Copernicus' skull had been discovered (see "Grave" below). November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Copernican heliocentric system

Split from main article Nicolaus Copernicus in order to concentrate on his work: // Much has been written about earlier heliocentric theories. ...

Earlier theories

Much has been written about earlier heliocentric theories. Early traces of a heliocentric model are found in several Vedic Sanskrit texts composed in ancient India before the 7th century BC. Therefore, some state that Aryabhata in India anticipated Copernicus' work by over 1,000 years. Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparsion to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the belief that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... The history of India begins with the archaeological record of Homo sapiens ca. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... Statue of Aryabhata on the grounds of IUCAA, Pune. ...


Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC had developed some theories of Heraclides Ponticus (speaking of a revolution by Earth on its axis) to propose what was, so far as is known, the first serious model of a heliocentric solar system. His work about a heliocentric system has not survived, so one may only speculate about what led him to his conclusions. It is notable that, according to Plutarch, a contemporary of Aristarchus accused him of impiety for "putting the Earth in motion." Statue of Aristarchus at Aristoteles University in Thessaloniki, Greece Aristarchus (310 BC - c. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 3rd century BC started on January 1, 300 BC and ended on December 31, 201 BC. // Events The Pyramid of the Moon, one of several monuments built in Teotihuacán Teotihuacán, Mexico begun The first two Punic Wars between Carthage... Heraclides Ponticus (387 - 312 BCE), also known as Heraklides, was a Greek philosopher who lived and died at Heraclea, now Eregli, Turkey. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Copernicus cited Aristarchus and Philolaus in an early manuscript of his book which survives, stating: "Philolaus believed in the mobility of the earth, and some even say that Aristarchus of Samos was of that opinion." For reasons unknown (although possibly out of reluctance to quote pre-Christian sources), he did not include this passage in the publication of his book. It has been argued that in developing the mathematics of heliocentrism Copernicus drew on, not just the Greek, but the Islamic tradition of mathematics and astronomy, especially the works of Nasir al-Din Tusi, Mu’ayyad al-Din al-‘Urdi and ibn al-Shatir. Statue of Aristarchus at Aristoteles University in Thessaloniki, Greece Aristarchus (310 BC - circa 230 BC) was a Greek astronomer and mathematician, born in Samos, Greece. ... Philolaus (circa 480 BC – circa 405 BC) was a Greek mathematician and philosopher. ... Samos (Greek Σάμος; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an island in southeastern Greece in the Aegean Sea, off the coast of Turkey. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ...


The Ptolemaic system

The prevailing theory in Europe as Copernicus was writing was that created by Ptolemy in his Almagest, dating from about 150 A.D.. The Ptolemaic system drew on many previous theories that viewed Earth as a stationary center of the universe. Stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated relatively rapidly, while the planets dwelt in smaller spheres between — a separate one for each planet. World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... Almagest is the Latin form of the Arabic name (al-kitabu-l-mijisti, i. ... The Roman army consists of 400,000 men. ... Mediaeval drawing of the Ptolemaic system. ...


Copernican theory

Copernicus' major theory was published in the book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) during the year of his death, 1543, though he had arrived at his theory several decades earlier. Title page of De revolutionibus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Polish: O obrotach sfer niebieskich) is the seminal work on heliocentric theory and the masterpiece of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ...


The Copernican system can be summarized in seven propositions, as Copernicus himself collected them in a Compendium of De revolutionibus that was found and published in 1878. Title page of De revolutionibus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Polish: O obrotach sfer niebieskich) is the seminal work on heliocentric theory and the masterpiece of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The seven parts of Copernicus' theory are:

  1. There is no one center in the universe
  2. The Earth's center is not the center of the universe
  3. The center of the universe is near the sun
  4. The distance from the Earth to the sun is imperceptible compared with the distance to the stars
  5. The rotation of the Earth accounts for the apparent daily rotation of the stars
  6. The apparent annual cycle of movements of the sun is caused by the Earth revolving around the sun
  7. The apparent retrograde motion of the planets is caused by the motion of the Earth, from which one observes

The work itself was then divided into six books:

  1. General vision of the heliocentric theory, and a summarized exposition of his idea of the World
  2. Mainly theoretical, presents the principles of spherical astronomy and a list of stars (as a basis for the arguments developed in the subsequent books)
  3. Mainly dedicated to the apparent motions of the Sun and to related phenomena
  4. Description of the Moon and its orbital motions
  5. Concrete exposition of the new system
  6. Concrete exposition of the new system (continued)

Copernicus and Copernicanism

Nicolaus Copernicus.
Nicolaus Copernicus.

Copernicus' theory is of extraordinary importance in the history of human knowledge. Many authors suggest that only a few other persons have exerted a comparable influence on human culture in general and on science in particular.[citation needed] There are clear parallels with the life of Charles Darwin, in that both produced a short early description of their theories, but held back on a definitive publication until late in life, against a backdrop of controversy, particularly with regard to religion. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an eminent English naturalist who achieved lasting fame by convincing the scientific community that species develop over time from a common origin. ...


Many meanings have been ascribed to Copernicus' theory, apart from its strictly scientific import. His work affected religion as well as science, dogma as well as freedom of scientific inquiry. Copernicus' rank as a scientist is often compared with that of Galileo. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... For the film Dogma, see Dogma (film) Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... Mohandas K. Gandhi - Freedom can be achieved through inner sovereignty. ... KDFSAJFKASJDKFJASDKLJFDKLASJFLKJASKLFJLAKSJFLKSJALFKJSKLJFto the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. ...


Copernicus' work contradicted then-accepted religious dogma: it could be inferred that there was no need of an entity (God) that granted a soul, power and life to the World and to human beings — science could explain everything that was attributed to Him. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The soul, acording to many religious and philosophical traditions, is a self-aware ethereal substance particular to a unique living being. ...


Copernicanism, however, also opened a way to immanence, the view that a divine force, or a divine being, pervades all things that exist — a view that has since been developed further in modern philosophy. Immanentism also leads to subjectivism: to the theory that it is perception that creates reality, that there is no underlying reality that exists independent of perception. Thus some argue that Copernicanism demolished the foundations of medieval science and metaphysics. Immanence, derived from the Latin in manere to remain within, refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of the divine as existing and acting within the mind or the world. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ...


A corollary of Copernicanism is that scientific law need not be congruent with appearance. This contrasts with Aristotle's system, which placed much more importance on the derivation of knowledge through the senses. Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...


Copernicus' concept marked a scientific revolution. The publication of his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium is often taken to be the beginning of the Scientific Revolution, together with the publication of the De Humani Corporis Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius [4]. Title page of De revolutionibus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (English: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Polish: O obrotach sfer niebieskich) is the seminal work on heliocentric theory and the masterpiece of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. ... // The event which most historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... The title page of the Fabrica. ... Andreas Vesalius (portrait from the Fabrica). ...


Quotes

Goethe: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ...

"Of all discoveries and opinions, none may have exerted a greater effect on the human spirit than the doctrine of Copernicus. The world had scarcely become known as round and complete in itself when it was asked to waive the tremendous privilege of being the center of the universe. Never, perhaps, was a greater demand made on mankind — for by this admission so many things vanished in mist and smoke! What became of our Eden, our world of innocence, piety and poetry; the testimony of the senses; the conviction of a poetic — religious faith? No wonder his contemporaries did not wish to let all this go and offered every possible resistance to a doctrine which in its converts authorized and demanded a freedom of view and greatness of thought so far unknown, indeed not even dreamed of."

Nietzsche: Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a German philologist and philosopher. ...

"I was pleased to think of the right of the Polish nobleman to upset with its simple veto the resolution of a (parliament) meeting; and the Pole Copernikus seemed to have made from this right against the resolution and all appearances of other people the largest and worthiest use."

Copernicus:

"For I am not so enamored of my own opinions that I disregard what others may think of them. I am aware that a philosopher's ideas are not subject to the judgment of ordinary persons, because it is his endeavor to seek the truth in all things, to the extent permitted to human reason by God. Yet I hold that completely erroneous views should be shunned. Those who know that the consensus of many centuries has sanctioned the conception that the earth remains at rest in the middle of the heaven as its center would, I reflected, regard it as an insane pronouncement if I made the opposite assertion that the earth moves.
"For when a ship is floating calmly along, the sailors see its motion mirrored in everything outside, while on the other hand they suppose that they are stationary, together with everything on board. In the same way, the motion of the earth can unquestionably produce the impression that the entire universe is rotating.
"Therefore alongside the ancient hypotheses, which are no more probable, let us permit these new hypotheses also to become known, especially since they are admirable as well as simple and bring with them a huge treasure of very skillful observations. So far as hypotheses are concerned, let no one expect anything certain from astronomy, which cannot furnish it, lest he accept as the truth ideas conceived for another purpose, and depart from this study a greater fool than when he entered it. Farewell."

Declaration of the Polish Senate issued on 12th of June 2003. The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ...

"At the time of five hundred and thirtieth anniversary of the birth and four hundred sixtieth anniversary of the death of Mikołaj Kopernik, the Senate of the Republic of Poland expresses its highest respect and praise for this exceptional Pole, one of the greatest scientists in the history of the world. Mikołaj Kopernik, world-famous astronomer and author of the breakthrough work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, is the one who "Held the Sun and moved the Earth". He distinguished himself for the country as exceptional mathematician, economist, lawyer, doctor and priest, as well as defender of the Olsztyn Castle during Polish-Teutonic war. May the memory of his achievements endure and be a source of inspiration for future generations."

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie: ADB, published between 1875 and 1912, Seite 465 Olsztyn ( ; German: ; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini) is a city in northeast Poland, on the Łyna river. ... Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in german language. ...

"The nationality question was a subject of different writings; an honouring controversy over the claim to the founder of our current world view is led between Poles and Germans, but it is already mentioned that over the nationality of parents of the Copernicus nothing sure could be determined; the father seems to be of Slavic birth, the mother to be a German; he was born in a city, whose municipal authorities and educated inhabitants were Germans, which however at present of his birth was under Polish rule; he studied in Krakau in the Polish capital, then in Italy and lived to his end in Frauenburg as a capitular; he wrote Latin and German. In the science he is a man, who does not belong to a nation, his working, his striving belongs to the whole world, and we do not honour the Pole, not the German, in Copernicus but the man of free spirit, the great astronomer, the father of the new astronomy, the author of the true world view."

Johannes Rau (at that time President of Germany) addresses the Polish people in 1999: Wawel Hill. ... The name Frauenburg was given to many towns in German-speaking countries in the Middle Ages. ... Johannes Rau (January 16, 1931 – January 27, 2006) was the President of Germany from July 1, 1999 until June 30, 2004. ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident, formerly Reichspräsident) is Germanys head of state. ...

"Poles and Germans have a common history of great scientists: Today we no longer perceive Copernicus, Hevelius, Schopenhauer, and Fahrenheit as the property of one nation but as representatives of one transnational culture."[5]

Johannes Hevelius Johannes Hevelius (Latin), also called Johann Hewelke, Johannes Höwelcke or Johannes Hewel (in German), or Jan Heweliusz (in Polish), (born January 28, 1611 – died January 28, 1687), was a councillor and mayor in Danzig (Gdańsk). ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860, [1] IPA: ) was a German philosopher, often considered a pessimist. ... Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit) (24 May 1686 in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) – 16 September 1736 in The Hague, Netherlands) was a German physicist and engineer who worked most of his life in the Netherlands. ...

Grave

Frombork Cathedral — Copernicus' burial place.
Frombork Cathedral — Copernicus' burial place.

In August 2005, a team of archeologists led by Jerzy Gąssowski, head of an archaeology and anthropology institute in Pułtusk, discovered what they believe to be Copernicus' grave and remains, after scanning beneath the floor of Frombork Cathedral. The find came after a year of searching, and the discovery was announced only after further research, on November 3. Gąssowski said he was "almost 100 percent sure it is Copernicus". Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2016 KB) Summary author: Maciej SzczepaÅ„czyk - user Mathiasrex Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Frombork Nicolaus Copernicus Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2016 KB) Summary author: Maciej SzczepaÅ„czyk - user Mathiasrex Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Frombork Nicolaus Copernicus Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Initiation rite of the Yao people of Malawi Anthropology (from the Greek word , man or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... City hall PuÅ‚tusk is a town in Poland by the river Narew, 70 km north of Warsaw. ... Frombork Cathedral, with the Vistula Lagoon in the background Frombork (German: ) is a town in northern Poland, on the Vistula Lagoon in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship, with a population of 2,602 in 2005. ...


Forensic expert Capt. Dariusz Zajdel of the Central Forensic Laboratory of the Polish Police used the skull to reconstruct a face that closely resembled the features — including a broken nose and a scar above the left eye — on a Copernicus self-portrait [6]. The expert also determined that the skull had belonged to a man who had died about age 70 — Copernicus' age at the time of his death. Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ...


The grave was in poor condition, and not all the remains were found. The archeologists hoped to find deceased relatives of Copernicus in order to attempt DNA identification. The structure of part of a DNA double helix. ...


Historical background to the question of Copernicus' nationality

Bust of Copernicus at Jordan Park, Kraków.
Bust of Copernicus at Jordan Park, Kraków.

It remains to this day a matter of dispute whether Copernicus should be called German or Polish.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (814x964, 472 KB)Bust of Nicolaus Copernicus at Jordan Park, Kraków. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (814x964, 472 KB)Bust of Nicolaus Copernicus at Jordan Park, Kraków. ...


Copernicus' father, likewise named Nicolaus, might have had the surname Koppernigk, which could have been derived from a village in Silesia near Nysa (Neiße) which was called Köppernig until 1945, and is called Koperniki since. A Polish theory says that the original ending –nik in Copernicus' name indicates its Polish form, meaning a person who works with copper[7]. The Polish modern word for copper is Miedź, though, while the German is Kupfer. However, "Kopernik" may as well refer to a Polish word "koper" which stands for a herb - fennel(Foeniculum vulgare) Prussian Silesia, 1871, outlined in yellow; Silesia at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763, outlined in cyan (areas now in the Czech Republic were Austrian-ruled at that time) Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlonsk / Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Nysa (German Neisse or Neiße) is a town in south-western Poland on the Nysa Kłodzka river, with 52,000 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Opole Voivodship. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ...


In the title of his famous book, his name is written as "Nicolai Copernici Torinensis De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, Libri VI", roughly meaning "Nicolaus' Copernicus' of Torin six books on ...". In the German: Nikolaus Kopernikus, each C was substituted with K to clarify pronunciation (not Z as in the German pronunciation of Cicero or Caesar). In Poland, Polish: Mikołaj Kopernik is used (or claimed to be his original name). Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Classical pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ... Gaius Julius Caesar[1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply called Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ...


The father of Copernicus, possibly a Germanized Slav [8], had been a citizen of Cracow, but left the (then) capital of Poland in 1460 to move to Thorn/Toruń (German/Polish). That Hanseatic city was also part of the Prussian Confederation, which, some decades before Copernicus' birth, had tried to gain independence from the Teutonic Knights who had ruled the area for two hundred years, but imposed high taxes that were hindering economic development. This led to the Thirteen Years' War and the Second Treaty of Thorn of 1466: Thorn/Toruń and Prussia's western part, called "Royal Prussia", became connected to the Kingdom of Poland, which had supported the uprising, while the eastern part remained under the administration of the Teutonic Order, later to become "Ducal Prussia" The father of Copernicus, possibly a Germanized Slav [9], had been a citizen of Cracow, but left the (then) capital of Poland in 1460 to move to Thorn/Toruń (German/Polish). That Hanseatic city was also part of the Prussian Confederation, which, some decades before Copernicus' birth, had tried to gain independence from the Teutonic Knights who had ruled the area for two hundred years, but imposed high taxes that were hindering economic development. This led to the Thirteen Years' War and the Second Treaty of Thorn of 1466: Thorn/Toruń and Prussia's western part, called "Royal Prussia", became connected to the Kingdom of Poland, which had supported the uprising, while the eastern part remained under the administration of the Teutonic Order, later to become "Ducal Prussia" [10]. Copernicus was born and has grown up in Thorn/Toruń, and was certainly fluent in the German language, while no direct evidence survives of the extent to which he knew the Polish language. His main language for written communication was Latin. Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... On February 21, 1440, a group made up of individuals from the Prussian cities, gentry and clergy, formed the Prussian Confederation (German Preussischer Bund, Polish: ZwiÄ…zek Pruski), under the leadership of the big cities Gdansk, Elblag, and Torun. ... Hermann von Salza (c. ... The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... The Second Treaty of ToruÅ„, Zweiter Friede von Thorn, (also referred to as Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanse city of Thorn/ToruÅ„ on October 19, 1466 between the Polish king, the Prussian cities, and duke of Pomerania on one side, and the Teutonic... Flag Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) Government Monarchy History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... The Prussian Tribute, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1882, 388 x 875 cm, National Museum in Kraków. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... On February 21, 1440, a group made up of individuals from the Prussian cities, gentry and clergy, formed the Prussian Confederation (German Preussischer Bund, Polish: ZwiÄ…zek Pruski), under the leadership of the big cities Gdansk, Elblag, and Torun. ... Hermann von Salza (c. ... The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... The Second Treaty of ToruÅ„, Zweiter Friede von Thorn, (also referred to as Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanse city of Thorn/ToruÅ„ on October 19, 1466 between the Polish king, the Prussian cities, and duke of Pomerania on one side, and the Teutonic... Flag Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) Government Monarchy History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... The Prussian Tribute, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1882, 388 x 875 cm, National Museum in Kraków. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


After his prolonged studies in Italy, Copernicus spent most of his working life as a cleric in Royal Prussia, which enjoyed substantial autonomy as part of the lands of the Polish Crown — it had its own Diet, monetary unit and treasury (which Copernicus famously helped to place on a sound footing) and army. Copernicus also oversaw the defense of Olsztyn/Allenstein at the head of Polish royal forces when the local castle was besieged by the forces of Albrecht I Hohenzollern von Brandenburg-Ansbach, the future (Protestant) Duke of Prussia. He became for the rest of his life a burgher of Prussian Ermland (Bishopric of Warmia), and was a loyal subject of the Catholic Prince-Bishops and the Catholic Polish king during the Protestant Reformation in which many parts of Germany, starting with Ducal Prussia, became Protestant. Flag Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) Government Monarchy History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... Olsztyn ( ; German: ; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini) is a city in northeast Poland, on the Łyna river. ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia i Mazury Municipal government Rada Miasta Olsztyn Mayor Czesław Jerzy Małkowski Area 87,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 173 350 - 1972/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 53°47 N 20°30 E Area code +48 89 Car plates NO Twin... Albert of Prussia Albert I Hohenzollern of Brandenburg-Ansbach (German: ; Latin: Albertus; 16 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of Ducal Prussia, which he made the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Warmia (Polish: Warmia or Warmija, Latin Warmia or Varmia, German Ermland or Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in north-eastern Poland. ... Bishopric of Warmia was one of the bishoprics found by Teutonic Order on the area of newly conquered Prussia. ... Prince Bishops / Bishops of Warmia: 1250-1274 Anselm of Meissen 1278-1300 Heinrich I Fleming 1301-1326 Eberhard of Neisse 1327-1328 Jordan 1329-1334 Heinrich II Wogenap 1337-1349 Herman of Prague 1350-1355 Joannes I of Meissen 1355-1373 Joannes II Stryprock 1373-1401 Heinrich III Sorbom 1401... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Royal and Ducal Prussia in the second half of 16th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with its major subdivisions as of 1619, superimposed on present-day national borders Ducal Prussia, or the Duchy of Prussia (German: ; Polish: ), was a duchy established in 1525 in the eastern part of Prussia, as western...


In 1757 Copernicus's book was removed from the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, the list of books which were banned by the Catholic Church. Ever since, Poles claimed that Copernicus was a Pole and Germans that he was a German. Before that, when Copernicus and his ideas were rejected, it was contrariwise [11]. A bust of Copernicus is enshrined since 1842 in the Walhalla, German Hall of Fame. In Nazi Germany attempts were made to claim that Copernicus was exclusively a German;[3] however, after 1945 those attempts have greatly diminished. Despite the acknowledgement of his connections to Poland he is certainly not considered in Germany as Un-German or Non-German either. In 2003 he was declared eligible for the Unsere Besten ranking of outstanding Germans. Venetiis, M. D. LXIIII. The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) is a list of publications which the Catholic Church censored for being a danger to itself and the faith of its members. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... View of the Walhalla from the Danube View of the Walhalla main hall The Walhalla, Hall of Fame and Honor is a hall of fame located on the Danube River 10 km from Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Unsere Besten (Our Best) was a television series shown in German public television (ZDF) in November 2003, similar to the BBC series 100 Greatest Britons. ...

Polish banknote of 1982, with Copernicus identified, in Polish, as "MIKOŁAJ KOPERNIK."
Polish banknote of 1982, with Copernicus identified, in Polish, as "MIKOŁAJ KOPERNIK."

In Poland, on the other hand, his 500th birthday was celebrated in 1973, emphasizing his Polishness. A banknote with an image of Copernicus was issued, and the Polish Senate called him on 12 June 2003 an "exceptional Pole". File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ISO 4217 Code PLN User(s) Poland Inflation 2. ...


Today he is often classified as Polish, in part based on the location of his birthplace in then and present-day Poland, though not only limited to that. It must be remembered though that during Copernicus' lifetime, nationality was yet to play as important a role as it would later, and people generally did not think of themselves primarily as Poles or Germans.[4] In fact, Copernicus might have considered himself to be both at the same time.


See also

In his 1543 book entitled, The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Nicolaus Copernicus outlined his mathematical exposition which revived the concept -- and more importantly confirmed -- that the Earth was not the center of the universe, but instead rotated around the Sun. ... Copernicus can refer to the following: Nicolaus Copernicus. ... The terms inferior planet and superior planet were coined by Copernicus to distinguish a planets orbits size in relation to the Earths. ... Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath. ... The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe generally. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Copernicus biography at ScienceWorld Koyré, A. The Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus-Kepler-Borelli. New York: Dover, 1973. ISBN 0-486-27095-5
  2. ^ Stuart Parkes, Understanding Contemporary Germany. ISBN 0-415-14123-0
  3. ^ Diemut Majer, Non-Germans Under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and occupied Eastern Europe with special regard to occupied Poland, 1939-1945, [1]. ISBN 0-8018-6493-3
  4. ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland, [2]. ISBN 0-231-05353-3.

References

  • Angus Armitage (1951). The World of Copernicus, New York: Mentor Books. ISBN 0-8464-0979-8.
  • Owen Gingerich (2004). The Book Nobody Read, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-303476-6.
  • David C. Goodman and Colin A. Russell, eds. (1991). The Rise of Scientific Europe, 1500-1800. Dunton Green, Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder & Stoughton: The Open University. ISBN 0-340-55861-X.
  • Arthur Koestler - The Sleepwalkers (A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe) [12]
  • Alexandre Koyré (1973) The Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus – Kepler – Borelli, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0504-1.
  • Thomas Kuhn (1957). The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-17100-4.

Prof. ... Owen Gingerich Owen Gingerich (born 1930) is an American astronomer and historian of science. ... David Goodman may refer to: David Goodman, Mother Jones magazine reporter and brother of journalist Amy Goodman. ... Arthur Koestler Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... Alexandre Koyré Alexandre Koyré (1882/1892, Taganrog - April 28, 1964, Paris) was a French philosopher of Russian origin who wrote on history and the philosophy of science. ... Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American intellectual who wrote extensively on the history of science and developed several important notions in the philosophy of science. ...

Further reading

  • Danielson, Dennis, "The First Copernican: Georg Joachim Rheticus and the Rise of the Copernican Revolution", Walker & Company, 2006, ISBN 0-8027-1530-3

Georg Joachim von Lauchen Rheticus was born in 1514 at Feldkirch, Austria and died in 1574 at Kosice, Hungary. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Nicolaus Copernicus
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Nicolaus Copernicus
Primary Sources
  • O'Connor, John J., and Edmund F. Robertson. "Nicolaus Copernicus". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
  • Works by Nicolaus Copernicus at Project Gutenberg
  • De Revolutionibus, autograph manuscript — Full digital facsimile, Jagiellonian University
  • (Polish) Copernicus' letters to various celebrities, among others the King Sigmundus I of Poland
General
  • Nicolaus Copernicus Museum in Frombork
  • Portraits of Copernicus: Copernicus' face reconstructed; Portrait; Nicolaus Copernicus
  • Copernicus and Astrology — Cambridge University: Copernicus had – of course – teachers with astrological activities and his tables were later used by astrologers.
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry
  • Find-A-Grave profile for Nicolaus Copernicus
  • 'Body of Copernicus' identified — BBC article including image of Copernicus using facial reconstruction based on located skull
  • Copernicus and Astrology
  • Nicolaus Copernicus on the 1000 Polish Zloty banknote.
  • Short biography of Nicholas Copernicus with links to influences and influenced.
About De Revolutionibus
  • The Copernican Universe from the De Revolutionibus
  • De Revolutionibus, 1543 first edition — Full digital facsimile, Lehigh University
  • The front page of the De Revolutionibus
  • The text of the De Revolutionibus
  • A java applet about Retrograde Motion
Legacy
  • (Italian) Copernicus in Bologna — in Italian
  • Chasing Copernicus: The Book Nobody Read — Was One of the Greatest Scientific Works Really Ignored? All Things Considered. NPR
  • Copernicus and his Revolutions — A detailed critique of the rhetoric of De Revolutionibus
  • Article which discusses Copernicus's debt to the Arabic tradition
German-Polish Cooperations
  • (German)(Polish) German-Polish school project on Copernicus
  • (German)(English)(Polish) Büro Kopernikus - An initiative of German Federal Cultural Foundation
  • (German)(Polish) German-Polish "Copernicus Prize" awarded to German and Polish scientists (DFG website) (FNP website)

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tychonian system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (384 words)
The Tychonian system was an effort by Tycho Brahe to create a model of the solar system which would combine what he saw as the mathematical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical and "physical" benefits of the Ptolemaic system.
It can be shown through a geometric argument that the motions of the planets and the sun relative to the Earth in the Tychonian system are equivalent to the motions in the Copernican system, and the Tychonian system has the advantage of not predicting stellar parallax, which was not observable until the 19th century.
Ultimately the Tychonian system was rejected along with the Copernican system by the observations of Brahe himself, which were used by Johannes Kepler to demonstrate that the orbits of the planets are ellipses and not circles.
World Almanac for Kids (129 words)
COPERNICAN SYSTEM, systematic explanation of the movement of the planets around the sun; advanced in 1543 by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
The Copernican system advanced the theories that the earth and the planets are all revolving in orbits around the sun, and that the earth is spinning on its north-south axis from west to east at the rate of one rotation per day.
Publication of the Copernican system stimulated the study of astronomy and mathematics and laid the basis for the discoveries of the German astronomer Johannes Kepler and the British astronomer Sir Isaac Newton.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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