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Encyclopedia > Copepod
Copepod

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Maxillopoda
Orders

Calanoida
Cyclopoida
Gelyelloida
Harpacticoida
Misophrioida
Monstrilloida
Mormonilloida
Platycopioida
Poecilostomatoida
Siphonostomatoida Copepod photo, by Uwe Kils GFDL larger images on http://www. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Sub-classes Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Maxillopoda is a class of crustaceans, characterised by a reduction of the abdomen and its appendages. ... The order calanoida consist of amoung others the Family Bold textAcartiidaeBold text whish again consist of amoung others the Genus Bold textItalic textAcartiaItalic textBold text Dana, 1846. ... Families Archinotodelphyidae Ascidicolidae Buproridae Chordeumiidae Cucumaricolidae Cyclopidae Cyclopinidae Fratiidae Lernaeidae Mantridae Notodelphyidae Oithonidae Ozmanidae Speleoithonidae Thaumatopsyllidae (From ) Cyclopoida is an order of small crustaceans from the subclass Copepoda. ... Families There are 54 families: Adenopleurellidae Aegisthidae Ambunguipedidae Ameiridae Ancorabolidae Argestidae Balaenophilidae Cancrincolidae Canthocamptidae Canuellidae Cerviniidae Chappuisiidae Cletodidae Cletopsyllidae Clytemnestridae Cristacoxidae Cylindropsyllidae Darcythompsoniidae Diosaccidae Ectinosomatidae Euterpinidae Hamondiidae Harpacticidae Huntemanniidae Laophontidae Laophontopsidae Latiremidae Leptastacidae Leptopontiidae Longipediidae Louriniidae Metidae Miraciidae Neobradyidae Normanellidae Novocriniidae Orthopsyllidae Paramesochridae Parastenheliidae Parastenocarididae Peltidiidae Phyllognathopodidae Porcellidiidae Pseudotachidiidae Rhizothricidae... Families See text Poecilostomatoida are plankton-sized crustaceans that are one of two major orders of parasitic copepods previously included in the Cyclopoida. ... Families There are 45 families: Artotrogidae Ascomyzontidae Asterocheridae Brychiopontiidae Caligidae Calverocheridae Calvocheridae Cancerillidae Catlaphilidae Cecropidae Choniostomatidae Dichelesthiidae Dinopontiidae Dirivultidae Dissonidae Dyspontiidae Entomolepidae Eudactylinidae Euryphoridae Hatschekiidae Herpyllobiidae Hyponeoidae Kroyeriidae Lernaeoceridae Lernaeopodidae Lernanthropidae Megapontiidae Micropontiidae Myzopontiidae Nanaspididae Naobranchiidae Nicothoidae Pandaridae Pennellidae Pontoeciellidae Pseudocycnidae Rataniidae Saccopsidae Sphyriidae Spongiocnizontidae Stellicomitidae Tanypleuridae Trebiidae Ventriculinidae Xenocoelomatidae...

Acanthochondria cornuta, an ectoparasite on Whiting in the North Sea.

Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat and they constitute the biggest source of protein in the oceans.[1] Many species are planktonic, but more are benthic, and some continental species may live in limno-terrestrial habitats and other wet terrestrial places, such as swamps, under leaf fall in wet forests, bogs, springs, ephemeral ponds and puddles, damp moss, or water-filled recesses (phytotelmata) of plants such as bromeliads and pitcher plants. Many live underground in marine and freshwater caves, sinkholes, or stream beds. Copepods are sometimes used as bioindicators (see particle (ecology)). Whiting is the name of several species of fish, see whiting (fish). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... For the SpongeBob SquarePants character, see Plankton (SpongeBob SquarePants). ... Seagrass growing off the coast of the Florida Keys. ... Phytotelmata, or literally from Greek, plants that hold some water. ... Genera See text Bromeliads include epiphytes, such as Spanish moss, and ground plants, such as the Pineapple. ... Pitcher of Nepenthes distillatoria. ... Devils Hole near Hawthorne, Florida, USA. A sinkhole, also known as a sink, shake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline or cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the surface topography caused by the removal of soil or bedrock, often both, by water. ... Any biological species or group of species whose function, population, or status can be used to determine ecosystem level or environmental integrity. ... Particle (ecology) is the term for small objects of nonbiological kind. ...

Contents

Ecology

Planktonic copepods are important to global ecology and the carbon cycle; They are usually the dominant members of the zooplankton, and are major food organisms for small fish, whales, seabirds and other crustaceans such as krill in the ocean and in fresh water. Some scientists say they form the largest animal biomass on earth. They compete for this title with Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). Because of their smaller size and relatively faster growth rates, however, and because they are more evenly distributed throughout more of the world's oceans, copepods almost certainly contribute far more to the secondary productivity of the world's oceans, and to the global ocean carbon sink than krill, and perhaps than all other groups of organisms together. The surface layers of the oceans are currently believed to be the world's largest carbon sink, absorbing about 2 billion tonnes of carbon a year, the equivalent to perhaps a third of human carbon emissions, thus reducing their impact. Many planktonic copepods feed near the surface at night, then sink into deeper water during the day to avoid visual predators. Their moulted exoskeletons, faecal pellets and respiration at depth all bring carbon to the deep sea.
Some copepods are parasitic[2][3] and have strongly modified bodies. They attach themselves to fish, sharks, marine mammals, and many kinds of invertebrates such as molluscs, tunicates, or corals. They live as endo- or ectoparasites on fish or invertebrates in fresh water as well as in marine environments. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Binomial name Dana, 1850 Antarctic krill are eaten by penguins(Euphausia superba) is a species of krill found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean. ... A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is the opposite of a carbon source. ... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is the opposite of a carbon source. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... For the SpongeBob SquarePants character, see Plankton (SpongeBob SquarePants). ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ...


Characteristics

Copepods are typically 1 millimetre (0.039 in) to 2 millimetres (0.079 in) long, with a teardrop shaped body and large antennae. Although like other crustaceans they have an armoured exoskeleton, they are so small that in most species this armour, and the entire body, is almost totally transparent. Copepods have a single eye, usually bright red and in the centre of the transparent head. Some polar copepods reach 1 centimetre (0.39 in). Most of the smaller copepods feed directly on phytoplankton, catching cells singly, but a few of the larger species are predators of their smaller relatives. Herbivorous copepods, particularly those in rich cold seas, store up energy from their food as oil droplets while they feed in the spring and summer plankton blooms. These droplets may take up over half of the volume of the body in polar species. A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ...

Many species have neurons surrounded by myelin, which is very rare among invertebrates (other examples are some annelids and malacostracan crustaceans like palaemonid shrimp and penaeids). Even rarer is the fact that the myelin is highly organized, resembling the well-organized wrapping found in vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2393x3363, 1366 KB) Wikipedia links on Talk: Because the description below is a Wikimedia Commons description page, the links are to Wikimedia Commons pages also. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2393x3363, 1366 KB) Wikipedia links on Talk: Because the description below is a Wikimedia Commons description page, the links are to Wikimedia Commons pages also. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... The 8th print, Discomedusae. ... Myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... For the characters from System Shock 2, see The Many. ... // Subclasses Eumalacostraca Hoplocarida Phyllocarida See text for orders. ... Genera See text. ... Superfamilies Panaeoidea Aristeidae Benthesicymidae Penaeidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Sergestoidea Luciferidae Sergestidae Prawns are edible, shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata. ... Classes Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Osteichthyes Gnathostomata is the group of vertebrates with jaws. ...


Some copepods are very evasive and can jump with extreme speed over a few millimeters (warning: takes some time to load to the correct speed):

Slow-motion macrophotography video (50%) of juvenile Atlantic herring (38 mm) feeding on copepods - the fish approach from below and catch each copepod individually. In the middle of the image a copepod escapes successfully to the left.
Slow-motion macrophotography video (50%) of juvenile Atlantic herring (38 mm) feeding on copepods - the fish approach from below and catch each copepod individually. In the middle of the image a copepod escapes successfully to the left.

This scene was scanned with the ecoSCOPE, an underwater high speed microscope. Very little is known about the details of these kinds of predator/prey interactions, in spite of their importance for global processes, because copepods are difficult to keep in the laboratory and lose most of their escape capacity, and herring are very fast, alert and evasive organisms and flee from normal camera systems or scuba divers. slow motion video (50%) of feeding juvenile herring on copepods produced with ecoSCOPE - image Uwe Kils File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Clupea harengus Linnaeus, 1758 Atlantic herring Clupea harengus is the one of the most abundant species of fish on the planet. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ...

Classification

Copepods form a subclass belonging to the subphylum Crustacea (crustaceans). Some authors consider the copepods to be a full class. The group contains ten orders with some 14,000 described species. A scientist that studies copepods is a copepodologist. In biology, a subclass is one level below a class. ... Classes Remipedia Cephalocarida Branchiopoda Ostracoda Maxillopoda Malacostraca The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods (55,000 species), usually treated as a subphylum. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


Water supply

Copepods are sometimes found in the public mains water supply, especially systems where the water is not filtered, such as New York City and Boston, Massachusetts. This is not usually a problem in treated water supplies. In some tropical countries, such as Peru and Bangladesh, a correlation has been found between copepods and cholera in untreated water, because the cholera bacteria attach to the surfaces of planktonic animals. The risk of cholera from infected water can be reduced by filtering out the copepods (and other matter), for example with a cloth filter. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Boston redirects here. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Developed for use in Bangladesh, the cloth filter is a simple and cost-effective appropriate technology method for reducing the contamination of drinking water. ...


References

  1. ^ Biology of Copepods at Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg
  2. ^ H. L. Suh, J. D. Shim and S. D. Choi (1992). Four Species of Copepoda (Poecilostomatoida) Parasitic on Marine Fishes of Korea. Bulletin of the Korean Fisheries Society 25 (4): 291–300.  (in Korean with English abstract)
  3. ^ See photograph at Blobfish / Psychrolutes microporos (PDF). Census of Marine Life / NIWA; photograph © NORFANZ 2003. Retrieved on 2007-12-09. Photograph taken by Parkinson, Kerryn and McPhee, Robin in June 2003.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg is a university in Oldenburg, Germany. ... The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, commonly abbreviated to NIWA, and known in the Māori language as Taihoro Nukurangi, is a Crown Research Institute of New Zealand. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

See also

  • World Association of Copepodologists
The World Association of Copepodologists (WAC) is a non-profit organization created to promote research on copepods by facilitating communication among interested specialists. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Copepod - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (863 words)
Their moulted exoskeletons, faecal pellets and respiration at depth all bring carbon to the deep sea, and copepods are abundant enough to have an impact on the carbon cycle, and be significant to climate change.
Copepods are sometimes found in the public mains water supply, especially systems where the water is not filtered, such as New York City and Boston, Massachusetts.
Because clupeids (herrings) and copepods are both significant in terms of global biomass, this is the first record of what is one of the largest carbon flows of any animal food-chain transition in the oceans.
copepod - definition of copepod in Encyclopedia (391 words)
Copepods are small, aquatic animals living in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat, a form of plankton, specifically zooplankton, some copepods are parasitic.
Copepods form a subclass belonging to the subphylum crustaceans (some authors consider the copepods as a full class).
As clupeids (herrings) and copepods are amongst the biggest biomasses of the planet this is the first record of what is probably the largest carbon flow of any animal food chain transition in the oceans.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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