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Encyclopedia > Cooperative
The Cloyne Court Hotel, a student co-operative in Berkeley, California, United States.
The Cloyne Court Hotel, a student co-operative in Berkeley, California, United States.

A cooperative (also co-operative or coöperative; often referred to as a co-op or coop) is defined by the International Co-operative Alliance's Statement on the Co-operative Identity as an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise[1]. A cooperative may also be defined as a business owned and controlled equally by the people who use its services or who work at it. Cooperative enterprises are the focus of study in the field of cooperative economics. Cooperatives have a sponsored top-level internet domain .coop, which identifies legally registered or recognized co-operatives. A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) comprises a legal entity owned and democratically controlled by its members, with no passive shareholders. ... Download high resolution version (1596x1018, 390 KB)Cloyne Court Hotel as it exist today, in Berkeley California. ... Download high resolution version (1596x1018, 390 KB)Cloyne Court Hotel as it exist today, in Berkeley California. ... The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental association representing co-operatives and the co-operative movement worldwide. ... The Statement on the Co-operative Identity [1] defines and guides co-operatives worldwide. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... Co-operative economics is a field of economics, socialist economics, Co-operative studies, and political economy, which is concerned with co-operatives. ... .coop is a generic top-level domain intended for the use of cooperatives. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the cooperative movement

Although co-operation as a form of individual and societal behaviour is intrinsic to human organisation, the history of modern co-operative forms of organising dates back to the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. The 'first co-operative' is under some dispute, but there were various milestones. The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperatives. ... In the Earths history there have been a number of agricultural revolutions. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


In 1761, the Fenwick Weavers' Society was formed in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, Scotland to sell discounted oatmeal to local workers. Its services expanded to include assistance with savings and loans, emigration and education. In 1810, social reformer Robert Owen and his partners purchased New Lanark mill from Owen's father-in-law and proceeded to introduce better labour standards including discounted retail shops where profits were passed on to his employees. Owen left New Lanark to pursue other forms of co-operative organisation and develop co-op ideas through writing and lecture. Co-operative communities were set up in Glasgow, Indiana and Hampshire, although ultimately unsuccessful. In 1828, William King set up a newspaper, The Cooperator, to promote Owen's thinking, having already set up a co-operative store in Brighton. Fenwick is a small village and civil parish in the metropolitan borough of Doncaster (part of South Yorkshire, England), on the border with North Yorkshire. ... Logo of East Ayrshire Council East Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... New Lanark is a village on the River Clyde, approximately two kilometres from the Royal Burgh of Lanark, in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Dr. William King (1786-1865) was a British physician and philantropist from Brighton. ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ...


The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is usually considered the first successful co-operative enterprise, used as a model for modern co-ops, following the 'Rochdale Principles'. A group of 28 weavers and other artisans in Rochdale, England set up the society to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. Within ten years there were over 1,000 co-operative societies in the United Kingdom. The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is usually considered the first successful co-operative enterprise, forming the basis for the modern co-operative movement. ... The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. ... For other uses, see Rochdale (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Other events such as the founding of a friendly society by the Tolpuddle Martyrs in 1832 were key occasions in the creation of organised labour and consumer movements. A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society or fraternal organization) is a mutual association for insurance-like purposes, and often, especially in the past, serving ceremonial and friendship purposes also. ... The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of 19th century British labourers led by John Barnwell who were arrested for and convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. ...


Meaning

Cooperatives as legal entities

Although the term may be used loosely to describe a way of working, a cooperative properly so-called is a legal entity owned and democratically controlled equally by its members. The defining point in a cooperative is that the members have a close association with the cooperative as producers or consumers of its products or services, or as its employees. A juristic person is a legal fiction through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were a single composite individual for certain purposes. ...


In some countries, there are specific forms of incorporation for co-operatives, while in others they may take the form of companies limited by shares or by guarantee, partnerships or unincorporated associations. In the USA, cooperatives are often organized as non-capital stock corporations under state-specific cooperative laws. However, they may also be unincorporated associations or business corporations such as limited liability companies or partnerships; such forms are useful when the members want to allow some members a greater share of the control, which may not be allowed under the laws for cooperatives. Cooperatives do not generally pay dividends, but return savings or profits, sometimes known as patronage, to their members. It has been suggested that ex-dividend date be merged into this article or section. ...


Co-operative identity

Cooperatives are based on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, democracy and equality. In the tradition of their founders, cooperative members believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social responsibility and caring for others. Such legal entities have a range of unique social characteristics. Membership is open, meaning that anyone who satisfies certain non-discriminatory conditions may join. Economic benefits are distributed proportionally according to each member's level of economic interest in the cooperative, for instance by a dividend on sales or purchases. Cooperatives may be generally classified as either consumer cooperatives or producer cooperatives.


Types of cooperatives

Housing cooperative

Main article: Housing cooperative

A housing cooperative is a legal mechanism for ownership of housing where residents either own shares (share capital co-op) reflecting their equity in the co-operative's real estate, or have membership and occupancy rights in a not-for-profit co-operative (non-share capital co-op), and they underwrite their housing through paying subscriptions or rent. A housing co-operative is a legal entity, usually a corporation, that owns real estate, one or more residential buildings. ... A housing co-operative is a legal entity, usually a corporation, that owns real estate, one or more residential buildings. ... See stock (disambiguation) for other meanings of the term stock A stock, also referred to as a share, is commonly a share of ownership in a corporation. ... A nonprofit organization (sometimes abbreviated to not-for-profit, non-profit, or NPO) is an organization whose primary objective is to support some issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes. ...


Housing cooperatives come in two basic equity structures:

  • In Market-rate housing cooperatives, members may sell their shares in the cooperative whenever they like for whatever price the market will bear, much like any other residential property. Market-rate co-ops are very common in New York City.
  • Limited equity housing cooperatives, which are often used by affordable housing developers, allow members to own some equity in their home, but limit the sale price of their membership share to that which they paid.

New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Affordable housing is a dwelling where the total housing costs are affordable to those living in that housing unit. ...

Building cooperative

Main article: Building cooperative

Members of a building cooperative (in Britain known as a self-build housing co-operative) pool resources to build housing, normally using a high proportion of their own labour. When the building is finished, each member is the sole owner of a homestead, and the cooperative may be dissolved. Building co-operatives are co-operative housing corporations where individuals or families work together to directly construct their own homes on a co-op basis. ...


This collective effort was at the origin of many of Britain's building societies, which however developed into "permanent" mutual savings and loan organisations, a term which persisted in some of their names (such as the former Leeds Permanent). Nowadays such self-building may be financed using a step-by-step mortgage which is released in stages as the building is completed. The term may also refer to worker co-operatives in the building trade.R Building society was the name given in 19th century Britain for working mens co_operative savings groups: by pooling savings, members could buy or build their own homes. ... A mutual organization (or society) is a cooperative organization (which is often, but not always, a company or business) based on the principle of mutuality. ... A savings and loan association is a financial institution which specializes in accepting savings deposits and making mortgage loans. ... This article is about the legal mechanism used to secure property in favor of a creditor. ...


Retailers' cooperative

An annual general meeting of a retail co-operative in England, 2005.
An annual general meeting of a retail co-operative in England, 2005.

A retailers' cooperative (often known as a secondary or marketing co-operative in the UK) is an organization which employs economies of scale on behalf of its members to get discounts from manufacturers and to pool marketing. It is common for locally-owned grocery stores, hardware stores and pharmacies. In this case the members of the cooperative are businesses rather than individuals. Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 435 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 435 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A retailers cooperative or consumer cooperative is a business entity which employs economies of scale on behalf of its members to get discounts from manufacturers and to pool marketing. ... A retailers cooperative or consumer cooperative is a business entity which employs economies of scale on behalf of its members to get discounts from manufacturers and to pool marketing. ... The increase in output from Q to Q2 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ... Hardware Store is also the title of a song by Weird Al Yankovic from his 2003 album Poodle Hat. Hardware stores sell hardware, tools, and building supplies; for instance: allen wrenches, gerbil feeders, toilet seats, electric heaters, trash compactors, juice extractor, shower rods and water meters, walkie-talkies, copper wires... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ...


The well-known Best Western hotel chain is actually a giant cooperative, although it now prefers to call itself a "nonprofit membership association." It gave up on the "cooperative" label after the courts kept insisting on calling it a franchisor despite its nonprofit status. Best Western is the worlds largest hotel chain, with nearly 4,000 hotels in nearly 80 countries. ... This article or section should include material from Franchise agreement Franchising - from the French for Free, is a method of doing business wherein a franchisor licenses trademarks and methods of doing business to a franchisee in exchange for a recurring royalty fee. ...


Utility cooperative

Main article: Utility cooperative

A utility cooperative is a public utility that is owned by its customers. It is a type of consumers' cooperative. In the US, many such cooperatives were formed to provide rural electrical and telephone service as part of the New Deal. See Rural Utilities Service. A utility cooperative is a type of cooperative that is tasked with the delivery of a public utility such as electricity or telecommunications to its members. ... A utility cooperative is a type of cooperative that is tasked with the delivery of a public utility such as electricity or telecommunications to its members. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... A consumers cooperative is a cooperative business owned by its customers for their mutual benefit. ... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... The Rural Electrification Administration (REA) was an agency of the United States federal government created on 11 May 1935 through efforts of the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. ...


Worker cooperative

Main article: Worker cooperative

A worker cooperative or producer cooperative is a cooperative that is owned and democratically controlled by its "worker-owners". There are no outside owners in a "pure" workers' cooperative, only the workers own shares of the business, though hybrid forms in which consumers, community members or capitalist investors also own some shares are not uncommon. Membership is not compulsory for employees, but generally only employees can become members. However, in India there is a form of workers' cooperative which insists on compulsory membership for all employees and compulsory employment for all members. That is the form of the Indian Coffee Houses. This system was advocated by the of the Indian communist leader A. K. Gopalan. A worker cooperative is a cooperative owned and operated by its worker-owners. There are no outside, or consumer owners, in a workers cooperative - only the workers own shares of the business. ... A worker cooperative is a cooperative owned and operated by its worker-owners. There are no outside, or consumer owners, in a workers cooperative - only the workers own shares of the business. ... Indian Coffee House shop at Thampanoor,Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala The Indian Coffee House is a restaurant chain in India, run by a series of worker co-operative societies. ... Ayillyath Kuttiari Gopalan Nambiar, popularly known as A. K. Gopalan or AKG, was an Indian communist leader. ...


Business and employment co-operative

Main article: Business and employment co-operative

Business and employment co-operatives (BECs) are a subset of worker co-operatives that represent a new approach to providing support to the creation of new businesses. Like other business creation support schemes, BECs enable budding entrepreneurs to experiment with their business idea while benefiting from a secure income. The innovation BECs introduce is that once the business is established the entrepreneur is not forced to leave and set up independently, but can stay and become a full member of the co-operative. The micro-enterprises thus combine to form one multi-activity enterprise whose members provide a mutually supportive environment for each other.


BECs thus provides budding business people with an easy transition from inactivity to self-employment, but in a collective framework. They open up new horizons for people who have ambition but who lack the skills or confidence needed to set off entirely on their own – or who simply want to carry on an independent economic activity but within a supportive group context.


Social cooperative

Main article: Social cooperative

A particularly successful form of multi-stakeholder cooperative is the Italian "social cooperative", of which some 7,000 exist. "Type A" social cooperatives bring together providers and beneficiaries of a social service as members. "Type B" social cooperatives bring together permanent workers and previously unemployed people who wish to integrate into the labour market. An Italian social cooperative is a particularly successful form of multi-stakeholder cooperative, of which some 7,000 exist. ...


Social cooperatives are legally defined as follows:

  • the objective is the general benefit of the community and the social integration of citizens
  • type A cooperatives provide health, social or educational services
  • those of type B integrate disadvantaged people into the labour market. The categories of disadvantage they target may include physical and mental disability, drug and alcohol addiction, developmental disorders and problems with the law. They do not include other factors of disadvantage such as race, sexual orientation or abuse
  • various categories of stakeholder may become members, including paid employees, beneficiaries, volunteers (up to 50% of members), financial investors and public institutions. In type B co-operatives at least 30% of the members must be from the disadvantaged target groups
  • the cooperative has legal personality and limited liability
  • voting is one person one vote
  • no more than 80% of profits may be distributed, interest is limited to the bond rate and dissolution is altruistic (assets may not be distributed)

A good estimate of the current size of the social cooperative sector in Italy is given by updating the official ISTAT figures from the end of 2001 by an annual growth rate of 10% (assumed by the Direzione Generale per gli Ente Cooperativi). This gives totals of 7,100 social cooperatives, with 267,000 members, 223,000 paid employees, 31,000 volunteers and 24,000 disadvantaged people undergoing integration. Combined turnover is around 5 billion euro. The cooperatives break into three types: 59% type A (social and health services), 33% type B (work integration) and 8% mixed. The average size is 30 workers.

A supermarket run by a consumer cooperative in the port of Leith, Edinburgh.
A supermarket run by a consumer cooperative in the port of Leith, Edinburgh.

Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 593 KB)Scotmid retailers cooperative in the port of Leith, Edinburgh, 2004-11. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 593 KB)Scotmid retailers cooperative in the port of Leith, Edinburgh, 2004-11. ... The Water of Leith looking upriver from the docks, with the old buildings along Leith Shore including The Kings Wark and The Old Ship Hotel and Kings Landing. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...

Consumers' cooperative

A consumers' cooperative is a business owned by its customers. Employees can also generally become members. Members vote on major decisions, and elect the board of directors from amongst their own number. A well known example in the United States is the REI (Recreational Equipment Incorporated) co-op, and in Canada: Mountain Equipment Co-op. A consumers cooperative is a cooperative business owned by its customers for their mutual benefit. ... Modern R.E.I. Logo The REI store in Mountain View, California REI (Recreational Equipment Inc. ... Mountain Equipment Co-op (MEC) is a Canadian collectively owned consumers cooperative, selling outdoor gear and clothing with over 2. ...


The world's largest consumer cooperative is the Co-operative Group in the United Kingdom, which offers a variety of retail and financial services. There are also a number of other, independent consumer cooperative societies in the UK, such as the East of England Co-operative Society and Midcounties Co-operative. In fact the Co-operative Group is actually something of a hybrid, having both corporate members (other consumer cooperatives) and individual members. The Co-operative Group, the trading name of Co-operative Group Ltd, is a United Kingdom consumers co-operative, and the worlds largest consumer-owned business. ... East of England Co-op logo The East of England Co-operative Society is a consumer co-operative society based in Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk in the United Kingdom. ... The merger is not mentioned in the minutes of OSG Co-ops final AGM [1] DOC The Midcounties Co-operative is the fourth-largest cooperative in the United Kingdom. ...


Japan has a very large and well developed consumer cooperative movement with over 14 million members; retail co-ops alone had a combined turnover of 2.519 trillion Yen (21.184 billion U.S. Dollars [market exchange rates as of 11/15/2005]) in 2003/4. (Japanese Consumers' Co-operative Union., 2003).


Migros, is the largest supermarket chain in Switzerland and keeps the cooperative society as its form of organization. Nowadays, a large part of the Swiss population are members of the Migros cooperative – around 2 million of Switzerland's total population of 7,2 million[1] [2], thus making Migros a supermarket chain that is owned by its customers.


Coop is another Swiss cooperative which operates the second largest supermarket chain in Switzerland after Migros. In 2001, Coop merged with 11 cooperative federations which had been its main suppliers for over 100 years. As of 2005, Coop operates 1437 shops and employs almost 45,000 people. According to Bio Suisse, the Swiss organic producers' association, Coop accounts for half of all the organic food sold in Switzerland.


EURO COOP is the European Community of Consumer Cooperatives.

Farmers' grain Co-op in Crowell, Texas.
Farmers' grain Co-op in Crowell, Texas.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 422 KB) Grain Co-op, Crowell, TX -taken by user:pschemp File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 422 KB) Grain Co-op, Crowell, TX -taken by user:pschemp File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Agricultural cooperative

Agricultural cooperatives are widespread in rural areas. A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) comprises a legal entity owned and democratically controlled by its members, with no passive shareholders. ... Cooperative farming is a system, in which farmers pool their resources for cooperation in certain areas, such as purchase of supplies (seeds, fertilizers, etc. ...


In the United States, there are both marketing and supply cooperatives. Agricultural marketing cooperatives, some of which are government-sponsored, promote and may actually distribute specific commodities. There are also agricultural supply cooperatives, which provide inputs into the agricultural process. A farm co-op or agricultural marketing cooperative is a cooperative business owned by farmers, to produce or (usually) store and market agricultural products. ... Agricultural supply cooperatives are cooperatives that supply farmers with required inputs for agricultural production. ...


In Europe, there are strong agricultural / agribusiness cooperatives, and agricultural cooperative banks. Most emerging countries are developing agricultural cooperatives. Where it is legal, medical marijuana is generally produced by cooperatives. A mutual bank is a bank owned by the depositors. ... Cannabis sativa extract. ...


Cooperative banking (credit unions and cooperative savings banks)

The Co-operative Bank's head office, 1 Balloon Street, Manchester. The statue in front is of Robert Owen, a pioneer in the cooperative movement.
The Co-operative Bank's head office, 1 Balloon Street, Manchester. The statue in front is of Robert Owen, a pioneer in the cooperative movement.

Credit Unions provide a form of cooperative banking. This article, image, template or category belongs in one or more categories. ... A credit union is a cooperative financial institution that is owned and controlled by its members. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 512 KB) Summary Head Office of the Co-operative Bank, 1 Balloon Street, Manchester, with the statue of Robert Owen in front. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 512 KB) Summary Head Office of the Co-operative Bank, 1 Balloon Street, Manchester, with the statue of Robert Owen in front. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... A credit union is a cooperative financial institution that is owned and controlled by its members. ...


In North America, the caisse populaire movement started by Alphonse Desjardins in Quebec, Canada pioneered credit unions. Desjardins wanted to bring desperately needed financial protection to working people. In 1900, from his home in Lévis, Quebec, he opened North America's first credit union, marking the beginning of the Mouvement Desjardins. North American redirects here. ... For the 19th-century former mayor of Montreal, see Alphonse Desjardins (politician) Gabriel-Alphonse Desjardins (November 5, 1854 _ October 30, 1920) was born in Lévis, Quebec. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Coordinates: Country Canada Province Québec Established January 1, 2002 Government  - Mayor Danielle Roy-Marinelli  - Governing body Lévis City Council  - MPs Steven Blaney, Jacques Gourde  - MNAs Christian Lévesque, Marc Picard Area  - City 334. ... The Mouvement Desjardins (Desjardins Movement or Desjardins Group in English) is the largest association of credit unions in North America. ...


While they have not taken root so deeply as in Ireland or the USA, credit unions are also established in the UK. The largest are work-based, but many are now offering services in the wider community. The Association of British Credit Unions Ltd (ABCUL) represents the majority of British Credit Unions. British Building Societies developed into general-purpose savings & banking institutions with "one member, one vote" ownership and can be seen as a form of financial cooperative (although many 'de-mutualised' into conventionally-owned banks in the 1980s & 1990s). The UK Co-operative Group includes both an insurance provider CIS and the Co-operative Bank, both noted for promoting ethical investment. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... A building society is a financial institution, owned by its members, that offers banking and other financial services, especially mortgage lending. ... The term demutualization (or demutualisation) describes the process by which mutual organizations or companies (mutuals) convert themselves to for-profit (or profit-making) public companies which distribute profits to their shareholders in the form of dividends. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... CIS Co-operative Insurance is a large insurance company based in Manchester, England. ... The Co-operative Bank is a co-operative bank trading in the United Kingdom with headquarters in Manchester, UK. It is an ethical bank, and refuses to invest in companies involved in the arms trade, genetic engineering, animal testing and use of sweated labour as stated in its ethical policy. ... Ethical investing, also known as Socially responsible investing or SRI attempts to ensure that invested funds are not used to violate the investors most basic moral values or ethical codes. ...


Other important European banking cooperatives include the Crédit Agricole in France, Migros and Coop Bank in Switzerland and the Raiffeisen system in many Central and Eastern European countries. The Netherlands, Spain, Italy and various European countries also have strong cooperative banks. They play an important part in mortgage credit and professional (i.e. farming) credit. Logo Credit Agricole Crédit Agricole SA (CASA) (Euronext: ACA) is the largest banking group in France, fourth biggest in Europe and the sixth largest in the world according to Global Finance magazine. ... This article is about the Swiss enterprise and supermarket chain. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (May 3, 1818, Hamm - May 11, 1888, Heddesdorf, currently known as Neuwied, Germany) was a German cooperative leader. ...


Cooperative banking networks, which were nationalized in Eastern Europe, work now as real cooperative institutions. A remarkable development has taken place in Poland, where the SKOK (Spółdzielcze Kasy Oszczędnościowo-Kredytowe) network has grown to serve over 1 million members via 13,000 branches, and is larger than the country’s largest conventional bank.


In Scandinavia, there is a clear distinction between mutual savings banks (Sparbank) and true credit unions (Andelsbank). Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... A mutual savings bank is a financial institution chartered by state or federal government to: (1) provide a safe place for individuals to save and (2) invest those savings in mortgages loans, stocks, bonds and other securities. ... A credit union is a co-operative financial institution that is owned, controlled and administered by its members. ...


Federal or secondary cooperatives

Main article: Co-operative Federation

In some cases, cooperative societies find it advantageous to form co-operative federations in which all of the members are themselves cooperatives. Historically, these have predominantly come in the form of cooperative wholesale societies, and cooperative unions.[2] Cooperative federations are a means through which cooperative societies can fulfill the sixth Rochdale Principle, cooperation among cooperatives, with the ICA noting that "Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local, national, regional and international structures."[3] A Co-operative Federation is a Co-operative society in which all members are, in turn, Co-operatives. ... A Co-operative Federation is a Co-operative society in which all members are, in turn, Co-operatives. ... The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. ... A Co-operative Federation is a Co-operative society in which all members are, in turn, Co-operatives. ... The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental association representing co-operatives and the co-operative movement worldwide. ...


See Also: List of Co-operative Federations This is a list of Co-operative Federations. ...


Cooperative wholesale society

Main article: Co-operative wholesale society

According to cooperative economist Charles Gide, the aim of a cooperative wholesale society is to arrange “bulk purchases, and, if possible, organise production.”[2] The best historical example of this were the English CWS and the Scottish CWS, which were the forerunners to the modern Co-operative Group. Co-operative Group - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Charles Gide (1847–1932) was a French economist and notable ideologue of the cooperative movement in the first third of the 20th century. ... The Co-operative Group, the trading name of Co-operative Group Ltd, is a United Kingdom consumers co-operative, and the worlds largest consumer-owned business. ...


Cooperative Union

Main article: Co-operative union

A second common form of co-operative federation is a co-operative union, whose objective (according to Gide) is “to develop the spirit of solidarity among societies and... in a word, to exercise the functions of a government whose authority , it is needless to say, is purely moral.”[2] Co-operatives UK and the International Co-operative Alliance are examples of such arrangements. A Co-operative Union is Co-operative Federation (that is, a Co-operative in which all the members are Co-operatives). ... Co-operatives UK (formally known simply as the Co-operative Union) is the peak co-operative union (that is a federation of co-operatives) in the United Kingdom. ... The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental association representing co-operatives and the co-operative movement worldwide. ...


Co-operative Party

Main article: Co-operative Party

In some countries with a strong Co-operative sector, such as the UK, Co-operatives may find it advantageous to form a Parliamentary Political party to represent their interests. The British Co-operative Party and the Canadian Co-operative Commonwealth Federation are prime examples of such arrangements. This article is about the British political party. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... This article is about the British political party. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ...


In the UK, cooperatives formed the Co-operative Party in the early 20th century to represent members of co-ops in Parliament. The Co-operative Party now has a permanent electoral pact with the Labour Party, and has 29 Members of parliament who were elected at the 2005 General Election as 'Labour and Co-operative' MPs. UK co-operatives retain a significant market share in food retail, insurance, banking, funeral services, and the travel industry in many parts of the country. This article is about the British political party. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... See also Cooperative Supermarkets in the United Kingdom External link The Co-operative Group Categories: Corporation stubs | British supermarkets | Cooperatives ...


Further reading

Charles Gide (1847–1932) was a French economist and notable ideologue of the cooperative movement in the first third of the 20th century. ... George Jacob Holyoake ( April 13, 1817 - 1906), English secularist and co-operator, was born at Birmingham. ...

See also

Related terms:
WikiProject Cooperatives
Cooperatives Portal

List of co-operative enterprises (see List of Co-operative Federations for a list of Co-operative Federations): // University Co-operative Bookshop Ltd, Uni Co-op Bookshop, Australias largest Consumers_cooperative South Australian Energy Co-operative Limited SA Energy Co-op Australian Co-operative Links [1] Aaron Webster Housing... This is a list of Co-operative Federations. ... Collective can also refer to the collective pitch flight control in helicopters A collective is a group of people who share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together on a specific project(s) to achieve a common objective. ... Common ownership is a principle according to which the assets of an enterprise or other organisation are held indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members. ... A Commune is a kind of intentional community where most resources are shared and there is little or no personal property. ... Co-operative economics is a field of economics, socialist economics, Co-operative studies, and political economy, which is concerned with co-operatives. ... Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ... Employee-owned corporations are generally a model of ownership of a corporation where the corporation is owned in part or whole by the employees who work for it. ... A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society or fraternal organization) is a mutual association for insurance-like purposes, and often, especially in the past, serving ceremonial and friendship purposes also. ... The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperatives. ... An Industrial and Provident Society (IPS) is a legal entity for a trading business in the United Kingdom. ... Microfinance is a term for the practice of providing financial services, such as microcredit, microsavings or microinsurance to poor people. ... Microcredit is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to the unemployed, to poor entrepreneurs and to others living in poverty who are not considered bankable. ... Mutual aid is a term in political economy used to signify the economic concept of voluntary reciprocal exchange of resources and services for mutual benefit. ... A mutual organization (or society) is a cooperative organization (which is often, but not always, a company or business) based on the principle of mutuality. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Mutualism is a political and economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is a proposed economic system that uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism to guide the allocation of resources and consumption in a given society. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (May 3, 1818, Hamm - May 11, 1888, Heddesdorf, currently known as Neuwied, Germany) was a German cooperative leader. ... The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. ... Social economy refers to a third sector in economies between the private sector and business or, the public sector and government. ... Social enterprises are organizations which trade in goods or services, and link that trade to a social mission. ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) comprises a legal entity owned and democratically controlled by its members, with no passive shareholders. ... Building co-operatives are co-operative housing corporations where individuals or families work together to directly construct their own homes on a co-op basis. ... A credit union is a cooperative financial institution that is owned and controlled by its members. ... A consumers cooperative is a cooperative business owned by its customers for their mutual benefit. ... This article, image, template or category belongs in one or more categories. ... A Co-operative Federation is a Co-operative society in which all members are, in turn, Co-operatives. ... A Co-operative Union is Co-operative Federation (that is, a Co-operative in which all the members are Co-operatives). ... Co-operative Group - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... A housing co-operative is a legal entity, usually a corporation, that owns real estate, one or more residential buildings. ... Mutual insurance is a type of insurance where those protected by the insurance (policyholders) also own the organization. ... A retailers cooperative or consumer cooperative is a business entity which employs economies of scale on behalf of its members to get discounts from manufacturers and to pool marketing. ... An Italian social cooperative is a particularly successful form of multi-stakeholder cooperative, of which some 7,000 exist. ... A utility cooperative is a type of cooperative that is tasked with the delivery of a public utility such as electricity or telecommunications to its members. ... A worker cooperative is a cooperative owned and operated by its worker-owners. There are no outside, or consumer owners, in a workers cooperative - only the workers own shares of the business. ... The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. ... The first of the Rochdale Principles states that Co-operative societies must have an open and voluntary membership. ... The second of the Rochdale Principles states that Co-operative societies must have democratic member control. ... Member economic participation is one of the defining features of [[Cooperatives|Co-operative Soceities], and constitutes the third Rochdale Principle in the ICAs Statement on the Co-operative Identity. ... The fourth of the Rochdale Principles states that Co-operative societies must be autonomous and independent. ... The purpose of Co-operative education and Co-operative studies, according to the ICAs Statement on the Co-operative Identity, is that Co-operative societies provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co-operatives. ... A Co-operative Federation is a Co-operative society in which all members are, in turn, Co-operatives. ... The seventh of the Rochdale Principles states that Co-operative societies must have concern for their communities. ... Co-operative economics is a field of economics, socialist economics, Co-operative studies, and political economy, which is concerned with co-operatives. ... Co-operative Federalism is a school of thought in the field of Co-operative economics. ... Distributism, also known as distributionism and distributivism, is a third-way economic philosophy formulated by such Roman Catholic thinkers as G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc to apply the principles of social justice articulated by the Roman Catholic Church, especially in Pope Leo XIIIs encyclical Rerum Novarum[1] and... Owenism is a term used to represent the Utopian socialist philosophy of Robert Owen, and deriviations thereof. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Mutualism is a political and economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Social enterprises are organizations which trade in goods or services, and link that trade to a social mission. ... Socially responsible investing describes an investment strategy which combines the intentions to maximize both financial return and social good. ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... Dr. William King (1786-1865) was a British physician and philantropist from Brighton. ... The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is usually considered the first successful co-operative enterprise, forming the basis for the modern co-operative movement. ... George Douglas Howard Cole (September 25, 1889 - January 14, 1959) was an English journalist and economist, closely associated with the development of Fabianism. ... Charles Gide (1847–1932) was a French economist and notable ideologue of the cooperative movement in the first third of the 20th century. ... Beatrice Webb Martha Beatrice Potter Webb (January 2, 1858 - April 30, 1943) (also called Beatrice Webb) was a British socialist, economist and reformer, usually referred to in the same breath as her husband, Sidney Webb. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (May 3, 1818, Hamm - May 11, 1888, Heddesdorf, currently known as Neuwied, Germany) was a German cooperative leader. ... David Griffiths is a Co-operative economist, who has contributed a number of books and articles on the subject of unemployment,[1] the history of Victorias Co-operative movement,[2] and social care co-operatives[3] amongst other subjects. ... List of co-operative enterprises (see List of Co-operative Federations for a list of Co-operative Federations): // University Co-operative Bookshop Ltd, Uni Co-op Bookshop, Australias largest Consumers_cooperative South Australian Energy Co-operative Limited SA Energy Co-op Australian Co-operative Links [1] Aaron Webster Housing... This is a list of Co-operative Federations. ... The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is a non-governmental association representing co-operatives and the co-operative movement worldwide. ... Co-operatives UK (formally known simply as the Co-operative Union) is the peak co-operative union (that is a federation of co-operatives) in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the British political party. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Statement on the Co-operative Identity
  2. ^ a b c Gide, Charles; as translated from French by the Co-operative Reference Library, Dublin, "Consumers' Co-Operative Societies", Manchester: The Co-Operative Union Limited, 1921, p. 122
  3. ^ Statistical information on the Co-operative Movement

References

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Dollars & Sense is a magazine dedicated to providing left-wing perspectives on economics. ...

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