FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
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Coolie labourer circa 1900 in Zhenjiang, China. The bamboo pole he leans upon was used to hoist and carry the bundle at his feet with the pole over his shoulder and the bundle leaning against his back. On the left side of the image, in the background, another man uses this same technique of bearing a heavy load

Coolie (variously spelled Cooly, Kuli, Quli, etc.) is: Image File history File links Coolieresting. ... Image File history File links Coolieresting. ... Zhenjiang (Simplified Chinese: 镇江; Traditional Chinese: 鎮江; pinyin: Zhènjiāng; Wade-Giles: Chen-chiang) is a prefecture-level city in the southwestern Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ...


Terms of disparagement are pejorative terms such as yid, kike, nigger, whore, slut, fag and queer whose use usually arouses painful feelings in the target, members of the targeted group or sympathizers. ... Japanese American James Iha, the guitarist in the band The Smashing Pumpkins. ... The culture of India is one of the oldest cultures known to humanity. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Coolie, a 1983 film made in India starring Amitabh Bachchan and Waheeda Rehman
Coolie, a 1983 film made in India starring Amitabh Bachchan and Waheeda Rehman

In 1727 Dr. Engelbert Kämpfer described "coolies" as dock laborers who would unload Dutch merchant ships at Nagasaki.[2] [3] The word coolie can be traced back to the Hindi-Urdu word qūlī (क़ूली, قولی), which means "(day-)labourer", and perhaps ultimately to Kulī, an aboriginal tribe in Gujarat[4][5] or to the Tamil word kuli ("wages") (Encyclopædia Brittanica). Another form closely related to the Hindi-Urdu qūlī is the Bengali kuli. Image File history File linksMetadata CoolieDVD.jpg‎ This image is of a DVD cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the DVD or the studio which produced the DVD in question. ... Image File history File linksMetadata CoolieDVD.jpg‎ This image is of a DVD cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the DVD or the studio which produced the DVD in question. ... Amitabh Bachchan (; Devanagari: अमिताभ बच्चन), born October 11, 1942 is a successful Hindi film actor . ... Waheeda Rehman in movie still from Pyaasa Waheeda Rehman (May 14, 1936) was born into a traditional Muslim family in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh in 1936. ... Engelbert Kaempfer (September 16, 1651 - November 2, 1716) was a German traveller and physician. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Hindi (Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India. ... (, historically spelled Ordu), is an Middle Eastern-Aryan language. ... , Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ...

The Chinese word (Pinyin: kǔlì) was originally a transcription of the Hindi, and it literally means "bitterly hard (use of) strength." Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...

"Coolieism", meaning the state of being a coolie and the institution that created it, was used as a legal term in the 19th term and remains a scholarly term today.[6][not in citation given]


19th century United States illustration showing a harsh depiction of Asians now called "the coolie stereotype"

When it first entered the English language, "coolie" was a designative term describing a low-status class of workers rather than a pejorative term for them. However, in the wake of centuries of colonialism and the social inequalities thereof, it has taken on not only the characteristics of a slur in the general sense but also that of a racial epithet. In this last sense, it has been applied to Asian people regardless of their professions or socio-economic standing with obviously insulting intent. Image File history File links Coolieusa. ... Image File history File links Coolieusa. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Social inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of material wealth in a society. ... Slur could mean: A Slur (music) is a symbol in Western musical notation indicating that the notes it embraces are to be played legato (smoothly). ... The following is a list of ethnic slurs, also known as ethnophaulisms, that are, or have been, used to refer to members of a given ethnicity (or, in some cases, nationality, region, or religion) in a derogatory or pejorative manner. ... Japanese American James Iha, the guitarist in the band The Smashing Pumpkins. ...

For example, by the 1850s in Trinidad, the annual Muhurram or Hosay festival that came over from India was being called "the Coolie Carnival." Through the Caribbean, as well as in Sri Lanka, South Africa, and elsewhere, the word soon came to denote any person of Indian origin or descent.[7] Look up Trinidad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a list of inhabited islands in the Caribbean. ...

By the mid to late 19 century in the United States, the term "coolie" and other trappings of the "coolie stereotype" were already being used to mock (for example) Chinese-American launderers or restaurateurs who owned their own businesses.[8][9]


East Indian coolies on a Trinidad cacao estate, circa 1903.
East Indian coolies on a Trinidad cacao estate, circa 1903.

The term coolie was applied to workers from Asia, especially those who were sent abroad to most of the Americas, to Oceana and the Pacific Islands, and to Africa (especially South Africa and isles like Mauritius and Réunion). It was also applied within Asian areas under European control such as Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Hong Kong. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1621x1000, 324 KB) Summary East Indian Coolies in Trinidad From http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1621x1000, 324 KB) Summary East Indian Coolies in Trinidad From http://www. ... Binomial name Theobroma cacao L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to tropical Mexico, but now cultivated throughout the tropics. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Oceana may refer to: Oceana County, Michigan Oceana Publications, a U.S. law publisher Oceana (Virginia Beach), Virginia Oceana, West Virginia 224 Oceana, an asteroid The Commonwealth of Oceana, a 1656 political tract by James Harrington Naval Air Station Oceana, a military airport located in Virginia, USA P&O Oceana... The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number has not been precisely determined. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

Slavery had been widespread in the British empire, but social and political pressure led to its being outlawed by the Slave Trade Act 1807; within a few decades, many other European nations had outlawed slavery. But the highly intensive colonial labour on sugar cane or cotton plantations, in mines or railways, required cheap manpower.[citation needed] The Slave Trade Act (citation ) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in 1807 the long title of which is An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade. The original act is still held among the collections of the Parliamentary Archives. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... This article is about mineral extraction. ... Manpower may refer to: Manpower, the number of personnel available for a task or tasks, also used when referring to such personnel as a resource (e. ...

Experiments were carried with Madagasy, Japanese, Bretons or Congolese laborers.[citation needed] Ultimately the "ideal coolies"[citation needed] were the Indians, shipped to many Indian Ocean islands, East and South Africa, Fiji, Guyana, Martinique, Trinidad, Jamaica, to name only some of the lands where taylorization was applied as a means of increasing productivity worldwide. Breton can refer to: Brittany, as an adjective for this historical province of France The Breton language, a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany and Loire-Atlantique A Breton person, part of a Brythonic ethnic group inhabiting the region of Brittany André Breton (1896-1966), French... Republic of the Congo (light green) Democratic Republic of the Congo (dark green) Congo is a name shared by two countries in both West and Central Africa: Republic of the Congo is often known as Congo-Brazzaville. It is the smaller of the two and lies to the west in... Look up Trinidad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 - March 21, 1915) was an American engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ...

Chinese coolies were also sent to the New World. They worked in guano pits in Peru, in sugar cane fields in Cuba and paved the railways in the United States. Hugh Tinker called the coolie trade "a new form of slavery"[citation needed]. The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ...

Recruitment and trade

The feature film Guiana 1838 by filmmaker Rohit Jagessar takes a close look into the system of Indian indentureship amidst the abolotion of African slavery on colonies such as Guyana, Trinidad, Jamaica, Fiji, and Mauritius. After slavery was abolished, there was a severe lack of labour in many European colonies. Although labourers were supposed to be recruited by voluntary negotiation, it is evident that trickery and was common and outright kidnapping occurred as well.[10]

Most Indian indentured labour was recruited for the British colonies through "Colonial Agents" who travelled to India. In India, they engaged the services of arkatias or recruiters who knew the places to find likely enlistees. A male/female ration of 10:4 was sought, but women proved difficult to recruit for overseas and allegations of deception and kidnapping seem plausible. "Emigration Depots" were set up in Kolkata, Madras and Mumbai although the latter was closed rather quickly when abuses were made public in India.[11]   (IPA: [] Bengali: কলকাতা) (formerly  ) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... “Bombay” redirects here. ...

Many voluntary emigrees came from among the very poor people of Madras, Bengal, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar. Once established, this system gained momentum as British policies destroyed domestic or cottage industry, crafts and family farms through taxation and the zamindar system. Famines continued to flow out of India for decades.[12] A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... , Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... The use of the term has expanded, and is used to refer to any event which allows a large number of people to lalalawork part time. ... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ...

Around 1845, after the end of the first Opium War (1840-1842), a center for emigration at Shantou organised a network for transporting Chinese from Guangdong, Amoy, and Macau to the Americas, especially to the silver mines in Peru and the sugar plantations of Cuba and other West Indian islands. There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act of nolan muir the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle abroad. ... Geographic coordinates: 116º14 - 117º19 E, 23º02 - 23º38 N Area: 234 km² Shantou (also known as Swatow or Suátao) is a city of 1. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; pinyin: Xiàmén; Wade_Giles: Hsiamen) is a coastal sub_provincial city in Fujian Province, southern China. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... A plantation is an intentional planting of a crop, on a larger scale, usually for uses other than cereal production or pasture. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...

Indentured labourers from Indochina were recruited primarily by France and sent to other French colonies. Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... French Colonies is the name used by philatelists to refer to the postage stamps issued by France for use in the parts of the French colonial empire that did not have stamps of their own. ...

The coolie trade was criticised for unfairness to workers, and for being de facto slavery.[citation needed] This movement of labour population, the first form of wages in the wake of slavery, was referred to as a trade as it reminded one of the status applied to the slave, who was considered as a piece of furniture, which one could inherit legally.[citation needed] Though coolies were typically classified as indentured servants with a five-year contract, the remnants of slavery remained, and there was often a considerable gap between the law and its application. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... An Indentured Servant (or in the U.S. bonded labourer) is a labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, usually seven to eight years, to pay off a passage to a new country or home. ...

Many investigators of the coolie trade reported dire and inhumane conditions, with flogging, sexual abuse and restrictive confinement being commonplace.[citation needed] Many workers were not able to regain their freedom after serving five years for a planter, as was stated in the contract. The same situation prevailed in the West Indies and Mauritius. Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...

Coolieism in British Empire

As can be seen in the feature film Guiana 1838, in the British Empire, coolies were indentured labourers who lived under conditions often resembling slavery. The system, inaugurated in 1834 in Mauritius, involved the use of licensed agents after slavery had been abolished in the British Empire. Thus, indenture followed closely on the heels of slavery in order to replace the slaves. The labourers were however only slightly better off than the slaves had been. They were supposed to receive either minimal wages or some small form of payout (such as a small parcel of land, or the money for their return passage) upon completion of their indentures. Unlike slaves, these imported servants could not be bought or sold. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Slave redirects here. ...

In India and South Africa, Mahatma Gandhi led a campaign against such indentured servitude. Many of the servants who had gone to Africa remained there permanently, effectively becoming immigrants. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ...

Indian female "Coolie woolwashers" in 19th century South Africa

The permanent settlement of formerly indentured Indians created problems, particularly in Africa. The Natal province of the Union of South Africa and Kenya amassed clusters of such immigrants. In the Transvaal, after the conclusion of the Second Boer War, the deficiency of native African labor in the Rand mines led to the enactment of an ordinance in February 1904 that provided for the import of Chinese laborers. Image File history File links CoolieWool. ... Image File history File links CoolieWool. ... KwaZulu-Natal, often referred to as KZN, is a province of South Africa. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 5000 - 6000 Battlefield casualties, 15,000 disease related. ...

The Boer element in the Transvaal was bitterly opposed to this ordinance, alleging it would introduce a new factor into the already serious racial tensions of South Africa. This issue was largely responsible for the Liberal triumph in the United Kingdom general election, 1906, by which time over 50,000 Asian labourers already had been imported. This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The UK general election of 1906 was from 12th January – 8th February 1906. ... Japanese American James Iha, the guitarist in the band The Smashing Pumpkins. ...

The decision to put an end to indentured servitude first affected Natal and Mauritius in 1910. Other regions followed in 1917.

Coolieism in the Americas

Chinese immigration to the United States was almost entirely voluntary, but working and social conditions were still harsh:

In 1868, the Burlingame Treaty repealed the century old prohibition law of the Chinese government and opened a floodgate of Chinese immigration. But a mere decade later, the American economy was in a slump and Chinese laborers were hired as scabs when white workers went on strike. During these years of unemployment and depression, anti-Chinese sentiment built around the country, fueled by demagogues such as Denis Kearney of San Francisco, who would rail in front of crowds that "To an American, death is preferable to life on a par with the Chinese."[13] The Burlingame Treaty, between the United States and China, amended the Treaty of Tientsin and established formal friendly relations between the two countries, with the United States granting China Most Favored Nation status. ...

Although Chinese labor contributed to the building of the Transcontinental Railroad in the United States and of the Canadian Pacific Railway in western Canada, Chinese settlement was discouraged after completion of the construction. California's Anti-Coolie Act of 1862 and Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 contributed to the oppression of Chinese laborers in the United States. Poster announcing railroads opening The First Transcontinental Railroad was a transcontinental railroad in North America that was finished in 1869. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Californias Anti-Coolie Act of 1862 was an attempt by the State of California to tax the labor of Chinese workers as well as discourage Chinese immigration into the state. ... The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following 1880 revisions to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. ...

According to the Constitution of the State of California (1879): Wikisource has original text related to this article: California Constitution The California Constitution is the document that establishes and describes the duties, powers, structure and function of the government of the U.S. state of California. ...

The presence of foreigners ineligible to become citizens of the United States is declared to be dangerous to the well-being of the State, and the Legislature shall discourage their immigration by all the means within its power. Asiatic coolieism is a form of human slavery, and is forever prohibited in this State, and all contracts for coolie labor shall be void. All companies or corporations, whether formed in this country or any foreign country, for the importation of such labor, shall be subject to such penalties as the Legislature may prescribe.[6] // Possession of citizenship U.S. citizens have the right to participate in the political system of the United States (with most U.S. states having restrictions for felons, and federal restrictions on naturalized persons), are represented and protected abroad by the United States (through U.S. embassies and consulates), and...

Indentured Chinese servants also labored in the sugarcane fields of Cuba well after the 1884 abolition of slavery in that country. Many scholars debate whether the Chinese coolies of Cuba should be called "slaves," the authoritative scholars of Chinese labor in Cuba, Juan Pastrana and Juan Perez de la Riva, substantiated the horrific conditions of Chinese coolies in Cuba and unreservedly stated that coolies were slaves in all but name. Before the Cuban Revolution in 1959, Havana had Latin America's largest Chinatown. Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of Fulgencio Batistas dictatorial government on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements in the country. ... This article is about the Cuban city. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For other uses, see Chinatown (disambiguation). ...

Newly arrived Indian coolies in Trinidad.
Newly arrived Indian coolies in Trinidad.

In South America, Chinese indentured laborers worked in Peru’s silver mines and coastal industries (i.e., guano, sugar, and cotton) from the early 1850s to the mid-1870s; about 100,000 people immigrated as indentured workers. They infamously participated in the War of the Pacific, looting and burning down the haciendas where they worked, subsequent to the fall of Lima to the invading Chilean army in January 1880. Download high resolution version (2077x1380, 618 KB)image published in 1897 - no copyright. ... Download high resolution version (2077x1380, 618 KB)image published in 1897 - no copyright. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Anthem Somos libres, seámoslo siempre(Spanish) We are free, may we always be so Capital (and largest city) Lima Official languages Spanish1 Government Constitutional republic  -  President Alan García Pérez  -  Prime Minister Jorge Del Castillo Independence from the Spanish Empire   -  Declared 28 July 1821  Area  -  Total 1,285... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... An Indentured Servant (or in the U.S. bonded labourer) is a labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, usually seven to eight years, to pay off a passage to a new country or home. ... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Bolivia Republic of Chile Commanders Juan Buendía Andrés Cáceres Miguel Grau Manuel Baquedano Patricio Lynch Juan Williams Strength Peru-Bolivian Army 7,000 soldiers in 1878 Peruvian Navy 2 ironclad, 1 corvette, 1 gunboat Army of Chile 4,000 soldiers in... Hacienda is a Spanish word describing a vast ranch, common in the Pampa. ... Nickname: City of the Kings Location within Lima Region Coordinates: Country Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ...

Between 1836 and 1917, at least "238,000 Indians were introduced into British Guiana, 145,000 into Trinidad, 21,500 into Jamaica, 39,000 into Guadeloupe, 34,000 into Surinam, 1,550 into St. Lucia, 1,820 into St. Vincent, 2,570 into Grenada. In 1859, there were 6,748 Indians in Martinique." Although these were incomplete statistics, Eric Williams (see references) believed they were "sufficient to show a total introduction of nearly half a million Indians into the Caribbean" (Williams 100). British Guiana and its boundary lines, 1896 Flag of British Guiana British Guiana was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana. ... Motto: Pax et justitia (Latin: Peace and justice) Anthem: St Vincent Land So Beautiful Capital (and largest city) Kingstown Official languages English Government Parliamentary democracy Commonwealth Realm  - Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor-General Sir Frederick Ballantyne  - Prime Minister Ralph Gonsalves Independence From the United Kingdom   - Date 27 October 1979  Area...

Champions of the coolies

Coolies were not to be recognised as French citizens until the beginning of the 20th century, as a result of the struggle of Henri Sidambarom.

Another man was to champion the cause of the coolies in Mauritius : Adolph von Plevitz, who denounced the inhuman treatments inflicted on those poorly educated labourers.

Gandhi also fought for them, and the coolie trade was abolished in the 1920s. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Literature and culture reflected the dereliction of the indentured, who created baitkas or village centres to learn or uphold their tales, religions, sacred texts and start a nucleus of political awareness.[citation needed] Yet the 1930s négritude movement, focussing on the plight of the Blacks, failed to chart the cultural suffering of the coolies. Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, for instance, spoke of the "Hindu man from Calcutta" in his Cahier d'un retour au pays natal[citation needed], reflecting the perception he had of the coolie, as still exterior to the West Indian community. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Indetured servitude is when a persons passage to America is payed for an American Colonist and then the foreigner must work for the american for a certain amount of time (usually 7 years) and then the person is free to do what they please. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (born June 25, 1913) is a French poet, author and politician. ...

Gilbert Gratiant was among the first writers of this region to give some presence to this citizen in limbo. A new awareness was expressed byMarcel Cabon, Loys Masson andMalcolm de Chazal in Mauritius. Malcolm de Chazal (1902-1981) was a Mauritian writer, painter, and visionary, known especially for his Sens-Plastique, a work consisting of several thousand aphorisms and pensées. ...

Most recently, poet Khal Torabully's Cale d'étoiles-Coolitude (Azalées éditions, 1992) introduces the neologism, "coolitude." Torabully defines coolitude as a postcolonial and postmodern aesthetics, anchored in otherness, that goes beyond the specific condition of Asian migrant labor. The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Khal Torabully, a Mauritian and French poet, is closely associated to his concept of coolitude. ... A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Postcolonial theory is a literary theory or critical approach that deals with literature produced in countries that were once, or are now, colonies of other countries. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... The Otherness is a malevolent force present in several of the novels by F. Paul Wilson. ...

Modern use

As shown in this 21st century photo of a train station in India, the term "coolie" is still sometimes designative rather than pejorative.
  • The word qūlī is now commonly used in Hindi to refer to luggage porters at hotel lobbies and railway and bus stations. Nevertheless, the use of such (especially by foreigners) may still be regarded as a slur by some.[14]
  • In Ethiopia, Cooli is a term that refers to those who carry heavy loads for someone. The word is not used as a slur however. The term used to describe Arab day-laborers who migrated to Ethiopia for labor work.
  • In the Persian language, a similar term, which is pronounced [kaʊ li], means "gypsy."
  • In the Dutch koelie, which refers to a worker who performs very hard, extolling labour, has no particular ethnic connotations.
  • In 2002, Abercrombie & Fitch pulled a line of tee shirts from stores across the United States after complaints that they depicted racist caricatures of Asian Americans. A typical criticism of the said "These are the kind of images we saw in California newspapers a century ago" and "It smacks of Charlie Chan and the coolie stereotype".[9]
  • Some Guyanese who identify as of African ancestry use "coolie" as a slur against those Guyanese they perceive as of Indian ancestry. Other Guyanese use "coolie" self referentially.[15][16][17]
  • Likewise in Trinidad and Tobago the word is a slur but is sometimes said self-referentially. In 2006, for example, Senator Surendranath Capildeo proudly admitted to being a "coolie to the bone".[18]

Look up Porter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... The Abercrombie moose. ... T-Shirt A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt with short or long sleeves, a round neck, put on over the head, without pockets. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku Klux Klan National Party (South Africa) American Nazi Party Kahanism · Supremacism Anti... Caricature of Alan Greenspan by Jan Op De Beeck. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... 1938 titlecard Number One Son with the seat of his pants on fire in Charlie Chan at Monte Carlo Charlie Chan is a fictional Chinese-American detective created by Earl Derr Biggers, reportedly in part under inspiration from the career of Chang Apana. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ...

See also

An Indentured Servant (or in the U.S. bonded labourer) is a labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, usually seven to eight years, to pay off a passage to a new country or home. ... Blackbirding refers to the recruitment of people through trickery and kidnappings to work on plantations, particularly the sugar cane plantations of Queensland (Australia) and Fiji[1] , as well as in the early days of the pearling industry in Broome. ... Slave redirects here. ... Navvy is a shorter form of the word navigator and is particularly applied to describe the manual labourers working on major civil engineering projects. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Chinese Peruvian is a Chinese person born in Peru. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States, and has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the American history even though the foreign born have never been more than...

Reference notes

  1. ^ Nevertheless, some current versions of dictionaries don't record any offensive meaning ("an unskilled laborer or porter usually in or from the Far East hired for low or subsistence wages" Merriam-Webster) or still make a distinction between an offensive meaning in referring to "a person from the Indian subcontinent or of Indian descent" and an at least originally inoffensive, old-fashioned meaning, for example "dated an unskilled native labourer in India, China, and some other Asian countries" (Compact Oxford English Dictionary). Most dictionaries have however updated their definitions to indicate that the word is usually considered offensive in all contexts today. For example, Longman's 1995 edition had "old-fashioned an unskilled worker who is paid very low wages, especially in parts of Asia", but the current version adds "taboo old-fashioned a very offensive word ... Do not use this word."
  2. ^ Kämpfer, Engelbert (1727). The History of Japan. 
  3. ^ (1891) Encyclopædia Britannica, Dictionary, Arts, Sciences, and General Literature, 9th, American Reprint, Maxwell Sommerville (Philadelphia), p. 296. Volume VI. 
  4. ^ The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000
  5. ^ Ask oxford
  6. ^ a b [1] The Chinese in California, 1850-1879
  7. ^ SookDeo, Neil A. (2000). Freedom, Festivals and Caste in Trinidad After Slavery A Society in Transition.. Xlibris, Philadelphia. ISBN 1-4010-5209-6. Specifically, Trinidad Sentinel 6 August 1857. Also, Original Correspondence of the British Colonial Office in London (C.O. 884/4, Hamilton Report into the Carnival Riots, p.18). 
  8. ^ McClellan, Robert. "Heathen Chinee: A Study of American Attitudes Toward China, 1890–1905". Columbus: Ohio State University Press. 1971. 272 pp.
  9. ^ a b [2] Los Angeles Times April 19, 2002
  10. ^ [3] Journal of Asian American Studies 2004
  11. ^ SookDeo, Neil A. (2000). Freedom, Festivals and Caste in Trinidad After Slavery.. Xlibris, Philadelphia. ISBN 1-4010-5209-6. 
  12. ^ Ibid.
  13. ^ University of Arkansas
  14. ^ Humanitarian Movement Against Child Oppression & Others Living in Exploitation
  15. ^ [4] Coolie Dictionary 2006
  16. ^ [5] African-Guyanese and Election Rigging
  17. ^ [6] "Dis place is not for coolie people"
  18. ^ [7] Trinidad & Tobago Newsday Saturday, October 14 2006

The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ...


  • Williams, Eric. 1962. History of the People of Trinidad and Tobago. Andre Deutsch, London.
  • Yule, Henry and Burnell, A. C. (1886): Hobson-Jobson The Anglo-Indian Dictionary. Reprint: Ware, Hertfordshire. Wordsworth Editions Limited. 1996.
  • Le grand dictionnaire Ricci de la langue chinoise, (2001), Vol. III, p. 833.
  • Khal Torabully and Marina Carter, Coolitude: An Anthology of the Indian Labour Diaspora Anthem Press, London, 2002 ISBN 1-84331-003-1

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Coolie at AllExperts (931 words)
In the British Empire, a "coolie" was an indentured labourer with conditions often resembling slavery.
Chinese coolies contributed to the building of the Transcontinental Railroad in the United States, as well as the Canadian Pacific Railway in Western Canada, but many of the Chinese laborers were not welcome to stay after its completion.
Coolies also labored in the sugarcane fields of Cuba well after the 1884 abolition of slavery in that country.
  More results at FactBites »



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