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Encyclopedia > Cooking
This article is part
of the Cuisine series
Foods

Bread - Pasta - Cheese - Rice
Sauces - Soups - Desserts
Herbs and spices
Other ingredients Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Image File history File links Title_Cuisine_2. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... For the computer protocol, see SAUCE. Or see source. ... For other uses, see Soup (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Desert. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə()b, or əb; see pronunciation differences) are seed-bearing plants without woody stems, which die down to the ground after flowering. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Food is any substance, usually composed primarily of carbohydrates, fats, water and/or proteins, that can be eaten or drunk by an animal for nutrition and/or pleasure. ...

Regional cuisines
Asia - Europe - Caribbean
South Asia - Latin America
Middle East - North America - Africa
Other cuisines...
Preparation techniques and cooking items
Techniques - Utensils
Weights and measures
See also:
Kitchens - Meals
Wikibooks: Cookbook

Cooking is the act of preparing food. The term cooking encompasses all methods of food preparation including non-heated methods. It encompasses a vast range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to alter the flavor or digestibility of food. It is the process of selecting, measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result. Factors affecting the final outcome include the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions, tools, and the skill of the individual doing the actual cooking. Asian cuisine is a term for the various cuisines of South, East and Southeast Asia and for fusion dishes based on combining them. ... See the individual entries for: // Belarusian cuisine Bulgarian cuisine Czech cuisine Hungarian cuisine Jewish cuisine Polish cuisine Romanian cuisine Russian cuisine Slovak cuisine Slovenian cuisine Ukrainian cuisine British cuisine English cuisine Scottish cuisine Welsh cuisine Anglo-Indian cuisine Modern British cuisine Nordic cuisine Danish cuisine Finnish cuisine Icelandic cuisine Lappish... Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of African, Amerindian, French, Indian, and Spanish cuisine. ... South Asian cuisine includes the cuisines of the South Asia. ... Latin American cuisine is a phrase that refers to typical foods, beverages, and cooking styles common to many of the countries and cultures in Latin America. ... The term Middle Eastern cuisine refers to the various cuisines of the Middle East. ... North American cuisine is a term used for foods native to or popular in countries of North America. ... Cuisine of Africa reflects indigenous traditions, as well as influences from Arabs, Europeans, and Asians. ... This is a list of food preparation utensils, also known as kitchenware. ... In recipes, quantities of ingredients may be specified by mass (weight), by volume, or by count. ... A kitchen is a room used for food preparation and sometimes entertainment. ... For the coarsely ground flour, see flour. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ...


The diversity of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the myriad nutritional, aesthetic, agricultural, economic, cultural and religious considerations that impact upon it.


Cooking often requires applying heat to a food, which usually, though not always, chemically transforms it, thus changing its flavor, texture, appearance, and nutritional properties. There is archaeological evidence of roasted foodstuffs, both animal and vegetable, in human (Homo erectus) campsites dating from the earliest known use of fire, some 800,000 years ago[citation needed]. Other methods of cooking that involve the boiling of liquid in a receptacle have been practiced at least since the 10th millennium BC, with the introduction of pottery. [citation needed] For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Roasting Roasting is a cooking method that utilizes dry heat, whether an open flame, oven, or other heat source. ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) or archanthropus is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ...

Contents

Effects of cooking

Proteins

Edible human material, including muscle, offal, milk and egg white, contains substantial amounts of protein. Almost all vegetable matter (in particular legumes and seeds) also includes proteins, although generally in smaller amounts. These may also be a source of essential amino acids. When proteins are heated they become de-natured and change texture. In many cases, this causes the structure of the material to become softer or more friable - meat becomes cooked. In some cases, proteins can form more rigid structures, such as the coagulation of albumen in egg whites. The formation of a relatively rigid but flexible matrix from egg white provides an important component of much cake cookery, and also underpins many desserts based on meringue. A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Scrapple sandwich at the Delaware state fair Offal is the entrails and internal organs of a butchered animal. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Albumen redirects here. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Varieties of soybean seeds, a popular legume The term legume has two closely related meanings in botany, a situation encountered with many botanical common names of useful plants whereby an applied name can refer to either the plant itself, or to the edible fruit (or useful part). ... This writeup is about biological seeds; for other meanings see Seed (disambiguation). ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Albumen redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cake (disambiguation). ... Lemon meringue muffins For the Dominican folk dance and the music it is performed to, see merengue. ...


Liquids

Cooking often involves water which is often present as other liquids, both added in order to immerse the substances being cooked (typically water, stock or wine), and released from the foods themselves. Liquids are so important to cooking that the name of the cooking method used may be based on how the liquid is combined with the food, as in steaming, simmering, boiling, braising and blanching. Heating liquid in an open container results in rapidly increased evaporation, which concentrates the remaining flavors and ingredients - this is a critical component of both stewing and sauce making. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... liquids are things you use when your constapated. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Stock is a flavoured liquid. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... Braising (from the French braiser) is cooking with moist heat, typically in a covered pot with a small amount of liquid which results in a particular flavor. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Blanching The first step in blanching green beans Blanching is a cooking term that describes a process of food preparation wherein the food substance, usually a vegetable or fruit, is plunged into boiling water, removed after a brief, timed interval and finally plunged into... “Vaporization” redirects here. ... A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component (in the case of a liquid: the solvent) removed. ... In cooking, stewing means preparing meat cut into smaller pieces or cubes by simmering it in liquid, usually together with vegetables. ...


Fat

Fats and oils come from both animal and plant sources. In cooking, fats provide tastes and textures. When used as the principal cooking medium (rather than water), they also allow the cook access to a wide range of cooking temperatures. Common oil-cooking techniques include sauteing, stir-frying, and deep-frying. Commonly used fats and oils include butter, olive oil, sunflower oil, lard, beef fat (both dripping and tallow), rapeseed oil or Canola, and peanut oil. The inclusion of fats tends to add flavour to cooked food, even though the taste of the oil on its own is often unpleasant. This fact has encouraged the popularity of high fat foods, many of which are classified as junk food. For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... Sauté [V. saw-tay] is a method of cooking food a small amount of fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat. ... Stir frying (爆 bào) in a wok Stir frying is an English umbrella term used to describe two fast Chinese cooking techniques: chÇŽo (ç‚’) and bào (爆). The term stir-fry was introduced into the English language by Buwei Yang Chao, in her book How to Cook and Eat in... A Deep fried Twinkie Breaded, deep-fried squid Deep frying is a cooking method whereby food is submerged in hot oil or fat. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. ... This article is about the fat. ... Dripping, beef dripping is an animal fat produced from the fatty or otherwise unusable parts of cow carcasses. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the legume. ... Cheetos The Luther Burger, a bacon cheeseburger which employs a glazed donut in place of each bun. ...


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates used in cooking include simple sugars such as glucose (from table sugar) and fructose (from fruit), and starches from sources such as cereal flour, rice, arrowroot, potato. The interaction of heat and carbohydrate is complex. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Maranta arundinacea L. Arrowroot, or obedience plant, (Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial herb of genus Maranta found in rainforest habitats. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ...


Long-chain sugars such as starch tend to break down into more simple sugars when cooked, while simple sugars can form syrups. If sugars are heated so that all water of crystallisation is driven off, then caramelisation starts, with the sugar undergoing thermal decomposition with the formation of carbon, and other breakdown products producing caramel. Similarly, the heating of sugars and proteins elicits the Maillard reaction, a basic flavor-enhancing technique. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Caramelization is the oxidation of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting nutty flavor and brown color. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... A piece of caramel confectionery. ... The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar, usually requiring the addition of heat. ...


An emulsion of starch with fat or water can, when gently heated, provide thickening to the dish being cooked. In European cooking, a mixture of butter and flour called a roux is used to thicken liquids to make stews or sauces. In Asian cooking, a similar effect is obtained from a mixture of rice or corn starch and water. These techniques rely on the properties of starches to create simpler mucilaginous saccharides during cooking, which causes the familiar thickening of sauces. This thickening will break down, however, under additional heat. A. Two immisicible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... Roux (IPA: ) (pronounced like the English word rue) is a mixture of wheat flour and fat. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain. ... For the computer protocol, see SAUCE. Or see source. ...


Food safety

Main article: Food safety

If heat is used in the preparation of food, this can kill or inactivate potentially harmful organisms including bacteria and viruses. The effect will depend on temperature, cooking time, and technique used. The temperature range from 5°C to 57°C (41°F to 135°F) is the "food danger zone." Between these temperatures bacteria can grow rapidly. Under the correct conditions bacteria can double in number every twenty minutes. The food may not appear any different or spoiled but can be harmful to anyone who eats it. Meat, poultry, dairy products, and other prepared food must be kept outside of the "food danger zone" to remain safe to eat. Refrigeration and freezing do not kill bacteria, but only slow their growth. When cooling hot food, it shouldn't be left on the side or in a blast chiller (an appliance used to quickly cool food) for more than 90 minutes. Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ...


Cutting boards are a potential breeding ground for bacteria, and can be quite hazardous unless safety precautions are taken. Plastic cutting boards are less porous than wood and have conventionally been assumed to be far less likely to harbor bacteria.[1] This has been debated, and some research have shown wooden boards are far better.[2] Washing and sanitizing cutting boards is highly recommended, especially after use with raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Hot water and soap followed by a rinse with an antibacterial cleaner (dilute bleach is common in a mixture of 1 tablespoon per gallon of water, as at that dilution it is considered food safe, though some professionals choose not to use this method because they believe it could taint some foods), or a trip through a dishwasher with a "sanitize" cycle, are effective methods for reducing the risk of illness due to contaminated cooking implements.[2] A wooden chopping board with a chefs knife. ... Disinfection is the destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means. ... This tablespoon has a capacity of about 1 tbsp. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ...


It is also important to be very careful when using knives. The most important part of knife safety is to make sure your knife is sharp. It is easier to be cut with a dull knife, because more pressure must be applied to make a cut. Also, passing knives to a co-worker can become dangerous. When passing a knife to any other person in the kitchen, place the knife down on a flat, sanitized surface, and let the other person pick it up by the handle. This is the safest way to pass a knife to another person. The last knife hazard is for the person washing dishes. When finished with a knife, it is important that the dishwasher is aware that a knife is there. If the knife is placed in soapy water, it could be potentially dangerous, because someone unaware of the knife could reach in, and get cut. Always make sure the dishwasher knows about sharp objects, or, if possible, wash, dry, and store the knife by yourself. By following these rules, knife hazards will be limited, and you wil be more safe in the kitchen.


Cooking techniques

Some major hot cooking techniques: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 98 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flickr photo by user sfllaw: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 98 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flickr photo by user sfllaw: http://www. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Flame generated by the burning of a candle. ...

Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Baking Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by conduction, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. ... The term blind-baking refers to the process of baking of a pie crust without the pie filling. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Broiling Broiling is a process of cooking food with high heat with the heat applied directly to the food, most commonly from above. ... FlashBake is a high tech cooking technology invented in 1993. ... Advantium is the brand name of an electric food oven produced by General Electric since 1999. ... The Trivection oven is an home appliance created by General Electric, which combines heat, convection and microwaves for customized cooking. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Blanching The first step in blanching green beans Blanching is a cooking term that describes a process of food preparation wherein the food substance, usually a vegetable or fruit, is plunged into boiling water, removed after a brief, timed interval and finally plunged into... Braising (from the French braiser) is cooking with moist heat, typically in a covered pot with a small amount of liquid which results in a particular flavor. ... In cooking, to coddle food is to heat it in water kept just below the boiling point. ... Crock-pot - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Double steaming is a Chinese cooking technique to prepare delicate food such as bird nests, shark fins etc. ... An infusion is a beverage made by steeping a flavoring substance in hot or boiling water. ... Diego Velázquez: Old woman poaching eggs, c. ... “Pressure cooker” redirects here. ... Simmering is a cooking technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept at or just barely below the boiling point of water (at average sea level air pressure), 100 °C (212 °F). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Steeping may mean: Soaking in liquid until saturated with a soluble ingredient, as in, for example, the steeping of tea. ... In cooking, stewing means preparing meat cut into smaller pieces or cubes by simmering it in liquid, usually together with vegetables. ... Vacuum flask cooking is an invention introduced to the Asian market in the mid 1990s. ... Plantains frying in vegetable oil. ... A Deep-fried Twinkie Deep-frying is a cooking method whereby food is submerged in hot oil or fat. ... Hot salt frying is a technique used by street side food vendors in China. ... Hot sand frying is a common technique for street side food vendors in China to cook chestnuts and peanuts. ... Pan frying is a form of frying characterized by the use of less cooking oil than deep frying; enough oil to, at most, to cover the food to be cooked only half way. ... In a pressure frying, meat is heated to cooking temperatures but pressure is held high enough that the water within is prevented from boiling off. ... Sautéing is a method of cooking food using a small amount of fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat. ... Stir frying (爆 bào) in a wok Stir frying is an English umbrella term used to describe two fast Chinese cooking techniques: chǎo (炒) and bào (爆). The term stir-fry was introduced into the English language by Buwei Yang Chao, in her book How to Cook and Eat in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with microwave oven. ... “Roast” redirects here. ... A member of the Airpork Crew barbecue team prepares pork shoulder at the Memphis in May World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest. ... Food cooking on a charcoal grill Grilling is a form of cooking that involves direct heat. ... A vertical rotisserie cooking kebab For the fantasy sports game, see Rotisserie sports It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Spit (cooking aide). ... Searing is a technique used in grilling, roasting, braising, sautéing, etc. ... This article is about the food. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Smoking Smoking is the process of preserving, cooking, or flavoring food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ...

Other preparation techniques

Some cool techniques: For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...

In cooking, brining is a process similar to marination in which meat is soaked in a salt solution (the brine) before cooking. ... A whole potato, sliced pieces (right), and dried sliced pieces (left) Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food, which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay. ... The word grinding can mean many things: Grinding is a manufacturing process that uses friction with a rough surface to wear away or smooth the surface of a work piece - see grinding machine. ... Julienning is a method of food preparation in which the food item is cut into long thin (matchstick-sized) strips. ... Marination, also known as marinading, is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking. ... Mincing is a cooking technique in which food ingredients are finely divided. ... Cucumbers gathered for pickling. ... Salting is the preparation of food with salt. ... Seasoning is the process of adding flavours, or enhancing natural flavour of any type of food. ... Mixed bean sprouts Sprouting is the practice of soaking, draining, then rinsing at regular intervals seeds until they germinate and begin to sprout. ... Sugaring describes the following processes: The collection and production of maple syrup Hair removal using a sticky paste This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Science of cooking

Culinary triangle
Culinary triangle

The application of scientific knowledge to cooking and gastronomy has become known as molecular gastronomy. This is a subdiscipline of food science. Important contributions have been made by scientists, chefs and authors such as Herve This (chemist), Nicholas Kurti (physicist), Peter Barham (physicist), Harold McGee (author), Shirley Corriher (biochemist, author), Heston Blumenthal (chef), Ferran Adria (chef), Robert Wolke (chemist, author) and Pierre Gagnaire (chef). Image File history File links Triangle_culinaire. ... Image File history File links Triangle_culinaire. ... Molecular gastronomy is the application of science to culinary practice and more generally gastronomical phenomena. ... Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. ... Hervé This is a French physical chemist who works at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. ... Professor Nicholas Kurti (Hungarian: Kürti Miklós) FRS (May 14, 1908- November 24, 1998) was a Hungarian-born physicist. ... Dr. Peter Barham is a Reader of Physics at Bristol University and author of the book The Science of Cooking. ... Harold McGee writes about the chemistry, techniques and history of food and cooking and is the author of two books that explain kitchen science in an approachable manner. ... Shirley O. Corriher is a biochemist and author of CookWise: The Hows and Whys of Successful Cooking, winner of a James Beard Foundation award. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with The Fat Duck. ... Ferran Adrià Acosta is a Spanish cook born 14 May 1962 in LHospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain), the famed head chef of elBulli Restaurant in Roses, on the Costa Brava, Catalonia (Spain). ... Robert L. Wolke is a professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh. ... Pierre Gagnaire is a well known French chef, and is the Head Chef and owner of the eponymous Pierre Gagnaire restaurant at 6 rue Balzac in Paris. ...


The culinary triangle

The culinary triangle is a concept thought up by Claude Lévi-Strauss involving three types of cooking; these are boiling, roasting, and smoking, usually done to meats.[3] This article is about the anthropologist. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... “Roast” redirects here. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Smoking Smoking is the process of preserving, cooking, or flavoring food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ...


The boiling of meat is looked at as a cultural way of cooking because it uses a receptacle to hold water, therefore it is not completely natural. It is also the most preferred way to cook due to the fact that neither any of the meat or its juices are lost. In most cultures, this form of cooking is most represented by women and is served domestically to small closed groups, such as families. Roasting of meat is a natural way of cooking because it uses no receptacle. It is done by directly exposing the meat to the fire. It is most commonly offered to guests and is associated with men in many cultures. As opposed to boiling, meat can lose some parts, thus it is also associated with destruction and loss. Smoking meat is also a natural way of cooking. It is also done without a receptacle and in the same way as roasting. It is a slower method of roasting, however, which makes it somewhat like boiling. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ...


See also

Cooking Portal

Cooking Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... A stove is a heat-producing device. ... In recipes, quantities of ingredients may be specified by mass (weight), by volume, or by count. ... The following international food terms may be useful when reading about food and recipes from different countries. ... Food and cooking hygiene includes a number of routines which should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... A list of some prominent writers on food, cooking, dining, and cultural history related to food. ... The following is a list of cookbooks, sorted alphabetically by authors surname. ... This is a list of food preparation utensils, also known as kitchenware. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... This article is about culinary recipes. ... // Albanian vegetable pie: article, recipe Baked lamb and yogurt: recipe Baked leeks: recipe Bean Jahni soup: recipe Ellis veal or chicken with walnuts recipe Fërgesë of Tirana with peppers: recipe Fërgesë of Tirana with veal: recipe Fried meatballs: recipe Garlic dressings: recipe Mixed vegetables: recipe Potato and... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption for humans. ... A staple food is a basic but nutritious food that forms the basis of a traditional diet, particularly that of the poor. ... The original pronunciation was Cūlinary. As the english language progresses, the accepted pronunciation of the word is Cŭlinary. The culinary profession is cooking as a profession, i. ... Culinary art is the art of cooking. ...

References

  1. ^ Cutting Boards (Plastic Versus Wood). Food Safety, Preparation and Storage Tips. Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, the University of Arizona (1998). Retrieved on 2006-06-21.
  2. ^ a b Cutting Boards - wood or plastic?. ReluctantGourmet.com. Retrieved on 2006-06-21.
  3. ^ Lévi-Strauss, Claude. "The Culinary Triangle." In Food and Culture: A Reader. ed. Counihan, Carole and Van Esterik, Penny. Routledge. 1997

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
  • Culinary history timeline
  • NEAC - Network of European Alimentary Culture
  • Five Mushrooms, a culinary vertical search engine and food wiki

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