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Encyclopedia > Cookie

In the United States and Canada, a cookie is a small, round, flat cake. In most English-speaking countries outside North America, the most common word for this is biscuit; in many regions both terms are used, while in others the two words have different meanings—a cookie is a plain bun in Scotland, while in the United States a biscuit is a kind of quick bread not unlike a scone. This article is about the HTTP state mechanism. ... Look up cookie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Download high resolution version (1185x825, 972 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1185x825, 972 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A plate of chocolate chip cookies A chocolate chip cookie is a drop cookie, originating in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Swedish-style saffron bun traditionally consumed en masse with Christmas at hand. ... A type of bread that does not require rising. ... Scones with honey. ...

Contents

Origin

The earliest cookie-style is thought to date back to 5th century Persia (now Iran), one of the first regions to cultivate sugar (luxurious Biscuits and pastries in large and small versions were well known in the Persian Empire). According to historians, sugar originated either in the lowlands of Bengal or elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Sugar spread to Persia and then to the Eastern Mediterranean. With the Muslim invasion of Spain, and the Crusades and the developing spice trade, the cooking techniques and ingredients of Arabia spread into Northern Europe[1] and eventually present day America. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Basket of western-style pastries, for breakfast Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pastries For the Pastry Distributed Hash Table, see Pastry (DHT). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ...


Etymology

Its name derives from the Dutch word koekje or (informal) koekie which means little cake, and arrived in the English language through the Dutch in North America. It spread from American English to British English where biscuit is still the more general term. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Description

A cookie cake is a large cookie that can be decorated with icing similar to other cakes.

Cookies can be baked until crisp or just long enough that they remain soft. Depending on the type of cookie, some cookies are not cooked at all. Cookies are made in a wide variety of styles, using an array of ingredients including sugars, spices, chocolate, butter, peanut butter, nuts or dried fruits. The softness of the cookie may depend on how long it is baked. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 798 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1416 × 1064 pixel, file size: 223 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 798 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1416 × 1064 pixel, file size: 223 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... For other uses, see Cake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or blocks, and frequently served with the use of a butter knife. ... Peanut butter in a jar. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ...


A general theory of cookies may be formulated this way. Despite their descent from cakes and other sweetened breads, the cookie in almost all its forms has abandoned water as a medium for cohesion. Water in cakes serves to make the base (in the case of cakes called "batter"[2]) as thin as possible, which allows the bubbles – responsible for a cake's fluffiness – to form better. In the cookie, the agent of cohesion has become some variation of the theme of oil. Oils, whether they be in the form of butter, egg yolks, vegetable oils or lard are much more viscous than water and evaporate freely at a much higher temperature than water. Thus a cake made with butter or eggs instead of water is far denser after removal from the oven.


Oils in baked cakes do not behave as soda in the finished result. Rather than evaporating and thickening the mixture, they remain, saturating the bubbles of escaped gases from what little water there might have been in the eggs, if added, and the carbon dioxide released by heating the baking powder. This saturation produces the most texturally attractive feature of the cookie, and indeed all fried foods: crispness saturated with a moisture (namely oil) that does not sink into it. In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ...


Classification of cookies

Eight types of cookies
Eight types of cookies

Cookies are broadly classified according to how they are formed, including at least these categories: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2133 KB) Summary Photo taken by submitter. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2133 KB) Summary Photo taken by submitter. ...

  • Drop cookies are made from a relatively soft dough that is dropped by spoonfuls onto the baking sheet. During baking, the mounds of dough spread and flatten. Chocolate chip cookies are an example of drop cookies.
  • Refrigerator cookies are made from a stiff dough that is refrigerated to become even stiffer. The dough is typically shaped into cylinders which are sliced into round cookies before baking.
  • Molded cookies are also made from a stiffer dough that is molded into balls or cookie shapes by hand before baking. Snickerdoodles are an example of molded cookies.
  • Pressed cookies are made from a soft dough that is extruded from a cookie press into various decorative shapes before baking. Spritzgebäck are an example of a pressed cookie.
  • Bar cookies consist of batter or other ingredients that are poured or pressed into a pan (sometimes in multiple layers), and cut into cookie-sized pieces after baking. Brownies are an example of a batter-type bar cookie, while Rice Krispie treats are a bar cookie that doesn't require baking, perhaps similar to a cereal bar. In British English, bar cookies are known as "tray bakes".
Six types of cookies
Six types of cookies
  • Fried cookies including traditional cookies such as the zeppole as well as a newer American trend of deep-frying ordinary drop cookie dough.

Commercially-produced cookies include many varieties of sandwich cookies filled with marshmallow, jam, or icing, as well as cookies covered with chocolate which may more closely resemble a type of confectionery. Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Snickerdoodle This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cookies with cookie cutters in the background A cookie cutter is a tool to stamp out cookie dough in a particular shape. ... A gingerbread man is an anthropomorphic (human-like) figure made of gingerbread. ... A cookie press is a device for making pressed cookies such as spritz. ... A spritzgebäck is a type of German cookie. ... Chocolate brownies In American cooking, a chocolate brownie, also known as a Boston brownie or simply just brownie, is a small, rich, chocolate cake or bar cookie, named after its rich brown color. ... treat squares Rice Krispie treats prior to being cut into single-serving bars Rice krispie treats are a sweet dessert or snack made from rice krispies, melted margarine or butter, melted marshmallows, and vanilla. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 809 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cookie Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 809 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cookie Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Zeppole (singular Zeppoli) or St. ... Mini marshmallows The marshmallow is a confection that, in its modern form, consists of sugar or corn syrup, beaten egg whites, gelatin that has been pre-softened in water, gum arabic, and flavorings, whipped to a spongy consistency. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... This cake has an icing made with sour cream. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Candy be merged into this article or section. ...


Biscuits (cookies) in the United Kingdom

A basic biscuit (cookie) recipe includes flour, shortening (often lard), baking powder or soda, milk (buttermilk or sweet milk) and sugar. Common savoury variations involve substituting sugar with an ingredient such as cheese or other dairy products. Shortbread is a popular biscuit in the UK. For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ... This article is about the fat. ... Baking powder Baking Powder is a dry chemical leavening agent used in baking and deodorizing. ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Shortbread rounds Shortbread is a type of biscuit (cookie) which is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts plain white flour, although other ingredients like ground rice or cornflour are sometimes added to alter the texture. ...


Note that this is not the only type of cookie in England. In the UK the term cookie often just refers to chocolate chip cookies or a variation (e.g. oats, Smarties). Nestlé Smarties are a colourful sugar-coated chocolate confectionery popular in Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Malaysia, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and other countries. ...


See also

A plate of biscotti Biscotti (plural of Italian biscotto, roughly meaning twice baked) are crisp Italian cookies often containing nuts or flavored with anise. ... For other uses, see Oreo (disambiguation). ... Chips Ahoy! is a brand of chocolate chip cookies made by Nabisco. ... Cookie bouquets are created with decorated or plain cookies on sticks that have been arranged in a container much as a flower bouquet might be. ... Cookies with cookie cutters in the background A cookie cutter is a tool to stamp out cookie dough in a particular shape. ... Cookie decorating dates back to at least the 14th century when in Switzerland, springerle cookie molds were carved from wood and used to impress Biblical designs into cookies. ... A cookie exchange, more commonly known as a cookie swap, is an event where many people exchange cookies with one another. ... Davids Cookies In 1979 Chef David Liederman[1] (b 1949, New York, New York) began to create cookies that became the basis for the David’s Cookies line of desserts, baked goods, and cookie dough. ... A Girl Scout cookie is one of several varieties of cookie sold on neighborhood tours by Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) as a fundraiser for their organization. ... This article is about the cookie associated with Chinese American restaurants. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Snickerdoodle This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Springerle is a type of cookie with an embossed design made by pressing a mold onto rolled dough, then allowing the impression to dry before cooking. ... The Mrs. ... The original Bens Cookies in Oxfords Covered Market. ... A plate of chocolate chip cookies A chocolate chip cookie is a drop cookie, originating in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A black and white cookie. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A close up view of a dark chocolate Tim Tam Tim Tams are a chocolate biscuit made by Arnotts Biscuits, Australia. ... This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ... Shortbread rounds Shortbread is a type of biscuit (cookie) which is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts plain white flour, although other ingredients like ground rice or cornflour are sometimes added to alter the texture. ... Walkers Shortbread logo Walkers Shortbread is a Scottish manufacturer of shortbread, biscuits, cookies and crackers. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "History of Cookies"
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition. Merriam-Webster, Inc.: 1999.
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