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Encyclopedia > Cook Islands Maori

The Cook Islands Māori also called Maori Kuki Airani became an official language of the Cook Islands in 2003 (1). According to Te Reo Maori Act, Maori means :

  • (a) the Maori language (including its various dialects) as spoken or written in any island of the Cook Islands; and
  • (b) Is deemed to include Pukapukan as spoken or written in Pukapuka; and
  • (c) Includes Maori that conforms to the national standard for Maori approved by Kopapa Reo; (see external link)


These dialects(2) of the Cook Islands Maori are : A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ...

The Pukapukan language is considered by scholars as a distinct language closely related with Samoan and the language spoken on the three atolls of Tokelau Rakahanga Atoll, part of the Cook Islands in the central-southern Pacific Ocean, is a paradise not yet spoilt by tourism and it is a long way from civilisation, being 1000 kilometres from Rarotonga]. The most recent claim to fame is that pearls can now be successfully grown in the... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Penrhyn Island (also called Tongareva or Mangarongaro) is the most remote of the Cook Islands in the south Pacific ocean, about 1365 km (850 miles) north-north-east of Rarotonga. ... Atiu, also known as Enuamanu (meaning land of the birds), is an island lying at 187 km to the northeast of Rarotonga, in the Southern Islands group of the Cook Islands Archipelago. ... Mitiaro Cook Islands THE FOURTH largest island in the Cooks group, Mitiaro is of volcanic origin. ... Mauke - Cook Islands MAUKE is half as big as Rarotonga in circumference. ... Aitutaki is one of the Cook Islands, north of Rarotonga. ... Rarotonga Island from space, September 1994 A picture taken in Rarotonga. ... Mangaia is the most southerly of the Cook Islands and the second largest, after Rarotonga. ... Pukapakan is the Samoic Polynesian language spoken in the Danger Islands (Pukapuka) of the northwest Cook Islands. ...


Although it is closely related to Tahitian and New Zealand Maori, there is no immediate mutual intelligibility with these two languages. Tahitian, a Tahitic language, is the official language of French Polynesia and is spoken throughout Oceania. ... Māori (or Maori) is the Polynesian language spoken in New Zealand, where it has official status. ...


Most Cook Islanders also call it Te reo Ipukarea, litteraly "the language of the Ancestral Homeland"


The language is regulated by the kopapa reo created in 2003.


(1)Since 1915, English has been the only official language of the Cook Islands


(2)In a sense of mutual intelligibility


(3)Tongarevan is sometimes also considered as a disctinct language.

Contents


Writing system and pronunciation

There is actualy a debate about the standardization of the writing system. Although the usage of the macron (־)te makaroni, and the glottal (') is recommanded, most speakers do not use these two diacritics in their everyday writings


Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Velar Glottal
Plosive [ p ] (voiceless)
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen )
[ t ] (voiceless)
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[ k ] (voiceless)
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[ ` ] (voiceless)
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen )
Nasal [ m ] (voiced)
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[ n ] (voiced)
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[ ŋ ] (voiced)
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Tap [ r ] (voiced)
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Fricative [ f ] (voiceless)
Manihiki
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen )


[ v ] (voiced)
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen ) The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ...

[ s ] (voiceless)
Penrhyn
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen )
[ h ] (voiceless)
Manihiki and Penrhyn
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen )

The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ...

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close [ i ] (short)
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen )


[ ] (long) The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ...

[ u ] (short)
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen )


[ ] (long) The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ...

Close-mid [ e ] (short)
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen )


[ ] (long) The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ...

[ o ] (short)
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen )


[ ] (long) The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ...

Open [ a ](short)
( Image:Ltspkr.png Listen )


[ ] (long) The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ...

Grammar

Like for most South Pacific languages, classical descriptions are generaly based on the system used for indo-european languages, especialy concerning grammatical classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives..). Today linguists try to escape from it considering it as a form of glottocentrism, even if any perfect description is an utopia. Most examples are taken from Cook Islands Maori Dictionary, by Jasper Buse with Raututi Taringa edited by Bruce Biggs and Rangi Moeka'a, Auckland, 1995.


Personnal deictics

Singular

  • Au : I, me

Ka 'aere au ki te 'āpi'i āpōpō : I'm going to school tomorrow ; Ka 'ārote au inana'i, no te ua rā, kua 'akakore au : I was going to do the ploughing yesterday, but gave it up because of the rain.

  • Koe : you

Kua kino iā koe tō mātou mōtokā : you damaged our car; Ko koe 'oki, te tangata ta te 'akavā e kimi nei : you are the person the police are looking for.

  • 'Aia : he, she

'Ea'a 'aia i 'aere mai ei : why did he/she come? Kāre aia i konei : he/she is not here


Dual

  • Tāua : we two, us two (you and I)

'aere tāua : Let us go (you and I); Ko tō tāua taeake tērā ake : Here comes our friends (mine and yours)

  • Māua : we two, us two (he/she and I)

Ka 'oki māua ma Taria ki te kāinga : Taria and I are going home; No māua te 'are : The house is ours

  • Kōrua : you two

'Aere kōrua : you two go; Na kōrua teia puka : this book belongs to you two

  • Rāua : they, them (the two of them)

Mei 'ea mai rāua ? : where the two of them been ?; Ko rāua ko Pā tei no'o ki te kāinga : He (or she) and Pa stayed back at home


Plural

  • Tātou : We, us (you -2 or more- and I)

Ko'ai tā tātou e tiaki nei : Who are we waiting for ?; Kāre ā tātou kai toe : we have no more food

  • Mātou : we, us (they and I)

Ko mātou ma Tere mā i 'aere mai ei : We came with Tere and the others; Kua kite mai koe ia mātou : You saw us

  • Kōtou : (all of you)

E 'aere atu kōtou, ka āru atu au : you go on, and I 'll follow; Ko kōtou ko 'ai mā i aere ei ki te tautai ?: Who did you go fishing with ?

  • Rātou : they, them (more than two)

Kua pekapeka rātou ko Tere : they and Tere have quarrelled; Nō rātou te pupu māro'iro'i : they have the strongest team


Aspectual marks

  • Tē… nei : present continous

Tē manako nei au i te 'oki ki te 'are : I am thinking of going back to the house; Tē kata nei rātou : They are laughing; Kāre au e tanu nei i te pia : I'm not planting any arrowroot;

  • Kia : Mildly imperative or exhortatory, expressing a desire, a wish rather than a strong command.

Kia vave mai !: be quick ! (don't be long!); Kia vikiviki mai!  : be quick (don't dwaddle!); Kia manuia !  : good luck ! ; Kia rave ana koe i tēnā 'anga'anga  : would do you do that job; Kia tae mai ki te anga'anga ā te pōpongi Mōnitē : come to work on Monday morning; Teia te tātāpaka, kia kai koe : Here's the breadfruit pudding, eat up.

  • 'ē : Imperative, order

'ē 'eke koe ki raro : you get down; 'ē tū ki kō : stand over there

  • 'Auraka : interdiction, don't

'Auraka rava koe e 'āmiri i teia niuniu ora, ka 'uti'uti 'ia koe : Don't on any account touch this live wire, you'll get shocked

  • kāre : indicate the negation, not, nothing, nowhere

Kāre nō te ua : It 'll not rain; Kāre a Tī tuatua : Tī doesn't have anything to say.

  • e… ana : habitual action or state

E 'aere ana koe ki te 'ura : Do you go to the dance?: E no'o ana 'aia ki Nikao i tē reira tuātau : he used to live in Nikao at that time

  • Ka : Refers prospectively to the commencement of an action or state. Often translatable by and English future tense or "going to" construction

Ka 'īmene 'a Mere ākonei ite pō : Mary is going to sing later on tonight; Kua kite au ē ka riri a Tere : I know (or knew) that Tere will (or would) be angry

  • Kua : translatable by an english simple past or a present tense (with adjectives)

Kua kite mai koe ia mātou : You saw us; Kua meitaki koe ? : Are you better now; Kua oti te tārekareka : the match is over now


Possessives

Like most polynesian languages (Tahitian, New Zealand Maori, Hawaiian, Samoan…), Cook Islands Maori have two categories of possessives, the ā and ō.


Generally the ā category is used when the possessor has, or had, control of the relationship, is superior or dominant to what is owned or when the possession is considered as alienable. The ō category is used when the possessor has, or had, no control over the relationship, is subordinate or inferior to what is owned or when the possession is considered as inalienable.


The following list indicates the types of things in the different categories

  • ā is used in speaking of

- Movable property, instruments,


- Food and drink,


- Husband, wife children, girlfriend, boyfriend,


- Animals and pets,


- People in an inferior position


Te puaka ā tērā vaine : the pig belonging to that woman; ā Tere tamariki : Tere's children; Kāre ā Tupe mā ika i napō : Tupe and the rest didn't get any fish last night


Tāku ; Tā'au ; Tāna ; Tā tāua ; Tā māua…. : my, mine ; your, yours ; his, her, hers, our ours…


Ko tāku vaine teia : This is my wife; Ko tāna tāne tera : That's her husband; Tā kotou 'apinga : your possession(s); Tā Tare 'apinga : Tera possession(s);

  • ō is used in speaking of

- Parts of anything


- Feelings


- Buildings and transport


- Clothes


- Parents or other relatives (not husband, wife, children…)


- Superiors


Te 'are ō Tere : The house belonging to Tere; ō Tere pare : Tere's hat; Kāre ō Tina no'o anga e no'o ei : Tina hasn't got anywhere to sit;


Tōku ; Tō'ou ; Tōna ; Tō tāua ; Tō māua…: my, mine  ; your, yours ; his, her, hers ; our, ours …


Ko tōku 'are teia : This is my house; I tōku manako, kā tika tāna : In my opinion, he'll be right; Teia tōku, tērā tō'ou : This is mine here, that's yours over there


Vocabulary

Kia orāna or kia ora ana : hello,


Kia manuia  : bye


Pē'ea koe : How are you ?


Meitaki (ma'ata) : I'm (very) fine,


Meitaki !  : thank you !


Ko 'ai koe ?/ ko'ai to'ou ingoa ? : who are you ? /What's your name ?


Ko … au ? ko … toku ingoa : I'm …, / my name is…


Ka kite  : see you


āpōpō: tomorrow


Inana'i : yesterday


'ārote : plough


Ua : rain, rainy


'akakore : abolish, give up


Mōtokā : car


Kino : bad (general term), hurt, out of order, damaged


Kimi : look for


Kāre : not, nothing


Puaka : pig


Tika : permissible, allowable, correct


'apinga : possession, wealth


tamariki : children; 'āngai tamariki : to adopt children


Papa'ā : white man, European


'Akarongo : hear, listen


Taeake : friend or relative of the same generation (brother, sister, cousin either sex speaking, but not in laws.


Tama : a polite and friendly form of address. 'ē tamamā : my dear friend


Kāinga : home, homestead, land around the house, field, property


Ake : a little distance away, a little time away


'ea : where..;? ; mei 'ea : from where ?


Tiaki : wait for, guard, keep


Ma : with, and


Kite : see, know


Aru : go with, accompany, follow, pursue


Atu : away from the speaker. 'aere atu : to go away


Mai : movement towards the speaker. 'aere mai : to come (by ext. welcome)


Tautai : to fish


Pekapeka : quarrel, dispute


Pupu : group of people, team


Māro'iro'i : strong, healthy. Manako maro'iro'i : strong minded


Manako : Think, mind, idea


Pia : Polynesian arrowroot


Kata : laugh at; laughter; kata 'āviri : ridicule, laugh sneeringly, mockery


Tanu : to plant, cultivate land


'anga'anga : work, job


Pōpongi : morning


Tātāpaka : a kind of breadfruit pudding


'ura : dance, to dance


Tuātau : time, period, season ; ē tātau 'ua atu : for ever


'īmene : to sing, song


Riri : be angry with (ki)


Tārekareka : entertain, amuse, match, game, play game


External links

  • Te Reo Maori Act 2003
  • SBS Cook Islands Maori Radio Program. Updated each week
  • http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/dictionaries.asp
  • Cook Islands Ministry of Cultural Development
  • Te Reo Māori Kūki 'Āirani i roto i te Kurakarāma o Aotearoa (Cook Islands Maori in the New Zealand Curriculum)

Dictionaries and learning method and books

  • Cook Islands Maori Dictionary, by Jasper Buse with Raututi Taringaedited by Bruce Biggs and Rangi Moeka'a, Auckland, 1995.
  • A dictionary of the Maori Language of Rarotonga, Manuscript by Stephen Savage, Suva : IPS, USP in association with the Ministry of Education of the Cook Islands, 1983.
  • Kai Korero : Cook Islands Maori Language Coursebook, Tai Carpentier and Clive Beaumont, Pasifika Press, 1995. (A useful learning Method with oral skills cassette)
  • Cook Islands Cook Book by Taiora Matenga-Smith. Published by the Institute of

Pacific Studies


  Results from FactBites:
 
South Island - definition of South Island in Encyclopedia (340 words)
The Maori name for the South Island is Te Wai Pounamu which means "The Greenstone Water" (greenstone being jade).
Maps, headings or tables, and adjectival expressions use "South Island"; whereas "the South Island" is used after a preposition or before or after a verb; eg "my mother lives in the South Island", "the North Island is smaller than the South Island", "I'm visiting the South Island".
The South Island is often called the Mainland (somewhat humorously) by some New Zealanders because it is the largest of the islands of New Zealand, and because the North Island is considered to be somewhat peripheral to South Islanders.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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