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Encyclopedia > Convoy
A view through the windshield of a U.S. Army HMMWV traveling in a convoy in Baghdad, Iraq (April 2005).

A convoy is a group of vehicles (of any type, but usually motor vehicles or ships) traveling together for mutual support. Often, a convoy is organized with armed defensive support, though it may also be used in a non-military sense, for example when driving through remote areas. If one vehicle breaks down or gets stuck, the other vehicles can assist with repairs or attempt to free the bogged-down vehicle. If repairs are not possible, the people from the broken-down vehicle can transfer to others. Convoy can refer to: A convoy, a group of vehicles or ships traveling together for mutual support. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,363 × 1,022 pixels, file size: 217 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,363 × 1,022 pixels, file size: 217 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors General Characteristics (Humvee) Manufacturer: AM General Length: 4. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ...


Naval convoys

Age of Sail

By the French Revolutionary Wars of the late 18th century, effective naval convoy tactics had been developed to ward off pirates and privateers. Some convoys contained several hundred merchant ships. The most enduring system of convoys were the Spanish treasure fleets, that sailed from the 1520s until 1790. Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Naval tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemyship or fleet in battle at sea, the naval equivalent of military tactics on land. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... A treasure fleet is being loaded with riches. ...

When merchant ships sailed independently, a privateer could cruise a shipping lane and capture ships as they passed. Ships sailing in convoy presented a much smaller target: a convoy was no more likely to be found than a single ship. Even if the privateer found a convoy and the wind was favourable for an attack, it could hope to capture only a handful of ships before the rest managed to escape, and a small escort of warships could easily thwart it.

Many naval battles in the age of sail were fought around convoys, including: A naval battle is a battle fought using ships or other waterborne vessels. ... The age of sail is the period in which international trade and naval warfare were both dominated by sailing ships. ...

The Battle of Portland, also known as the Three Days Battle, was a naval battle of the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Several naval battles fought near the Île dOuessant (Ushant) in Brittany between the British and French navies are known as Battles of Ushant: The First Battle of Ushant, July 27, 1778, fought 100 miles west of Ouessant, was a large but inconclusive engagement in the American Revolutionary War. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Dogger Bank was a naval battle in the North Sea that took place on 24 January 1915, during the First World War, involving units of the Royal Navy and the German Fleet. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Glorious First of June Conflict French Revolutionary Wars Date June 1, 1794 Place 400 miles west of Ushant Result Indecisive The Glorious First of June (also known as the Third Battle of Ushant and in French as the Bataille du 13 prairial An 2) was a naval battle fought in... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

World War I

In the early 20th century, the dreadnought changed the balance of power in convoy battles. Steaming faster than merchant ships and firing at long ranges, a single battleship could destroy many ships in a convoy before the others could scatter over the horizon. To protect a convoy against a capital ship required providing it with an escort of another capital ship; a very high cost. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the Royal Navy was a revolutionary battleship which entered service in 1906. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ...

Battleships were the main reason that the British Admiralty did not adopt convoy tactics at the start of the first Battle of the Atlantic in World War I. But by the end of 1914, German capital ships had largely been cleared from the oceans and the main threat to shipping came from U-boats. From a tactical point of view, World War I-era submarines were similar to privateers in the age of sail: only a little faster than the merchant ships they were attacking, and capable of sinking only a small number of vessels in a convoy because of their limited supply of torpedoes and shells. The Admiralty took a long time to respond to this change in the tactical position, and only in 1917, at the urging of the British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, did they institute a convoy system. Losses to U-boats dropped to a small fraction of their former level. Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ...

Other arguments against convoy were raised. The primary issue was the loss of productivity, as merchant shipping in convoy has to travel at the speed of the slowest vessel in the convoy and spent a considerable amount of time in ports waiting for the next convoy to depart. Further, large convoys were thought to overload port resources.

Actual analysis of shipping losses in World War I disproved all these arguments, at least so far as they applied to transatlantic and other long-distance traffic. Ships sailing in convoys were far less likely to be sunk, even when not provided with any escort at all. The loss of productivity due to convoy delays was small compared with the loss of productivity due to ships being sunk. Ports could deal more easily with convoys because they tended to arrive on schedule and so loading and unloading could be planned.

In his book On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, Norman Dixon suggested that the hostility towards convoys in the naval establishment were in part caused by a (sub-conscious) perception of convoys as effeminating, due to warships having to care for civilian merchant ships.[1] Also, it should be noted that convoy duty exposes the escorting warships to the uncomfortable and sometimes outright hazardous conditions of the North Atlantic, but with only extremely rare occurrences of visible achievement (i.e. fending of a submarine assault). Military incompetence refers to failures of members of the military. ...

It could also be argued from the naval escort's point of view, that convoys were in fact an OFFENSIVE tactic. If the enemy wanted to sink merchant ships you were forcing them to come to you, and where your warship escorts could be used to destroy the enemy. It saved you from having to search millions of CUBIC miles of ocean to find the enemy [in the case of U boats], the enemy came and found you. <D.Still 18/11/2007>

World War II

An aerial view of a convoy escorted by a battleship during the Battle of the Atlantic in April 1941. The ships stretch as far as the eye can see.

The British adopted a convoy system, initially voluntary and later compulsory for almost all merchant ships, the moment that World War II was declared. Canadian, and later American, supplies were vital for Britain to continue its war effort. The course of the second Battle of the Atlantic was a long struggle as the Germans developed anti-convoy tactics and the British developed counter-tactics to thwart the Germans. Image File history File links Aerial_view_of_a_convoy. ... Image File history File links Aerial_view_of_a_convoy. ... Battle of the Atlantic can refer to either of two naval campaigns, depending on context: World War I - First Battle of the Atlantic World War II - Second Battle of the Atlantic A Third Battle of the Atlantic was envisioned to be be part of any Third World War that arose... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic...

The power of a battleship against a convoy was dramatically illustrated by the fate of Convoy HX-84. On November 5, 1940, the German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer encountered the convoy. Maiden, Trewellard, Kenbame Head, Beaverford, and Fresno were quickly sunk, and other ships were damaged. Only the sacrifice of the Armed Merchant Cruiser HMS Jervis Bay and failing light allowed the rest of the convoy to escape. HX-84 was a World War II convoy of 38 ships which sailed eastbound from Halifax, Nova Scotia for Liverpool, England on 28 October 1940. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Admiral Scheer, a pocket battleship, was built in 1933 and named after Admiral Reinhard Scheer. ... Auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships taken over for conversion into a vessel armed with cruiser-size guns, and employed either for convoy protection against true cruisers, or for commerce-raiding missions, where its appearance was used to trick merchant ships into approaching. ... HMS Jervis Bay was a British liner later converted into an Armed Merchant Cruiser, pennant F40. ...

The power of a battleship in protecting a convoy was also dramatically illustrated when the German battlecruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau came upon an eastbound British convoy of 41 ships, HX-106 in the North Atlantic on February 8th, 1941. When they noticed the presence in the escort of the old battleship, HMS Ramillies, they fled the scene, rather than risk damage from her 15" guns. Gerhard von Scharnhorst was a Prussian general. ... August von Gneisenau was a Prussian general. ... Convoy HX-106 consisted of some 41 ships, eastbound from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Liverpool, England. ... HMS Ramillies (pennant number 07) was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, named after the Battle of Ramillies. ...

The enormous number of vessels involved and the frequency of engagements meant that statistical techniques could be applied to evaluate tactics: an early use of operational research in war. Operations research, operational research, or simply OR, is the use of mathematical models, statistics and algorithms to aid in decision-making. ...

On the entry of the U.S. into World War II, the U.S. Navy decided not to instigate convoys on eastern seaboard of the U.S. Fleet Admiral Ernest King ignored advice on this subject from the British as he had formed a poor opinion of the Royal Navy early in his career. The result was what the U-boat crews called their second happy time, which did not end until convoys were introduced. This was, unfortunately for the Allies, as near to a laboratory test as is ever seen in war time and it proved conclusively that convoys worked. Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King (November 23, 1878 – June 25, 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations (COMINCH-CNO) during World War II. As COMINCH, he directed the United States Navys operations, planning, and administration and was a member of the Joint Chiefs... The second happy time was a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping along the east coast of North America. ...

The German anti-convoy tactics included: The development of the steam ironclad firing explosive shells in the mid 19th century rendered sailing tactics obsolete. ...

  • long-range surveillance aircraft to find convoys;
  • strings of U-boats (wolf packs) that could be directed onto a convoy by radio;
  • breaking the British naval codes;
  • improved anti-ship weapons, including magnetic detonators and sonic homing torpedoes.

The Allied responses included: The term wolf pack refers to the mass-attack tactics against convoys used by U-boats of the Kriegsmarine during the Battle of the Atlantic and submarines of the United States Navy against Japanese shipping in the Pacific Ocean in World War II. Karl Dönitz used the term Rudel...

  • air raids on the U-boat bases at Brest and La Rochelle;
  • converted merchant ships, eg, Merchant aircraft carriers, Catapult Aircraft Merchantman and armed merchant cruisers
  • more convoy escorts, including cheaply produced corvettes, frigates, and escort carriers;
  • improved anti-submarine weapons such as the hedgehog;
  • long-range aircraft patrols to find U-boats;
  • larger convoys, allowing more escorts per convoy as well as the extraction of enough escorts to form support groups that operated in defence of convoys that faced an above-average risk of attack
  • allocating vessels to convoys according to speed, so that faster ships were less exposed.

They were also aided by Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... Brest is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... La Rochelle is a city and commune of western France, and a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean (population 78,000 in 2004). ... Merchant aircraft carriers (MAC) were minimal aircraft carriers used during World War II by Great Britain and Holland as an emergency measure until the United States-built escort carriers became available. ... A CAM ship was a World War II-era British merchant ship used in convoys as a cheap emergency solution to the shortage of escort carriers. ... Armed Merchantmen were merchant ships taken over by their nations navies, equipped with guns, and then used for military purposes. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate and larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ... Hedgehog anti-submarine weapon, British WWII Hedgehog anti-submarine mortar with full load of practice bombs, circa 2002. ...

During World War II, Japanese vessels rarely traveled in convoys (see also USS Grayback (SS-208) and USS Thresher (SS-200)). Their merchant fleet was largely destroyed by Allied submarines. This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... For other uses, see Enigma. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Radio Direction Finding, or RDF, is the technique of locating the direction to a radio transmission. ... USS Grayback (SS-208), a Tambor-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the lake herring. ... USS Thresher (SS-200), a Tambor-class submarine, was the first United States Navy submarine to be named for the thresher shark. ...

Many naval battles of World War II were fought around convoys, including:

The convoy prefix indicates the route of the convoy. For example, 'PQ' would be Iceland to Northern Russia and 'QP' the return route. Artic Convoy PQ16 supported the Allied war effort of World War II In the winter and spring of 1942, Roosevelt and Stalin, continually pressed for more convoys to Russia, to deliver War Stores to help them sustain their fight against the Germans, despite the knowledge that the naval forces were... PQ-17 was a World War II convoy carrying war materiel from Britain and the USA to the USSR. PQ-17 sailed in June-July 1942 and suffered the heaviest losses of any Russia-bound (PQ) convoy, with 25 vessels out of 36 lost to enemy action. ... The HMS Eagle, sunk by the German submarine U-73 Operation Pedestal was a British operation to get vital supplies to the island of Malta in August 1942, during World War II and the height of the Axis siege of Malta. ... Combatants Allied forces including:  United States  Australia  Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Daniel J. Callaghan† Willis A. Lee Isoroku Yamamoto Nobutake Kondo Hiroaki Abe Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 36 aircraft destroyed... Combatants United Kingdom Nazi Germany Commanders Rear-Admiral Robert L. Burnett Captain Robert St. ... Combatants United States, Australia Empire of Japan Commanders George C. Kenney Masatomi Kimura Strength 39 heavy bombers; 41 medium bombers; 34 light bombers; 54 fighters 8 destroyers, 8 troop transports, 100 aircraft Casualties 2 bombers, 3 fighters destroyed 8 transports, 4 destroyers sunk 20 fighters destroyed, 5,000 troops killed...


The largest convoy effort since World War II was Operation Earnest Will, the U.S. Navy's 198788 escort of reflagged Kuwaiti tankers in the Persian Gulf during the Iran-Iraq War. Combatants United States Navy Iranian Navy Strength 1 aircraft carrier, 1 amphibious transport dock 4 destroyers 1 guided missile cruiser 3 frigates 4 frigates 4 Corvettes Several Mine Layers Several Missile Craft Operation Earnest Will (24 July 1987 - 26 September 1988) was the U.S. military protection of Kuwaiti oil... USN redirects here. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants  Iran Kurdish Peshmerga Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters...

It seems that satellite surveillance, aircraft carriers, cruise missiles and modern submarines have turned the tactical advantage decidedly in favour of the attacker. See the modern naval tactics article for an idea of the problems facing the defender. For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... It is tempting to regard modern naval combat as the purest expression of tactics. ...

Humanitarian aid convoys

The word, "convoy" is also associated with groups of road vehicles being driven, mostly by volunteers, to deliver humanitarian aid, supplies, and – a stated objective in some cases – "solidarity". [2] Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ...

In the 1990s these convoys became common travelling from Western Europe to countries of the former Yugoslavia, in particular Bosnia and Kosovo, to deal with the aftermath of the wars there. They also travel to countries where standards of care in institutions such as orphanages are considered low by Western European standards, such as Romania; and where other disasters have led to problems, such as around the Chernobyl disaster in Belarus and Ukraine. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst in history, resulting in a severe nuclear meltdown. ...

The convoys are made possible partly by the relatively small geographic distances between the stable and affluent countries of Western Europe, and the areas of need in Eastern Europe and, in a few cases, North Africa and even Iraq. They are often justified because although less directly cost-effective than mass freight transport, they emphasise the support of large numbers of small groups, and are quite distinct from multinational organisations such as United Nations humanitarian efforts. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...

Truckers convoys

The film, Convoy immortalises comradeship between truck drivers, where the culture of the CB radio encourages truck drivers to travel in convoys. Convoy is a 1978 action film directed by Sam Peckinpah and starring Kris Kristofferson, Ali MacGraw, Ernest Borgnine and Burt Young. ... Citizens band radio (CB) is, in the United States, a system of short distance radio communication between individuals on a selection of 40 channels within the single 27 MHz (11 meter) band. ...

See also

A camel train is a series of camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points. ...

Military convoys

This is a list of convoy codes used by the Allies during World War II. AS BA BC BD BRN BS BT BTC BX CB CD CU DN EBC ECP EMC ET ETC FN FS FXP Gibr GTX GUS HA HG HN HX JT JW K KB KG KJ KMF... Categories: Stub ... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United States and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. ... A Convoy Commodore was the title of a civilian put in charge of the good order of the merchant ships in the British convoys used during World War II. Usually the convoy commodore was a retired naval officer or a senior merchant captain drawn from the RNVR. He was aboard... The Malta Convoys were a series of supply convoys to sustain the Mediterranean island of Malta during World War 2. ... HMS Scarborough was a Royal Navy sloop of the Hastings class launched in 1930. ... Downtown Sydney, Nova Scotia. ... A hidden gun on a Q-ship in World War I. The Q-ship or Q-boat was a weapon used against German U-boats during World War I primarily by Britain and during World War II primarily by the United States. ... “A/S” redirects here. ...

Humanitarian convoys

Aid Convoy is a British charitable organisation running and supporting various humanitarian aid projects, mostly in Eastern Europe. ... Workers Aid for Bosnia (sometimes abbreviated to Workers Aid) was founded in London, United Kingdom in 1993. ...


  1. ^ Dixon, Dr. Norman F. On the Psychology of Military Incompetence Jonathan Cape Ltd 1976 / Pimlico 1994 pp210–211
  2. ^ Aid Convoy (charitable organisation) information on partners
  • Convoy, The Defense of Sea Trade 1890-1990, John Winton 1983. ISBN 0 7181 21635

External links

  • Lists of convoy prefixes for both World Wars
  • Convoy web – a comprehensive analysis of certain naval convoy routes
  • Aid Convoy – a humanitarian aid charity running convoys

  Results from FactBites:
Convoy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1133 words)
Even if the privateer found a convoy and the wind was favourable for an attack, it could hope to capture only a handful of ships before the rest managed to escape, and a small escort of warships could easily thwart it.
The convoy prefix indicates the route of the convoy.
The largest convoy effort since World War II was Operation Earnest Will, the U.S. Navy's 1987–88 escort of reflagged Kuwaiti tankers in the Persian Gulf during the Iran-Iraq War.
Convoy (song) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (645 words)
"Convoy" is a 1975 novelty song performed by C.W. McCall (pseudonym of Bill Fries) that became a #1 hit in the USA and helped start a worldwide craze for citizens band (CB) radio.
Following the Rubber Duck is an unnamed trucker in a "cab-over Pete with a reefer on", a refrigerated trailer hauled by a Peterbilt truck configured with the cab over the engine.
The convoy crashes another road block when crossing a bridge into New Jersey, and by this time they have "a thousand trucks in all".
  More results at FactBites »



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