FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
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Encyclopedia > Convict settlement

A penal colony is a colony used to house prisoners. The British Empire's use of parts of Australia provides a classic example. In politics and in history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a geographically-distinct state (or city, in ancient times). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...

Prisoners were sent far away to discourage escape (or even return after sentence-expiry), and to places otherwise inhospitable where their (unpaid) labour could rebound to the metropole's advantage before later bulk "free" immigration became viable. In this way, the British got rid of criminals and prostitutes by shipping them to North America as indentured servants. When that avenue closed in the 1780s after the American Revolution, Britain switched the destination to what later became parts of Australia: Norfolk Island, Van Diemen's Land and New South Wales. Awkward advocates of Irish Home Rule or of Trade Unionism (the Tolpuddle Martyrs) received sentences of transportation and joined the thieves and embezzlers and prostitutes in remote Australian colonies. The Metropole was the name given to the English metropolitan center of the British Empire, i. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Events and Trends 1787 United States Constitution 1788 Great Britain established the prison colony of New South Wales in Australia. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... Van Diemens Land is the name originally used by the British for Tasmania, an island state of Australia. ... Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Nickname: Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Governor Premier Const. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of 19th century British labourers who formed a trade union, and were subsequently arrested and sentenced to transportation to Australia. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ...

France elected to send serious criminals to uncomfortable tropical penal colonies: Devil's Island in French Guiana received forgers and other criminals; for a time New Caledonia received dissidents like the Communards. Devils Island (French Île du Diable), is an island located off the coast of French Guiana. ... The Communards were also an 80s Britpop group Communard is an archaic term that is a synonym of communist. With respect to the history of France, the Communards were the supporters/members of the short-lived Paris Commune formed in the disturbed period immediately after the Franco-Prussian War. ...

Both Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union used Siberia as a dumping-ground penal colony for both criminals and dissidents. Though geographically contiguous with heartland Russia, Siberia provided both remoteness and an unwelcomingly harsh climate. The Gulag and its predecessor, katorga system, developed forestry, logging and mining industries, construction enterprises, as well as highways and railroads across Siberia. Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia ( Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps) was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps... Katorga (ка́торга, from Greek: katergon (galley)) was a system of penal servitude in Imperial Russia. ... Forestry (formally known as silviculture) is the art, science, and practice of studying and managing forests and related natural resources. ... For another article about a different type of logging, see data logging. ... The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein, or (coal) seam. ... Mitchell Freeway in Perth, Western Australia For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ...

The idea of remote and inhospitable prison planets has also understandably appealed to science fiction writers. Some of the most famous examples include Salusa Secundus in Frank Herbert's Dune, and the penal colony in Alien 3, though many more exist. In the Star Trek universe, Rura Penthe is a Klingon colony where prisoners mine dilithium. A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planētēs or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces no energy through nuclear fusion. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Salusa Secundus is a fictional planet appearing in Frank Herberts Dune universe. ... Frank Patrick Herbert (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986) was an American science fiction author. ... Dune is a 1965 science fiction novel written by Frank Herbert—the first installment of the famed Dune trilogy, to which was added three more novels, and another two planned for 2007 —based on the late authors notes. ... Alien 3 DVD cover Alien is a science fiction/horror movie that opened May 22, 1992. ... The Enterprise boldly going where no man had gone before. ... In the fictional universe of Star Trek, Rura Penthe is an ice-covered planetoid in the Klingon Empire that serves both as a penal colony and dilithium mine. ... Dilithium is a fictional crystalline mineral in the universe of Star Trek. ...

In the Penal Colony is a short story by Franz Kafka. In the Penal Colony (original title In der Strafkolonie) is a short story by Franz Kafka set in some unnamed penal colony. ... Franz Kafka approximately 1917 Franz Kafka (July 3, 1883 in Prague, Bohemia - June 3, 1924 in Vienna, Austria) was one of the major German language writers of the 20th century most of whose work was published posthumously. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Convicts To Australia ... Research Guide - Timeline (1120 words)
Convict ships were sent from England directly to the colony from 1812-1853 and over the 50 years from 1803-1853 around 67,000 convicts were transported to Tasmania.
Convicts sent to Western Australia were sentenced to terms of 6, 7, 10, 14 and 15 years and some reports suggest that their literacy rate was around 75% as opposed to 50% for those sent to NSW and Tasmania.
Around 2,280 convicts were sent to the settlement between 1824-1839 and at the end of 1836 the convict population numbered 337.
  More results at FactBites »



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