On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (Japanese: 神奈川条約, Kanagawa Jōyaku, or 日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku) was used by Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy to force the opening of the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade and ended Japan's 200 year policy of seclusion (Sakoku). It also guaranteed safety of shipwrecked American whalers and established a permanent American consul. Though he refused to deal with Japanese officials and demanded to speak with the Japanese Head of State, Perry did not realize that he had only spoken with representatives of the TokugawaShogun and not the Emperor. However, the Shogun was the de-facto ruler of Japan at that time. For the Emperor to interact in any way with foreigners was out of the question. March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining, as the final day of March. ... 1854 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Photograph of Perry Matthew Calbraith Perry (April 10, 1794 – March 4, 1858) was the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who forced the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854, under the threat of military force. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Shimoda is the name of several places or a character. ... View of Hakodate from Mountain Hakodate (函館市; -shi) is a city and port located in Oshima, Hokkaido, Japan. ... Sakoku (Japanese 鎖国, literally chained country) is a keyword which explains the foreign relations policy of the Tokugawa shogunate from 1641 to 1853 in the History of Japan. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... An emperor is the male head of state of an empire who reigns for life. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ...
After the Treaty of Kanagawa was concluded, similar treaties were negotiated by the Russians and the British.
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Full text of the treaty can be found here (http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob25.html).
On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku
In the end Perry concluded the treaty with representatives of the Shogun and not the Emperor.
The Kanagawa treaty was followed by the United States-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce of 1858, another of the Unequal Treaties, which allowed the establishment of foreign concessions, extra-territoriality for foreigners, and minimal import taxes for foreign goods.
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