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Encyclopedia > Conus medullaris
Conus medullaris
Cauda equina and filum terminale seen from behind. The dura mater has been opened and spread out, and the arachnoid mater has been removed.
Gray's subject #185 749

The conus medullaris is the terminal end of the spinal cord. It occurs near lumbar nerves 1 (L1) and 2 (L2). After the spinal cord terminates, the spinal nerves continue as dangling nerves called the cauda equina. The upper end of the conus medullaris is usually not well defined. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The cauda equina is a structure within the lower end of the spinal column, that consists of nerve roots and rootlets from above. ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ... The Arachnoid mater is one of the three layers of the meninges, interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater and separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The Lumbar Nerves are divided into posterior and anterior divisions. ... The cauda equina is a structure within the lower end of the spinal column, that consists of nerve roots and rootlets from above. ...


Blood supply

The blood supply consists of three spinal arterial vessels—the anterior median longitudinal arterial trunk and two posterolateral trunks. Other less prominent sources of blood supply include radicular arterial branches from the aorta, lateral sacral arteries, and the fifth lumbar, iliolumbar, and middle sacral arteries. The latter contribute more to the vascular supply of the cauda equina. !


Pathology

The term "conus medullaris syndrome" is sometimes used to describe a condition similar to cauda equina syndrome. Cauda equina syndrome is a serious neurologic condition in which there is compression of the vertebral column (spine) affecting the S1-S4 nerve roots. ...


External links

Cauda Equina Syndrome results usually from nerve root tumors, an ependymoma, and dermoid tumor. Symptoms include radicular unilateral pain, unilateral muscle atrophy. Difference between cauda equina syndrome and Conus medullaris syndrome is that Conus Medullaris syndrome presents bilaterally and urinary incontinence, sexual function are more sever. The epidural space is a part of the human spine which is very close to the spinal cord, lying just outside the dura mater. ... The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ... The subdural space (or subdural cavity) is an artificial space created by the separation of the arachnoid mater from the dura mater as the result of trauma or pathologic process. ... The Arachnoid mater is one of the three layers of the meninges, interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater and separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... [www. ... The pia mater has 21 pairs of denticulate ligaments which attach it to the arachnoid and dura maters. ... The cauda equina is a structure within the lower end of the spinal column, that consists of nerve roots and rootlets from above. ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... The cervical enlargement corresponds with the attachments of the large nerves which supply the upper limbs. ... The lumbar enlargement (or lumbosacral enlargement) gives attachment to the nerves which supply the lower limbs. ... The anterior median fissure of the spinal cord has an average depth of about 3 mm, but this is increased in the lower part of the medulla spinalis. ...



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  Results from FactBites:
 
Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. Page 754 (446 words)
In the cervical and lumbar enlargements it is greatly increased: in the latter, and especially in the conus medullaris, its proportion to the white substance is greatest (Fig.
The posterior gray commissure reaches from the central canal to the posterior median septum, and is thinnest in the thoracic region, and thickest in the conus medullaris.
Throughout the cervical and thoracic regions the central canal is situated in the anterior third of the medulla spinalis; in the lumbar enlargement it is near the middle, and in the conus medullaris it approaches the posterior surface.
Chair of Veterinary Anatomy I, University of Munich (Böhmisch et al. 2000) (296 words)
The aim of this investigation on the Cauda equina in the cat was to determine the end of the conus medullaris and the transition to the terminal filament (Filum terminale) of the spinal cord, in reference to age, number of caudal vertebrae and fixation (10% formalin or frozen).
The end of the conus medullaris in animals younger than one year was on average found in the range of the cranial third of the sixth lumbar vertebra.
However the end of the conus medullaris in animals older than one year was on average found in the range of the middle part of the fifth lumbar vertebra.
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