FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Controlled Substances Act
U.S. drug regulation
Prescription drugs
Over-the-counter drugs
This box: view  talk  edit

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970.[1] The CSA is the federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of certain drugs is regulated. The Act also served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. A prescription drug is a medication that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription and without a visit to a medical professional, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (CSA) In the USA, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and subsequent modifications require the pharmaceutical industry to maintain physical security and strict record keeping for certain types of drugs. ... The Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PDMA) of 1987 (P.L. 100-293, 102 Stat. ... The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act, informally known as the Hatch-Waxman Act [Public Law 98-417], is a 1984 United States federal law which established the modern system of generic drugs. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... FDA redirects here. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ... The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research is a division of the FDA that deals with the approval of drugs. ... The New Drug Application (NDA) is the vehicle through which drug sponsors formally propose that the FDA approve a new pharmaceutical for sale and marketing in the U.S. The goals of the NDA are to provide enough information to permit FDA reviewer to reach the following: Is the drug... The Food and Drug Administrations Investigational New Drug (IND) program is the means by which a pharmaceutical company obtains permission to ship an experimental drug across state lines (usually to clinical investigators) before a marketing application for the drug has been approved. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... Pharmacovigilance the pharmacological science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long term and short term side effect, of medicines (Source: The Importance of Pharmacovigilance, WHO 2002). ... The International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) is a project that brings together the regulatory authorities of Europe, Japan and the United States and experts from the pharmaceutical industry in the three regions to discuss scientific and technical aspects of pharmaceutical... The Uppsala Monitoring Centre (the UMC), located in Uppsala, Sweden, is the field name for the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring. ... WHO redirects here. ... The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) is an international, nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization established jointly by WHO and UNESCO in 1949. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (CSA) In the USA, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and subsequent modifications require the pharmaceutical industry to maintain physical security and strict record keeping for certain types of drugs. ... United States Government redirects here. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the...


The legislation created five Schedules (classifications), with varying qualifications for a drug to be included in each. Two federal departments, the Department of Justice and the Department of Health and Human Services (which includes the Food and Drug Administration) determine which drugs are added or removed from the various schedules, though the statute passed by Congress created the initial listing. Classification decisions are required to be made on the criteria of potential for abuse, accepted medical use in the United States, and potential for dependence. Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... FDA redirects here. ...


The Department of Justice is also the executive agency in charge of federal law enforcement. State governments also regulate certain drugs not controlled at the federal level.

Contents

History

In 1969, President Nixon announced that the Attorney General was preparing a comprehensive new measure to more effectively meet the narcotic and dangerous drug problems at the Federal level by combining all existing federal laws into a single new statute. Nixon is the surname of some prominent people: Richard Nixon - 37th President of the United States Patricia Nixon - First Lady to President Richard Nixon Tricia Nixon Cox - older daughter to Richard and Pat Nixon Julie Nixon Eisenhower - younger daughter to Richard and Pat Nixon John B. Nixon - oldest inmate executed... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ...


Also during this time Nixon commissioned the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse, otherwise known as the Shafer Commission, to study marijuana abuse in the United States. During his presentation of the commission's findings to Congress, chairman Raymond P. Shafer recommended the decriminalization of marijuana in small amounts, claiming; "[T]he criminal law is too harsh a tool to apply to personal possession even in the effort to discourage use. It implies an overwhelming indictment of the behavior which we believe is not appropriate. The actual and potential harm of use of the drug is not great enough to justify intrusion by the criminal law into private behavior, a step which our society takes only 'with the greatest reluctance." Nixon buried this commission's findings and went on to sign the Controlled Substances Act. Nixon is the surname of some prominent people: Richard Nixon - 37th President of the United States Patricia Nixon - First Lady to President Richard Nixon Tricia Nixon Cox - older daughter to Richard and Pat Nixon Julie Nixon Eisenhower - younger daughter to Richard and Pat Nixon John B. Nixon - oldest inmate executed... The National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse was created by Public Law 91-513 to study marijuana abuse in the United States. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... Raymond Philip Shafer (b. ... Decriminalization is the reduction or abolition of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts. ...


Rufus King notes that this stratagem was similar to that used by Harry Anslinger when he consolidated the previous anti-drug treaties into the Single Convention and took the opportunity to add new provisions that otherwise might have been unpalatable to the international community.[2] According to David T. Courtwright, "the 1970 Controlled Substances Act was part of an omnibus reform package designed to rationalize, and in some respects to liberalize, American drug policy." It eliminated mandatory minimum sentences and provided support for drug treatment and research.[3] King notes that the rehabilitation clauses were added as a compromise to Senator Hughes, who favored a moderate approach. The bill, as introduced by Senator Dirksen, ran 91 pages. While it was being drafted, the Uniform Controlled Substances Act, to be passed by state legislatures, was also being drafted by the Department of Justice; its wording closely mirrored the Controlled Substances Act.[2] Harry J. Anslinger (1892-1975) is widely considered to be The first United States drug czar. Currently, many firmly oppose Anslinger for his rhetoric-based crusade against marijuana, fueling decades of misinformation about the drug based on racism and fear. ...


Since its enactment in 1970, the Act has been amended several times:

The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 amended the Controlled Substances Act to ensure compliance with the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. ... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... The Controlled Substances Penalties Amendments Act of 1984, 98 Stat. ... The Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 was an amendment to the Controlled Substances Act to regulate precursor chemicals, essential chemicals, tableting machines, and encapsulating machines by imposing record keeping and import/export reporting requirements on transactions involving these materials. ... United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature December 20, 1988[1] at Vienna Entered into force November 11, 1990[2] Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 170[3] The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and... The Federal Analog Act is a controversial section of the DEA Controlled Substances Act, allowing any chemical substantially similar to an illegal drug (in Schedule I or II) to be treated as if it were also in Schedule I, but only if it is intended for human consumption. ...

Enforcement authority

Proceedings to add, delete, or change the schedule of a drug or other substance may be initiated by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), or by petition from any interested party, including the manufacturer of a drug, a medical society or association, a pharmacy association, a public interest group concerned with drug abuse, a state or local government agency, or an individual citizen. When a petition is received by the DEA, the agency begins its own investigation of the drug. The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ...


The DEA also may begin an investigation of a drug at any time based upon information received from laboratories, state and local law enforcement and regulatory agencies, or other sources of information.


Once the DEA has collected the necessary data, the DEA Administrator, by authority of the Attorney General, requests from HHS a scientific and medical evaluation and recommendation as to whether the drug or other substance should be controlled or removed from control. This request is sent to the Assistant Secretary of Health of HHS. Then, HHS solicits information from the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration and evaluations and recommendations from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and, on occasion, from the scientific and medical community at large. The Assistant Secretary, by authority of the Secretary, compiles the information and transmits back to the DEA a medical and scientific evaluation regarding the drug or other substance, a recommendation as to whether the drug should be controlled, and in what schedule it should be placed. Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... FDA redirects here. ... Cover of a NIDA educational booklet. ...


The medical and scientific evaluations are binding to the DEA with respect to scientific and medical matters. The recommendation on scheduling is binding only to the extent that if HHS recommends that the substance not be controlled, the DEA may not control the substance.


Once the DEA has received the scientific and medical evaluation from HHS, the DEA Administrator will evaluate all available data and make a final decision whether to propose that a drug or other substance be controlled and into which schedule it should be placed.


Under certain circumstances, the Government may temporarily schedule a drug without following the normal procedure. An example is when international treaties require control of a substance. In addition, 21 U.S.C. § 811(h) allows the Attorney General to temporarily place a substance in Schedule I "to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety". Thirty days' notice is required before the order can be issued, and the scheduling expires after a year; however, the period may be extended six months if rulemaking proceedings to permanently schedule the drug are in progress. In any case, once these proceedings are complete, the temporary order is automatically vacated. Title 21 is the portion of the United States Code that governs food and drugs. ...


The CSA also creates a closed system of distribution for those authorized to handle controlled substances. The cornerstone of this system is the registration of all those authorized by the DEA to handle controlled substances. All individuals and firms that are registered are required to maintain complete and accurate inventories and records of all transactions involving controlled substances, as well as security for the storage of controlled substances.


International law

The Congressional findings in 21 U.S.C. § 801(7), 21 U.S.C. § 801a(2), and 21 U.S.C. § 801a(3) state that a major purpose of the CSA is to "enable the United States to meet all of its obligations" under international treaties - specifically, the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances[1]. The CSA bears many resemblances to these Conventions. Both the CSA and the treaties set out a system for classifying controlled substances in several Schedules in accordance with the binding scientific and medical findings of a public health authority. Under 21 U.S.C. § 811 of the CSA, that authority is the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS). Under Article 3 of the Single Convention and Article 2 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the World Health Organization is that authority. Title 21 is the portion of the United States Code that governs food and drugs. ... Title 21 is the portion of the United States Code that governs food and drugs. ... Title 21 is the portion of the United States Code that governs food and drugs. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... WHO redirects here. ...


A provision for automatic compliance with treaty obligations is found at 21 U.S.C. § 811(d), which also establishes mechanisms for amending international drug control regulations to correspond with HHS findings on scientific and medical issues. If control of a substance is mandated by the Single Convention, the Attorney General is required to "issue an order controlling such drug under the schedule he deems most appropriate to carry out such obligations," without regard to the normal scheduling procedure or the findings of the HHS Secretary. However, the Secretary has great influence over any drug scheduling proposal under the Single Convention, because 21 U.S.C. § 811(d)(2)(B) requires the Secretary the power to "evaluate the proposal and furnish a recommendation to the Secretary of State which shall be binding on the representative of the United States in discussions and negotiations relating to the proposal." Title 21 is the portion of the United States Code that governs food and drugs. ... Title 21 is the portion of the United States Code that governs food and drugs. ...


Similarly, if the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs adds or transfers a substance to a Schedule established by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, so that current U.S. regulations on the drug do not meet the treaty's requirements, the Secretary is required to issue a recommendation on how the substance should be scheduled under the CSA. If the Secretary agrees with the Commission's scheduling decision, he can recommend that the Attorney General initiate proceedings to reschedule the drug accordingly. If the HHS Secretary disagrees with the UN controls, however, the Attorney General must temporarily place the drug in Schedule IV or V (whichever meets the minimum requirements of the treaty) and exclude the substance from any regulations not mandated by the treaty, while the Secretary is required to request that the Secretary of State take action, through the Commission or the UN Economic and Social Council, to remove the drug from international control or transfer it to a different Schedule under the Convention. The temporary scheduling expires as soon as control is no longer needed to meet international treaty obligations. At the presiding table, from left to right: Mr. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ...


This provision was invoked in 1984 to place Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) in Schedule IV. The drug did not then meet the Controlled Substances Act's criteria for scheduling; however, control was required by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In 1999, an FDA official explained to Congress[2]: Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ...

Rohypnol is not approved or available for medical use in the United States, but it is temporarily controlled in Schedule IV pursuant to a treaty obligation under the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. At the time flunitrazepam was placed temporarily in Schedule IV (November 5, 1984), there was no evidence of abuse or trafficking of the drug in the United States.

The Cato Institute's Handbook for Congress calls for repealing the CSA, an action that would likely bring the United States into conflict with international law[3]. The exception would be if the U.S. were to claim that the treaty obligations violate the United States Constitution. Many articles in these treaties - such as Article 35 and Article 36 of the Single Convention - are prefaced with phrases such as "Having due regard to their constitutional, legal and administrative systems, the Parties shall . . ." or "Subject to its constitutional limitations, each Party shall . . ." According to former United Nations Drug Control Programme Chief of Demand Reduction Cindy Fazey, "This has been used by the USA not to implement part of article 3 of the 1988 Convention, which prevents inciting others to use narcotic or psychotropic drugs, on the basis that this would be in contravention of their constitutional amendment guaranteeing freedom of speech"[4]. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) and the United Nations Centre for International Crime Prevention (CICP) are part of the United Nations Office for Drug Control & Crime Prevention (ODCCP). ... Cindy Fazey is a criminologist and former Chief of Demand Reduction for the United Nations Drug Control Programme. ...


Drug schedules

The below lists include examples only. For a complete and up-to-date list of controlled substances, see [5]


The findings that the government must make in order to classify a drug in a certain schedule are specified at 21 U.S.C. § 812(b). The specific classification of any given drug is usually a source of controversy, as is the purpose and effectiveness of the entire regulatory scheme. Title 21 is the portion of the United States Code that governs food and drugs. ...


Tobacco, beer, wine, and spirits are explicitly exempt from the Controlled Substances Act. Some have argued that this is an important omission, since alcohol [4] and tobacco [5] are the two most widely used drugs in the United States. Caffeine is also not on the list. For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ...


The placement of some drugs is paradoxical: both morphine and fentanyl are on Schedule II, and heroin is on Schedule I. Fentanyl is approximately 80 times the potency of morphine, and heroin is somewhere between morphine and fentanyl. Clearly, morphine has been used by physicians for over 150 years. It is very addictive, but it is very effective for severe pain, so it is licensed for careful medical use. Heroin was introduced in the late 19th century and licensed the same way until it was completely banned in 1924. Fentanyl has been used for less than 50 years and has always been carefully restricted. This article is about the drug. ... Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica (Belgium) in the late 1950s, with a potency many times that of morphine. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


Dextromethorphan (DXM), a drug found in many OTC cough medications, is also explicitly exempt from scheduling under the original 1970 version of the CSA. However, the DEA has noted DXM to be abused recreationally as a dissociative anaesthetic similar to PCP or ketamine. DXM is therefore listed as a 'chemical of concern' and is being considered for possible evaluation for scheduling. Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug found in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ...


Schedule I drugs

Main article: List of Schedule I drugs

Findings required:

(A) The drug or other substance has high potential for abuse.
(B) The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
(C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.

No prescriptions may be written for Schedule I substances, and such substances are subject to production quotas by the DEA.


Under the DEA's interpretation of the CSA, a drug does not necessarily have to have the same abuse potential as heroin or cocaine to merit placement in Schedule I (in fact, cocaine is currently a Schedule II drug due to limited medical use):[6]

When it comes to a drug that is currently listed in schedule I, if it is undisputed that such drug has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States and a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and it is further undisputed that the drug has at least some potential for abuse sufficient to warrant control under the CSA, the drug must remain in schedule I. In such circumstances, placement of the drug in schedules II through V would conflict with the CSA since such drug would not meet the criterion of "a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States." 21 USC 812(b).

Sentences for first-time, non-violent offenders convicted of trafficking in Schedule I drugs can easily turn into de facto life sentences when multiple sales are prosecuted in one proceeding.[7] Sentences for violent offenders are much higher.


Drugs on this schedule include

  • GHB (Gamma-hydroxybutyrate), which has been used as a general anaesthetic with minimal side-effects[citation needed] and controlled action but a limited safe dosage range. It was placed in Schedule I in March 2000 after widespread recreational use. Uniquely, this drug is also listed in Schedule III for limited uses, under the trademark Xyrem;
  • 12-Methoxyibogamine (Ibogaine), which has been used in opiate addiction treatment and psychotherapy.
  • Cannabis (includes cannabinoids found in marijuana, hashish, and hashish oil). Controversy exists about its placement in Schedule I. Main article: Cannabis rescheduling in the United States.
  • Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which is found in small quantities in the human brain but is pharmacologically active in larger quantities.
  • Heroin (Diacetylmorphine), which is used in some European countries as a potent pain reliever in terminal cancer patients, and as second option, after morphine. (It is about twice as potent, by weight, as morphine.)
  • Other strong opiates and opioids used in many other countries, or even in the USA in previous decades for palliation of moderate to severe pain such as nicomorphine (Vilan), dextromoramide (Palfium), ketobemidone (Ketalgin), dihydromorphine (Paramorfan), piritramide (Dipidolor), diacetyldihydromorphine (Paralaudin), dipipanone (Wellconal), phenadoxone (Heptalgin) and many others.
  • Weak opioids used for relief of moderate pain, diarrhea, and coughing such as benzylmorphine (Peronine), nicocodeine (Tusscodin), thebacon, tilidine (Valoron), meptazinol (Meptid), propiram (Algeril), acetyldihydrocodeine and others.
  • MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Ecstasy), which continues to be used medically, notably in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (approved by the FDA for PTSD use in 2001). The medical community originally agreed upon placing it as a Schedule III substance, but the government denied this suggestion, despite two court rulings by the DEA's administrative law judge that placing MDMA in Schedule I was illegal. It was temporarily unscheduled after the first administrative hearing from December 22, 1987 - July 1, 1988.[8]
  • Psilocybin, the active ingredient in psychedelic mushrooms;
  • 5-MeO-DIPT (Foxy / Foxy Methoxy / 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine)
  • Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD / Acid), a psychotropic hallucinogen which has historically been used to treat alcoholism and other addictions, cluster headaches, and has been shown to be useful in treating schizophrenia, Bipolar disorder, childhood autism, and other psychological disorders;
  • Peyote, a cactus growing in nature primarily in northeastern Mexico; one of the few plants specifically scheduled, with a narrow exception to its illegal status for religious use by members of the Native American Church;
  • Mescaline, the main psychoactive ingredients of the peyote, san pedro, and Peruvian torch cacti;
  • Methaqualone (Quaalude, Sopor, Mandrax), a sedative that was previously used for similar purposes as barbiturates, until it was rescheduled;
  • 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (STP / DOM), a psychotropic hallucinogen that rose to prominence in 1967 in San Francisco when it appeared in pill form (known as "STP", in doses as high as four times the amounts previously considered "safe") on the black market;
  • Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG / "The Clear"), an anabolic progestegenic androgen first created by the BALCO athletic supplement company that was the drug of choice for athletes using steroids due to its "invisibility" in standard steroid screening tests until 2003, when Trevor Graham provided a sample to the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency for use in creating a screening test; banned by the FDA for medical use and added to Schedule I in 2003;
  • 2C-T-7 (Blue Mystic / T7), a psychotropic entheogen;
  • 2C-B (Nexus / Bees / Venus / Bromo Mescaline), a psychotropic hallucinogen and aphrodisiac;
  • Cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine), a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat);
  • AMT (alpha-methyltryptamine), an anti-depressant from the tryptamine family with hallucinogenic properties; first developed in the Soviet Union and marketed under the brand name Indopan;
  • Bufotenin (5-OH-DMT), a naturally-occurring tryptamine with hallucinogenic and aphrodisiac properties; named for the Bufo genus of toads whose venom contains the chemical;[9]
  • Benzylpiperazine (BZP), a synthetic drug with a slight resemblance to MDMA and stimulant effects 10 times less potent than amphetamine.
  • DXO, active metabolite of Dextromethorphan, NMDA antagonist. [10]
  • Controlled Substance Analogs intended for human consumption (as defined by the Federal Analog Act)

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutanoic acid, C4H8O3), commonly abbreviated GHB, is a neuroprotective therapeutic drug that is illegal in a number of countries[1], and is a naturally-occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all living creatures in small amounts. ... Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid, a long-acting hallucinogen which has gained attention due to its application in the treatment of opioid addiction and similar addiction syndromes. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... Schedules of Controlled Substances Schedule I The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse. ... Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a psychedelic tryptamine. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Nicomorphine (Vilan) is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of morphine. ... Dextromoramide (Palfium®, Palphium®, Jetrium®, Dimorlin®) is the right-handed isomer of the moramide molecule. ... Ketobemidone structure Ketobemidone is a powerful opioid analgesic. ... Dihydromorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid invented in Germany in the first years of the twentieth century. ... Piritramide (Dipidolor®) is a synthetic opioid analgesic with about 65-75 percent of the mg-for-mg strength of morphine. ... Diacetyldihydromorphine (Paralaudin, Dihydroheroin) is a potent opiate derivative which is rarely used in some countries for the treatment of strong pain such as that caused by terminal cancer, as a more potent form of diamorphine. ... Dipipanone hydrochloride is an opioid painkiller. ... Phenadoxone (Heptalgin®) is an opioid analgesic of the open chain class (methadone and relatives) invented in Germany in 1947. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Nicocodeine (Lyopect) is an opiate derivative developed as a cough suppressant and analgesic. ... The chemical structure of dihydrocodeinone enol acetate Dihydrocodeinone Enol Acetate, or Thebacon, formerly marketed as its hydrochloride salt under the trade name Acedicon, is a semisynthetic opioid once used as an antitussive, primarily in Europe. ... Tilidine (INN, USAN), or tilidate (BAN) (Valoron®, Valtran®, Tilidin) is a synthetic opioid analgesic, used for treatment of moderate to severe pain, both acute and chronic[1]. Considered a low- to medium-potency opioid, it has the oral potency of about 0. ... Meptazinol is an opioid analgesic for use with moderate to severe pain, most commonly used to treat pain in obstetrics (childbirth). ... Propiram (Algeril) is an opioid analgesic from the ampromide family of drugs. ... Acetyldihydrocodeine is an opiate derivative developed as a cough suppressant and analgesic. ... MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine), most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy (often abbreviated E, X, or XTC), is a semisynthetic member of the phenethylamine class of psychoactive drugs. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... FDA redirects here. ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. ... Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... 5-MeO-DiPT is a tryptamine also known as Foxy Methoxy or just foxy due to its supposed aphrodisiac-like effects, although it is primarily used recreationally as a psychedelic. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Binomial name (Lem. ... Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... Methaqualone tablets and capsules. ... DOM (or STP, allegedly standing for Serenity, Tranquillity and Peace) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine class of compounds, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... Tetrahydrogestrinone (often referred to as THG or the clear) is an anabolic steroid. ... The Bay Area Laboratory Co-operative (BALCO) is a controversial sports nutrition center in Burlingame, California, USA. The company achieved fame due to a long investigation in accusations that the lab provided anabolic steroids and other banned performance enhancing drugs to athletes, many famous. ... Trevor Graham is a Jamaican-born athletics coach, based in the United States. ... 2C-T-7 is a psychedelic phenethylamine and is sometimes used as an entheogen. ... This entry covers entheogens as psychoactive substances used in a religious or shamanic context. ... 2C-B, or 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxybenzeneethanamine) is a class of phenethylamine, a lesser-known psychedelic drug of the 2C family, an entactogen. ... Cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat). ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Binomial name Catha edulis Khat (Catha edulis Forsk, family Celastraceae), pronounced cot and also known as qat, gat, tschat, and miraa, is a shrubby plant used for centuries in parts of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. ... Binomial name (Vahl) Forssk. ... α-methyl-tryptamine, also known as α-MT or IT-290, is a synthetic drug of the tryptamine family. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... Bufotenin (also known as bufotenine), is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... Species See text. ... Benzylpiperazine (street names include A2, frenzy and nemesis [1] However, there are some references to BZP in the literature that predate interest in piperazines as anthelmintics. ... Dextrorphan is a pharmacologically active metabolite of Dextromethorphan (DXM). ... The Federal Analog Act is a controversial section of the DEA Controlled Substances Act, allowing any chemical substantially similar to an illegal drug (in Schedule I or II) to be treated as if it were also in Schedule I, but only if it is intended for human consumption. ...

Schedule II drugs

Main article: List of Schedule II drugs

Findings required:

(A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions.
(C) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

These drugs are only available by prescription, and distribution is carefully controlled and monitored by the DEA. Oral prescriptions are allowed, except that the prescription is limited to 30 days worth of doses, although exceptions are made for cancer patients, burn victims, etc. and oral prescriptions for schedule II drugs must be confirmed in writing within 3 days. No refills are allowed. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking published on September 6, 2006 (71 FR 52724). In that document, DEA proposed to amend its regulations to allow practitioners to provide individual patients with multiple prescriptions, to be filled sequentially, for the same schedule II controlled substance, with such multiple prescriptions having the combined effect of allowing a patient to receive over time up to a 90- day supply of that controlled substance. This went in to effect December 19, 2007. Also, Schedule II drugs are subject to production quotas set by the DEA. Some of these drugs (notably Fentanyl in non-transdermal form) are never given to patients for home use, but are administered only by a physician. Fentanyl can be given to patients for home use in Duragesic transdermal therapeutic system patch form. The prescription must be hand delivered within 7 days to the pharmacy and the prescription is limited to 30 days worth of doses. A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica (Belgium) in the late 1950s, with a potency many times that of morphine. ... Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica (Belgium) in the late 1950s, with a potency many times that of morphine. ... Duragesic (or Durogesic in Europe) is the trade name of a fentanyl transdermal therapeutic system manufactured by ALZA Corporation and marketed by Janssen Pharmaceutica (both subsidiaries of Johnson & Johnson). ... A transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ... A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ...


These drugs vary in potency: for example Fentanyl is about 80 times as potent as morphine. (Heroin is only twice as potent.) Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica (Belgium) in the late 1950s, with a potency many times that of morphine. ... This article is about the drug. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


Drugs on this schedule include:

For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part. ... Vitamin R redirects here. ... Dexmethylphenidate (commercially known as Focalin) is a pharmaceutical drug used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... This article is about the drug. ... Methadone (Dolophine®, Amidone®, Methadose®, Physeptone®, Heptadon® and many others) is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic, antitussive and a maintenance anti-addictive for use in patients on opioids. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ... Oxycodone is a very powerful and potentially addictive opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. ... Percodan® is a potent opioid painkiller used to treat moderately severe to severe acute (short-term) pain. ... This article is about the drug. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... Desoxyn® CII is a brand of methamphetamine hydrochloride (also known as desoxyephedrine, hence the name Desoxyn), indicated for treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and exogenous obesity. ... Hydromorphone is a drug developed in Germany in the 1920s and introduced to the mass market beginning in 1926. ... For the band, see Codeine (band). ... Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from two of the naturally occurring opiates, codeine and thebaine. ... Secobarbital (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names Seconal® and Tuinal) is a barbiturate derivative drug. ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolargan® (in Poland);[1] Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ... There have been a number of attempts to coin an alternative to American as an adjective (a demonym) for United States nationals. ... Phencyclidine (a contraction of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine), abbreviated PCP, is a dissociative drug formerly used as an anesthetic agent, exhibiting hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. ... Levorphanol is an opioid medication used to treat severe pain. ... Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica (Belgium) in the late 1950s, with a potency many times that of morphine. ... This article is about the drug. ... Oxymorphone (Opana, Numorphan) or 14-Hydroxydihydromorphinone is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic that is derived from thebaine, and is approximately 6–8 times more potent than morphine. ... Barbiturates are drugs that acts as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Pentobarbital is a short acting barbiturate that is available as both a free acid and a sodium salt, the former of which is only slightly soluble in water and ethanol. ... Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Nabilone is a cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ...

Schedule III drugs

Main article: List of Schedule III drugs

Findings required:

(A) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II.
(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

These drugs are available only by prescription, though control of wholesale distribution is somewhat less stringent than Schedule II drugs. Prescriptions for Schedule III drugs may be refilled up to five times within a six month period.


Drugs on this schedule include:

  • Anabolic steroids (including prohormones such as androstenedione);
  • Intermediate-acting barbiturates, such as talbutal or butalbital;
  • Buprenorphine;
  • Dihydrocodeine single-ingredient drugs and the pure drug itself.
  • Ketamine, a drug originally developed as a milder substitute for PCP (mainly to use as a human anesthetic) but has since become popular as a veterinary and pediatric anesthetic;
  • Xyrem, a preparation of GHB used to treat narcolepsy. Xyrem is in Schedule III but with a restricted distribution system. All other forms of GHB are in Schedule I;
  • Hydrocodone / codeine, when compounded with an NSAID (e.g. Vicoprofen, when compounded with ibuprofen) or with acetaminophen (paracetamol) (e.g. Vicodin / Tylenol 3);
  • Marinol, a synthetic form of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, as well as appetite loss caused by AIDS;
  • Paregoric;
  • LSA, listed as a sedative but considered by most experts to be psychedelic. A pre-cursor to and chemical relative of LSD. LSA occurs naturally in Rivea corymbosa, morning glory seeds, and Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds. LSA is not biosynthesized by the ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea), but can be biosynthesized by other Claviceps species. LSA can be present as an artifact in extracts of ergot.

Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin, transporting 5α-dihydrotestosterone. ... A prohormone is a chemical compound that is a precursor to an actual hormone (usually an anabolic like testosterone or some variant), which is taken in order to boost the body’s available hormone supply. ... Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Talbutal (Lotusate®), also called 5-allyl-5-sec-butylbarbituric acid, is a barbiturate with a short to intermediate duration of action. ... Butalbital, 5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid, is a barbiturate with an intermediate duration of action. ... Buprenorphine, is an opioid drug with partial agonist and antagonist actions. ... Dihydrocodeine, also called DHC, Drocode, Paracodeine and Parzone and by the brand names of Synalgos DC, Panlor DC, Panlor SS, SS Bron, Drocode, Paracodin, Codidol, Didor Continus, Dicogesic, Codhydrine, Dekacodin, DH-Codeine, Didrate, Dihydrin, Hydrocodin, Nadeine, Novicodin, Rapacodin, Fortuss, Dico, and DF-118 amongst others, is a semi-synthetic opioid... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (1962). ... Phencyclidine (a contraction of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine), abbreviated PCP, is a dissociative drug formerly used as an anesthetic agent, exhibiting hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. ... GHB redirects here. ... Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutanoic acid, C4H8O3), commonly abbreviated GHB, is a neuroprotective therapeutic drug that is illegal in a number of countries[1], and is a naturally-occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all living creatures in small amounts. ... For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). ... Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from two of the naturally occurring opiates, codeine and thebaine. ... For the band, see Codeine (band). ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Coated 200 mg ibuprofen tablets Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier and no longer correct nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Brufen, and since then under various other trademarks (see tradenames section), most notably Advil. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from two of the naturally occurring opiates, codeine and thebaine. ... Co-codamol (BAN) is a non-proprietary name used to denote a combination of codeine phosphate and paracetamol (acetaminophen). ... Marinol is also a commercial name for an ethanol-based liquid fuel sold for use in portable stoves, sold under this name at least in Finland. ... THC redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Paregoric, or camphorated tincture of opium, is a medication known for its antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic properties. ... LSA, also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ...

Schedule IV drugs

Main article: List of Schedule IV drugs

Findings required:

(A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.
(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.

Control measures are similar to Schedule III. Prescriptions for Schedule IV drugs may be refilled up to five times within a six month period.


Drugs on this schedule include:

Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax and Niravam, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat severe anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with clinical depression. ... Chlordiazepoxide (pronounced [ˈklɔːrËŒdaɪəzepˈoksaɪd], marketed under the trade name Librium®) is a sedative/hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ... Zolpidem is a prescription short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. ... Zopiclone (pronunciation perhaps IPA: ) sold as Imovane and Zimovane in Europe and Canada, and as the eszopiclone analogue Lunesta in the United States, is a novel hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. ... Eszopiclone, marketed by Sepracorand marco under the brand-name Lunesta®, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent (viz. ... Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata and Starnoc) is a sedative/hypnotic, mainly used for insomnia. ... Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category. ... Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category that is used to treat severe pain and severe coughs. ... Barbiturates are drugs that acts as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. ... Agonists In pharmacology an agonist is a substance that binds to a specific receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Pentazocine is a synthetically-prepared narcotic (opioid analgesic) drug used to treat mild to moderately severe pain. ... Phentermine is an appetite suppressant of the amphetamine and phenethylamine class. ... Sibutramine (Meridia® in the USA, Reductil® in Europe), usually as sibutramide hydrochloride monohydrate, is an orally administered agent for the treatment of obesity. ... Mazindol is a central nervous system simulant. ... Pemoline is a medication for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... Modafinil is a eugeroic drug generally prescribed to treat narcolepsy, made by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon Inc. ... Chloral hydrate, also known as trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate, 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-ethanediol, and under the tradenames Aquachloral, Novo-Chlorhydrate, Somnos, Noctec, and Somnote, is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. ... Meprobamate (marketed under the brand names Miltown by Wallace Laboratories, Equanil by Wyeth, and Meprospan) is a carbamate derivative which is used as an anxiolytic drug. ... Cathine (β-hydroxyamphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat). ...

Schedule V drugs

Main article: List of Schedule V drugs

Findings required:

(A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.
(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.

Schedule V drugs are only available for a medical purpose.


Drugs on this schedule include:

  • Cough suppressants containing small amounts of codeine (e.g., promethazine+codeine);
  • Preparations containing small amounts of opium or diphenoxylate (used to treat diarrhea);
  • Pregabalin (Lyrica), an anticonvulsant and pain modulator.
  • Pyrovalerone
  • The centrally-acting anti-diarrhoeals diphenoxylate (Lomotil) and difenoxin (Motofen) when mixed with atropine to make it unpleasant for people to grind up, cook, and inject. Otherwise the drugs are in Schedule II.

For the band, see Codeine (band). ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ... For the band, see Codeine (band). ... This article is about the drug. ... On opiod agonist used for the treatment of diarrhea. ... Pregabalin (brand name: Lyrica®) is a new anticonvulsant drug indicated as an add on therapy for partial onset seizures and for certain types of neuropathic pain. ... Pyrovalerone (Centroton, Thymergix) is a stimulant drug developed in the late 1960s and used in France and some other European countries. ... On opiod agonist used for the treatment of diarrhea. ... Difenoxin (Motofen) is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative that is related to the opioid analgesic drug pethidine (meperidine). ...

Other provisions

The federal law has only five schedules, but some states have added a "Schedule VI" to cover certain substances which are not "drugs" in the conventional sense, but are nonetheless used, or abused, recreationally; these include toluene (found in many types of paint, especially spray paint) and similar inhalants such as amyl nitrite (or “poppers”), butyl nitrite, and nitrous oxide (found in many types of aerosol cans, though it is pharmacologically active, it is considered an inhalant). Many state and local governments enforce age limits on the sale of products containing these substances. Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Inhalants are a chemically diverse group of psychoactive substances composed of organic solvents and volatile substances commonly found in more than 1000 common household products, such as glues, hair spray, air fresheners, gasoline, lighter fluid, and paint. ... Amyl nitrite is the chemical compound with the formula C5H11ONO. A variety of isomers are known, but they all feature an amyl group attached to the nitrito functional group. ... Variety of popper brands Poppers is the street term for various alkyl nitrites taken for recreational purposes through direct inhalation, particularly amyl nitrite, butyl nitrite and isobutyl nitrite. ... This article is part of the Wikiproject on Drugs, which is an attempt to facilitate the categorization and creation of accurate and formal drug-related articles on Wikipedia. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ...


Pharmaceuticals that require a prescription to be dispensed often are not covered under the Controlled Substances Act. This category includes medicines which should only be taken under a doctor's care, or which may have harmful interactions with other substances, but which are not known to be addictive and which are not used recreationally. These medications are used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions and to manage chronic conditions.


Drugs requiring prescriptions are sometimes also known as legend drugs because legislation requires labels with the legend, "Caution! Federal law prohibits dispensing without a prescription."


The term controlled drugs is sometimes used for scheduled drugs because of the additional controls placed on them (beyond the need for a prescription).


Federal Regulation of Pseudoephedrine

Due to pseudoephedrine being widely used in the manufacture of methamphetamine (see also: pseudoephedrine, "Misuse and illicit use"), Congress passed the Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act which places restrictions on the sale of any medicine containing pseudoephedrine. That bill was then superseded by the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, which was passed as an amendment to the Patriot Act renewal and included wider and more comprehensive restrictions on the sale of pseudoephedrine containing products. This law requires[7] customer signature of a "log-book" and presentation of valid photo ID to purchase of pseudoephedrine (PSE) containing products from all retailers (see also [8]). Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... The Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act (MPCA), Senate Bill 273, was signed into law on November 16, 2005, and took effect on January 15, 2006. ... The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA) was signed into United States law on March 9, 2006 to regulate, among other things, retail over-the-counter sales of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine products. ... This article needs cleanup. ... PSE is the IATA code for Mercedita Airport, and an abbreviation for: Page Size Extension, paging mechanism in computer microprocessor Pale, Soft, Exudative, meat having a pH below 5. ...


The law restricts an individual to the retail sale of such products to no more than three packages or no more than nine grams in a single transaction (9 grams is equivalent to 300 standard 30 mg tablets of Sudafed nasal decongestant). A violation of this statute constitutes a misdemeanor. In states where OTC medications which contain pseudoephedrine are not regulated, many retailers, notably Target and Wal-Mart have restricted their purchase by requiring it to be sold behind the pharmacy or service counter and/or placing an age restriction on purchase. Additionally, pharmacies such as CVS and Walgreens also require photo ID and log-book signatures for sales of PSE containing products in compliance with Federal law. This article is about the United States retail company. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... CVS/pharmacy is a pharmacy and convenience store chain in the United States. ... Walgreen Co. ...


Prior to this, the state of Oregon passed a law requiring a prescription for pharmacies to dispense any cold remedy containing pseudoephedrine. Likewise, the states of Alabama, Arizona, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, South Carolina, New Mexico, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming restrict sales of pseudoephedrine-containing products to licensed pharmacies and require customers to show photo ID and sign a log book. California, Maryland, and Maine have also enacted degrees of controlled access to over the counter drugs that contain pseudoephedrine. This affects many preparations which were previously available over-the-counter without restriction, such as Actifed, their generic equivalents, etc. California Health & Safety Code sections 11100 and 11106 specify the new restrictions regarding over the counter (OTC) sale of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine containing products (PSE). This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Triprolidine hydrochloride is an over-the-counter antihistamine. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Pub.L. 91-513, 84 Stat. 1236, enacted 1970-10-27, codified at 21 U.S.C. § 801 et. seq.
  2. ^ a b The 1970 Act: Don't Sit There, Amend Something
  3. ^ Courtwright, David T. (2004-10-05). The Controlled Substances Act: how a “big tent” reform became a punitive drug law. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.04.012. Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
  4. ^ Appendix C: Measurement of Dependence, Abuse, Treatment, and Treatment Need - 2000 NHSDA - Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment
  5. ^ InfoFacts - Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products
  6. ^ Government Printing Office
  7. ^ See United States v. Angelos, 433 F.3d 738 (10th Cir. 2006) (55 years for three sales of marijuana).
  8. ^ MAPS Legal History of MDMA
  9. ^ Drug Scheduling. DEA. Accessed on May 7, 2007.
  10. ^ Controlled Substances Act. Accessed from the US Drug Enforcement Administration website on May 29, 2007.

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large, is the official source for the laws and resolutions passed by Congress. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Title 21 is the portion of the United States Code that governs food and drugs. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Case citation is the system used in many countries to identify the decisions in past court cases, either in special series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral form which will... The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States district courts: District of Colorado District of Kansas District of New Mexico Eastern, Northern, and Western Districts of Oklahoma District of Utah District of Wyoming These districts were... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

See also

The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... Holding Congress may ban the use of marijuana even where states approve its use for medicinal purposes. ... Holding There is no medical necessity defense to a charge under the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. § 841 et seq. ...

External links

  • Controlled Substances Act - U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration - Full text of the law, and interpretive text used as the basis of this article
  • Schedules of controlled substances Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1308
  • 21 USC, Chapter 13 (Cornell) - full text of the law
  • 21 USC, Chapter 13 (GPO) - full text of the law
  • Controlled Substances Act The schedules of the Act, with the chemical name and structure of each substance. Correlates the drugs and substances of the Act with those named in the UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, the Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and three United Nations treaties, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances
  • Cato Handbook for Congress.
  • Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971, International Narcotics Control Board.
  • Fazey, Cindy: The UN Drug Policies and the Prospect for Change, April 2003.
  • Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961, International Narcotics Control Board.
  • Statement on "Date Rape" Drugs by Nicholas Reuter, M.P.H., March 11, 1999.
  • US Department of Justice (Drug Enforcement Administration), Marijuana Rescheduling Petition: Opinion and recommended ruling, findings of fact, conclusions of law and decision of administrative law judge, 6 September 1988, Section VIII, Part 16 [9]
  • Boaz, David: Drug Prohibition Has Failed, March 3, 1997.
  • DEA Drug Scheduling Reference
  • Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act 2005 (Title VII of Public Law 109-177)
  • List of DEA requirements for the sale of Pseudophedrin (PSE) The Legal basis for the sale of PSE containing substances and the rules that pharmacies must follow
  • Summary of DEA Requirements for PSE Sales Shorter summary for posting in workplaces
The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs and drug-like substances, as listed under the Act, and to enable international co-operation against illegal drug trafficking. ... The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature December 20, 1988[1] at Vienna Entered into force November 11, 1990[2] Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 170[3] The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Drugs of Abuse Publication, Chapter 1 (3996 words)
The CSA was amended by the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984.
Controlled substance analogues are substances which are not controlled substances, but may be found in the illicit traffic.
Controlled substances may be dispensed by a practitioner by direct administration, by prescription, or by dispensing from office supplies.
Erowid Psychoactive Vaults : U.S. Drug Law (3265 words)
Purpose and scope: The "Controlled Substances Act," as it is referred to, is designed to limit and control access to drugs that can make you "high" or intoxicated in a pleasant way, and also is now used to control certain other drugs of abuse such as anabolic steroids used by athletes to increase muscle mass.
Along with the Controlled Substances Act were harsher prison sentences, new DEA registra- tion numbers for all prescribers or drug handlers, and other additions that are beyond the scope of this file.
Controlled Substances labelling symbols: Federal law provides for all legally manufactured drug containers (such as pharmacist stock bottles, not individual prescription vials) to contain one of two symbols if the product is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m