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Encyclopedia > Control Data Corporation

Control Data Corporation (CDC), was one of the pioneering supercomputer firms. For most of the 1960s they built the fastest computers in the world by far, only losing that crown in the 1970s to what was effectively a spinoff. CDC was one of the eight major computer companies through most of the 1960s; along with CDC these were IBM, Burroughs Corporation, NCR, General Electric, Honeywell, RCA, and UNIVAC. CDC was well known and highly regarded throughout the industry at one time, but today is largely forgotten. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... A supercomputer is a computer that led the world (or was close to doing so) in terms of processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation, at the time of its introduction. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... This article is about the machine. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... William Seward Burroughs (1857-1898), US inventor William S. Burroughs (1914-1997), author and grandson of William Seward Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950), American author of Tarzan fame The Burroughs Corporation began in 1886 as the American Arithmometer Company in St. ... NCR Corporation (NYSE: NCR) is a technology company specializing in solutions for the retail and financial industries. ... “GE” redirects here. ... Honeywell Heating Specialties Company Stock Certificate dated 1924 signed by Mark C. Honeywell - courtesy of Scripophily. ... RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... UNIVAC serves as the catch-all name for the American manufacturers of the lines of mainframe computers by that name, which through mergers and acquisitions underwent numerous name changes. ...

Contents

Background and origins: World War II–1957

During World War II the U.S. Navy had built up a team of engineers to build codebreaking machinery for both Japanese and German mechanical ciphers. A number of these were produced by a team dedicated to the task working in the Washington, D.C. area. With the post-war wind-down of military spending the Navy grew increasingly worried that the team would break up and scatter into various companies, and started looking for ways to covertly keep the team together. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USN redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Eventually they found their solution; the owner of a Chase Aircraft affiliate in St. Paul, Minnesota, John Parker, was about to lose all his contracts with the end of the war. The Navy never told Parker exactly what the team did, as it would have taken too long to get top secret clearance. Parker was obviously wary, but after several meetings with increasingly high-ranking Naval officers it became apparent that whatever it was they were serious, and he eventually agreed to house the team in his glider factory. Chase Aircraft Company was started in 1943 to create gliders for the US Army Air Corps. ... State capitol building in Saint Paul Saint Paul is the capital and second-largest city of the state of Minnesota in the United States of America. ... A security clearance is a status granted to individuals, typically members of the military and employees of governments and their contractors, allowing them access to classified information, i. ... Gliders or Sailplanes are heavier-than-air aircraft primarily intended for unpowered flight. ...


The result was Engineering Research Associates (ERA), a contract engineering company that worked on a number of seemingly unrelated projects in the early 1950s. One of these was one of the first commercial stored program computers, the 36-bit ERA 1103. The machine was built for the Navy, who intended to use it in their "above board" code-breaking centers. In the early 1950s a minor political debate broke out in Congress about the Navy essentially "owning" ERA, and the ensuing debates and legal wrangling left the company drained of both capital and spirit. In 1952 Parker sold ERA to Remington Rand. Engineering Research Associates, commonly known as ERA, was a pioneering computer firm from the 1950s. ... The so-called von Neumann architecture is a model for a computing machine that uses a single storage structure to hold both the set of instructions on how to perform the computation and the data required or generated by the computation. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... The UNIVAC 1103 or ERA 1103, a successor to the UNIVAC 1101, was a computer system designed by Engineering Research Associates and built by the Remington Rand corporation in October, 1953. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... A Remington Rand branded typewriter Remington Rand was an early American computer manufacturer, best known as the original maker of the UNIVAC I, and now part of Unisys. ...


Although Rand kept the ERA team together and developing new products, they were most interested in ERA's drum memory systems. Rand soon merged with Sperry Corporation to become Sperry Rand, and in the process of merging the companies, the ERA division was folded into Sperry's UNIVAC division. At first this did not cause too many changes at ERA, as the company was used primarily as engineering talent to help support a variety of projects. However one major project was actually moved from UNIVAC to ERA, the UNIVAC II project, which led to lengthy delays and upset everyone involved. hi i am cool xbox is all most as cool as me hi again ... Sperry Corporation was a major American equipment and electronics company whose existence spanned more than seven decades of the twentieth century. ... The American company Univac began as the business computer division of Remington Rand formed by the purchase of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) in 1950. ... The American company UNIVAC began as the business computer division of Remington Rand formed by the purchase of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) in 1950. ...


As the Sperry "big company" mentality encroached on the decision-making power of the ERA founders, they eventually got fed up and decamped to form Control Data in 1957, setting up shop in an old warehouse down the road in Minneapolis at 501 Park Avenue. Of the members forming CDC, William Norris was the unanimous choice to become chief executive officer of the new company. Seymour Cray was likewise chosen to be the chief designer, but was still in the process of completing an early version of the 1103-based Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) and did not leave to join CDC until this was complete. This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... William Norris (b. ... “Chief executive” redirects here. ... Seymour Roger Cray (September 28, 1925 â€“ October 5, 1996) was a U.S. electrical engineer and supercomputer architect who founded the company Cray Research. ... NTDS training in a mock-up of a shipboard CIC Naval Tactical Data System, commonly NTDS, refers to a computerized information processing system developed by the United States Navy in the 1950s and first deployed in the early 1960s for use in combat ships. ...


Early designs, and Cray's big plan

CDC started business by selling parts, mostly drum systems, to other companies. Cray joined the next year and immediately built a small transistor-based 6-bit machine known as "Little Character" to test his ideas on large-system design and transistor-based machines. Little Character was a success, and they soon released a 48-bit transistorized version of their 1103 redesign as the CDC 1604 in 1959, with the first machine delivered to the U.S. Navy in 1960. The 1604 designation was chosen by adding their address (501) to Cray's former project, the 1103. A 12-bit cut-down version was also released as the CDC 160A in 1960, arguably the first minicomputer. The 160A was particularly notable as it was built into a standard office desk, a rather unusual packaging for that era. New versions of the basic 1604 architecture were re-built into the CDC 3000 series, which sold through the early and mid-1960s. Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... CDC 1604 a 48-bit transistorized version of Control Data Corporations 1103 model first built in 1959. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The CDC 160 and CDC 160-A were 12-bit minicomputers built by Control Data Corporation from the late 1950s, through the mid-1960s. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... There were two different 3000 series computers from Control Data Corporation, upper and lower. ...


Cray immediately turned to the design of a machine that would be the fastest (or in the terminology of the day, largest) machine in the world, setting the goal at 50 times the speed of the 1604. This required radical changes in design, and as the project "dragged on" (it took about four years in total) management became increasingly upset and demanded ever-greater oversight. Cray eventually got fed up and in 1962 demanded to be set up in his own remote lab, or he would quit. Norris agreed, and after a short search the team moved to Cray's home town of Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. Not even Bill Norris, the founder and president of CDC, was supposed to go there without an invitation. (See story of a salesman's uninvited visit to Chippewa Falls here.) Chippewa Falls is a city located on the Chippewa River in Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked...


Peripherals business

Through the 1960s, Norris became increasingly worried that CDC had to develop "critical mass" in order to compete with IBM. In order to do this, he started an aggressive program of buying up various companies to round out CDC's peripheral lineup. In general, they tried to offer a product to compete with any of IBM's, but running 10% faster and costing 10% less. This was not always easy to achieve.


One of their first peripherals was a tape transport, which led to some internal wrangling as the Peripherals Equipment Division attempted to find a reasonable way to charge other divisions of the company for supplying the devices. If the division simply "gave" them away at cost as part of a system purchase, they would never have a real budget of their own. Instead a scheme was established in which they would share profits with the divisions selling their peripherals, a scheme eventually used throughout the company.


The tape transport was followed by the 405 Card Reader and the 415 Card Punch, followed by a series of tape drives and drum printers, all of which were designed in-house. The printer business was initially supported by Holley Carburetor in the Rochester suburb outside of Detroit. They later formalized this by creating a jointly-held company, Holley Computer Products. Holley later sold their stake back to CDC, the remains becoming the Rochester Division. A card reader is a device used for communication with a smart card or a flash memory card. ... IBM 029 keypunch. ... DDS tape drive. ... The Line printer is a form of high speed impact printer in which a line of type is printed at a time. ... Holley Performance Products is an automotive performance company based out of Bowling Green, Kentucky. ... Rochester is a suburb of Detroit, Michigan located in Oakland County, Michigan. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor...


Norris was particularly interested in breaking out of the punch card–based workflow, where IBM held a stranglehold. He eventually decided to buy Rabinow Engineering, one of the pioneers of optical character recognition (OCR) systems. The idea was to bypass the entire punch card stage by having the operators simply type onto normal pages with a "known" typewriter font, then submit those pages to the computer. Since a typewritten page contains much more information than a card (which is essentially one line of text from a page) this would offer savings all around. Unfortunately this seemingly simple task turned out to be much harder than anyone expected, and while CDC became a major player in the early days of OCR systems, it has remained a niche product to this day. Rabinow's Rockville plant was eventually closed in 1976, and CDC eventually left the business. Punched cards (or Hollerith cards, or IBM cards), are pieces of stiff paper that contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. ... Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is a type of computer software designed to translate images of handwritten or typewritten text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text, or to translate pictures of characters into a standard encoding scheme representing them (e. ...


With the continued delays on the OCR project, it became clear that punch cards were not going to go away any time soon, and CDC had to address this as quickly as possible. Although the 405 remained in production, it was an expensive machine to build. So another purchase was Bridge Engineering, who offered a line of lower cost as well as higher speed card punches. All card handling products were moved to what became the Valley Forge Division after Bridge moved to a new factory, with the tape transports to follow. Eventually the Valley Forge and Rochester divisions were spun-off to form a new joint company with National Cash Register (later NCR), Computer Peripherals Inc (CPI), in order to share development and production costs across the two companies. ICL later joined the effort. Eventually the Rochester Division was sold to Centronics in 1982. Computer Peripherals, Inc. ... For other uses, see Centronics (disambiguation). ...


Another side-effect of Norris' attempts to diversify was the creation of a number of service bureaus that ran jobs on behalf of smaller companies that could not afford to buy a computer. This was never very profitable, and in 1965 several managers suggested the unprofitable centers be closed in a cost-cutting measure. Nevertheless Norris was so convinced of the idea he refused to accept this, and ordered an across-the-board "belt tightening" instead. A Professional Employer Organization, or PEO, is a licensed (US?) service bureau that calculates and processes a companys payroll checks. ...


The CDC 6600: defining supercomputing

Meanwhile at the new Chippewa Falls lab, Seymour Cray, Jim Thornton, and Dean Roush put together a team of 34 engineers (themselves included), and continued work on the new design. In 1964 this was released as the CDC 6600, outperforming everything on the market by roughly ten times. The 6600 had a central processing unit (CPU) with multiple asynchronous functional units, and used 10 logical, external I/O processors to offload many common tasks. That way the CPU could devote all of its time and circuitry to processing data while the other controllers dealt with mundane tasks like punching cards and running disks. Using late-model compilers the machine attained 0.5 MFLOPS, while handcrafted assembly delivered about 1.0 MFLOPS. A slower version was released as the CDC 6400; a two processor version of the 6400 was called the 6500. Cray turned to an even faster machine built along different lines, then known as the 6800. The CDC 6600 was a mainframe computer from Control Data Corporation, first manufactured in 1965. ... “CPU” redirects here. ... A channel controller is a simple CPU used to handle the task of moving data to and from the memory of a computer. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... For other uses, see Flop. ... The CDC 6400 was a mainframe computer made by Control Data Corporation in the 1960s. ... The CDC 6400, a member of the CDC 6000 series, was a mainframe computer made by Control Data Corporation in the 1960s. ...


It was after the delivery of the 6600 that IBM took notice of the new company. At the time Thomas J. Watson, Jr. asked (paraphrased) How is it that this tiny company of 34 people—including the janitor—can be beating us when we have thousands of people?, to which Cray reportedly quipped You just answered your own question. In 1965 IBM started an effort to build their own machine that would be even faster than the 6600, the ACS. Two hundred people were assembled on the West Coast to work on the project away from corporate prodding, in an attempt to mirror Cray's offsite lab. The project produced interesting architecture and technology, but was not compatible with IBM's very successful System/360 line. It was redirected to be System/360-compatible, but this compromised performance, and ACS was eventually cancelled in 1969 after producing no product. Many of the engineers left the company rather than return back east, leading to a brain-drain in IBM's high-performance department. Thomas John Watson, Jr. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The ACS-1 and ACS-360 are two related supercomputers designed by IBM as part of the IBM Advanced Computing Systems project from 1961 to 1969. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... System/360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


In the short term IBM also went ahead and announced a new version of the famed System/360 that would be just as fast as the 6600, the Model 92. This machine did not exist, but that did not stop sales of the 6600 from drying up while people waited for its release (a tactic known today as fear, uncertainty and doubt (FUD)). Norris did not take this lying down, and a year later filed an antitrust suit against IBM, eventually winning over 600 million dollars and picking up the Service Bureau Corporation, an IBM subsidiary that ran computer processing for other corporations on SBC's computers. SBC fit nicely into CDC's existing service bureau offerings. Fear, uncertainty, and doubt (FUD) is a sales or marketing strategy of disseminating negative (and vague) information on a competitors product. ... This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


During the design of the 6600, CDC had set up Project SPIN to supply the system with a high speed hard disk system. At the time it was unclear if disks would replace memory drums, which were faster, nor was it clear if fixed or removable disks would be the most popular. Thus SPIN explored all of these approaches, and eventually delivered a very large 28" fixed disk of extremely high performance, as well as a smaller multi-platter 14" removable disk pack system as well. Over time, the disk business pioneered in SPIN would turn into a major product line. Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ...


The CDC 7600 and 8600

The same month they won their lawsuit against IBM, CDC also announced their new machine, the CDC 7600 (originally the 6800). Cray had started the design even before the 6600 was shipping, and had allowed it to mature fully. This machine's clock was almost four times the speed of the 6600, and offered about four times the total throughput. Much of this speed increase was due to extensive use of pipelining, a technique that allows different parts of the CPU to work on different aspects of the instruction process at the same time. The time to run any particular instruction is no faster, but the program as a whole moves through the system more quickly as the instructions are queued up. The CDC 7600 was the Seymour Cray-designed successor to the CDC 6600, extending Control Datas dominance of the supercomputer field into the 1970s. ...


The 7600 did not do well in the marketplace, for many reasons. It was introduced at a really bad time, the 1969 downturn in the economy. The complexity led to poor reliability. The machine was slightly incompatible with the 6000-series, so it required a completely different operating system, which as most new OS's, was primitive. While the 7600 project certainly paid for itself, it did serious damage to CDC's reputation.


Cray then turned to the latest in the series, the CDC 8600. The 8600 design called for four processors in a single, much smaller, case. The smaller size and shorter signal paths allowed the 8600 to run at much higher clock speeds, which was combined with higher speed memory for most of the performance gains. Unfortunately the 8600 was "old school" in terms of physical construction, using individual components soldered to circuit boards. The design was so compact that cooling and servicing the CPU modules was effectively impossible. There were so many hot-running solder joints on the 8600 that the machines never worked reliably. With even one bad joint the machine would be "flaky". Cray decided that a re-design was needed. The CDC 8600 was the last of Seymore Crays supercomputer designs while working for Control Data. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ...


The STAR and the Cyber

In addition to the redesign of the 8600, CDC had another project called STAR underway, led by Cray's former collaborator on the 6600/7600, Jim Thornton. Unlike the 8600's "four computers in one box" solution to the speed problem, the STAR was a new design using a technique we know today as a vector processor. By highly pipelining math instructions with purpose-built instructions and hardware, math processing is dramatically improved in a machine that was otherwise slower than a 7600. Although the particular set of problems it would be best at was limited in comparison to the "generalist" 7600, it was exactly these sorts of problems that customers bought CDC machines to solve. The STAR-100 was a supercomputer from Control Data Corporation, one of the first machines to use a vector processor for improved math performance. ... A vector processor, or array processor, is a CPU design that is able to run mathematical operations on multiple data elements simultaneously. ...


The two projects competed for limited funds in the late 1960s, and Norris felt that the company could not support development of the STAR and a complete redesign of the 8600 at the same time. He told Cray, who in 1972 left to form Cray Research. Norris remained a staunch supporter of Cray, and even invested money into his new company. Eventually the 8600 was cancelled in 1974, and the STAR released the same year. The STAR, also designated as the Cyber 203, proved to have considerably worse "real world" performance than expected. Jim Thornton left CDC to form Network Systems Corporation. Cray-2 supercomputer Cray Inc. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


A variety of systems based on the basic 6600/7600 architecture were repackaged at different price/performance points as the CDC Cyber, and became CDC's main product line in the 1970s. An updated version of the STAR architecture, the Cyber 205, had considerably better performance than the original. But by this time Cray's own designs like the Cray-1 were using the same design techniques as the STAR, yet doing it much faster due to various design details. The CDC Cyber range of mainframe/super-computers were Control Data Corporation (CDC)s primary products during the 1970s and 1980s. ... CRAY-1 at the EPFL in Switzerland. ...


Sales of the STAR were weak, but Control Data produced a successor system, the Cyber 200/205, which gave Cray Research limited competition. CDC also embarked on a number of special projects for its client base which produced an even smaller number of black projects. The CDC Advanced Flexible Processor (AFP), also known as CYBER PLUS, was one such machine. In the United States a black project is a top-secret military/defense project, unacknowledged by the government, military personnel, and defense contractors. ...


Another design direction was the "Cyber 80" project, aimed at being released in 1980. This was a machine that could run both old 6600 style programs, and a completely new 64-bit architecture. The idea was that current 6000-series users would migrate to these machines with relative ease. The design and debugging of these machines went on and on, until 1980 passed. The machines were eventually released under other names.


ETA Systems, hard disks, oblivion

CDC decided to fight for the high-performance niche, but Norris agreed with Cray in thinking that the company had become moribund and unable to quickly design anything competitive. Instead he set up a new spinoff company in 1983, ETA Systems, with the design goal being a machine processing at 10 GFLOPs, about 40 times the speed of the Cray-1. The ETA design never fully matured and was unable to hit its design goals, but nevertheless it was one of the fastest computers on the market and a handful were sold over the next few years. Eventually the effort ended after half hearted attempts at selling the division. In 1989 most of the employees were laid off and the remains of the company folded into CDC. ETA Systems logo ETA Systems was a supercomputer company spun-off from Control Data Corporation (CDC) in the early 1980s in order to regain a footing in the supercomputer business. ...


Meanwhile several very large Japanese manufacturing firms were entering the market as well. The supercomputer market was too small to be able to afford more than a handful of players, so CDC started looking for other markets. One of these was the high-performance hard disk market, which was becoming more interesting as personal computers started to include them in the mid-1980s. By then, CDC through its Magnetic Peripherals unit, originally a joint venture with Honeywell, was a major player in the hard drive market—their Wren series drives were particularly popular for "high end" users. They also co-developed the now universal ATA interface with Compaq and Western Digital to lower the cost of adding low-performance drives. Honeywell Heating Specialties Company Stock Certificate dated 1924 signed by Mark C. Honeywell - courtesy of Scripophily. ... ATA cables: 40 wire ribbon cable top, 80 wire ribbon cable bottom Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) is a standard interface for connecting storage devices such as hard disks and CD-ROM drives inside personal computers. ... Compaq Computer Corporation is an American personal computer company founded in 1982, and now a brand name of Hewlett-Packard. ... Western Digital Corporation (NYSE: WDC) (often abbreviated to WD) is a manufacturer of a large proportion of the worlds hard disks, and has a long history in the electronics industry as an IC maker and a storage products company. ...


Oddly, then, CDC decided to exit the hard drive business entirely in 1988, spinning off Magnetic Peripherals under the name Imprimis; the next year, Imprimis was purchased by Seagate Technology, who had been seriously lagging in the high-end drive market. The remains of CDC became known as Control Data Systems, Inc., then Syntegra, a subsidiary of the BT Group's BT Global Services and ultimately were merged into BT's Global Services organization while CDC's non-computer business became the Ceridian Corporation. Seagate Technology (NYSE: STX) is a major American manufacturer of hard drives, founded in 1979 and based in Scotts Valley, California. ... Syntegra USA (formerley Control Data Systems) is now know as BT Consulting and Systems Integration For a history of Control Data Systems please see: http://en. ... BT Group plc (formerly British Telecommunications plc) which trades as BT (pronounced Bee tee) (also previously as British Telecom and is still commonly known as such amongst the general public) is the privatised UK state telecommunications operator. ... Ceridian Corporation (NYSE: CEN) is a leading information services company in the human resources, transportation and retail markets. ...


Film and science fiction references

  • Colossus: The Forbin Project: The title sequences to this film include tape drives and other early CDC equipment.
  • The Adolescence of P-1, by Thomas Ryan: Control Data computers were very enticing to young P-1.
  • Tron: The computer room seen after Flynn and Lora sneak into Encom contains a CDC 7600 computer in the background. This scene was shot of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. (Note that a wide screen version of the movie is needed to see the 7600 and neighboring Cray-1.)
  • Die Hard: The computer room shot up by one of the terrorists contained a number of working Cyber 180 computers and a mock-up of an ETA-10 supercomputer along with a number of other peripheral devices all provided by CDC Demonstration Services/Benchmark Lab. This equipment was requested on short notice after another computer manufacturer backed out at the last minute. Paul Derby, manager of the Benchmark Lab arranged to send two van loads of equipment to Hollywood for the shoot accompanied by Jerry Stearns of the Benchmark Lab who watched over this equipment. After the machines were returned to Minnesota, they were inspected and tested, and as each machine was sold, a notation was made in the corporate records that the machine had appeared in the Die Hard movie.
  • The New Avengers: In episode #23 ("Complex") Purdey uses a CDC card reader.
  • They Live: John Carpenter movie from 1988. As Roddy Piper is trying on his new 'sunglasses' that allow him to see the world as it is, he looks at an AD for Control Data Corporation - he sees the word OBEY.

Colossus was a fictional computer featured in the 1969 apocalyptic science fiction movie, Colossus: The Forbin Project loosely based on the 1967 novel Colossus by Dennis Feltham Jones. ... The Adolescence of P-1 is a 1977 science fiction novel by Thomas J. Ryan, published by Macmillan Publishing, and later adapted into a Canadian-made film. ... TRON may refer to: TRON (film), a 1982 Disney science fiction film starring Jeff Bridges, Bruce Boxleitner, and Cindy Morgan TRON (arcade game), an arcade game based on the TRON film Tron (character), the titular character of the above two Tron 2. ... The CDC 7600 was the Seymour Cray-designed successor to the CDC 6600, extending Control Datas dominance of the supercomputer field into the 1970s. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... A 32inch CRT widescreen television A widescreen image is a film image with a greater aspect ratio than the ordinary 35 millimeter frame. ... CRAY-1 at the EPFL in Switzerland. ... This article is about the 1988 action film. ... The CDC Cyber range of mainframe/super-computers were Control Data Corporation (CDC)s primary products during the 1970s and 1980s. ... An ETA-10 supercomputer installation The ETA-10 was a line of supercomputers manufactured by ETA Systems (a spin-off division of CDC) in the 1980s and which implemented the instruction set of the CDC Cyber 205. ... A 1970s New Avengers paperback features Mike Gambit (Gareth Hunt), Purdey (Joanna Lumley) and the ubiquitous John Steed (Patrick Macnee). ... They Live is a 1988 film directed by John Carpenter, who also wrote the screenplay under the pseudonym “Frank Armitage”. The movie is based on the short story Eight O’Clock in the Morning by Ray Nelson. ...

References

  • Lundstrom, David. A Few Good Men from Univac. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1987. ISBN 0262121204.
  • Murray, Charles, and John Wiley. The Supermen: The Story of Seymour Cray and the Technical Wizards behind the Supercomputer. New York: John Wiley, 1997. ISBN 0471048852.
  • Price, Robert M. The Eye for Innovation: Recognizing Possibilities and Managing the Creative Enterprise. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2005. ISBN 030010877X.
  • Worthy, James C. William C. Norris: Portrait of a Maverick. Ballinger Pub Co., May 1987. ISBN 978-0887300875

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Control Data Corporation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2018 words)
Control Data Corporation, or CDC, was one of the pioneering supercomputer firms.
CDC was one of the eight major computer companies through most of the 1960s; along with CDC these were IBM, Burroughs, NCR, General Electric, Honeywell, RCA, and UNIVAC.
Of the members forming CDC, William Norris was the unanimous choice to become CEO of the new company.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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