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Encyclopedia > Contributors to General relativity

This is a partial list of persons who have made major contributions to the development of standard mainstream general relativity. One simple rule of thumb for who belongs here is whether their contribution is recognized in the canon of standard general relativity textbooks. Some related lists are mentioned at the bottom of the page. An illustration of a rotating black hole at the center of a galaxy General relativity (GR) (aka general theory of relativity (GTR)) is the geometrical theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915/16. ...

Contents Top · 0–9 · A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Peter C. Aichelburg is an Austrian physicist well-known for his contributions to general relativity, particularly the Aichelburg-Sexl ultraboost of the Schwarzschild vacuum. ... Miguel Alcubierre (Born 1964) is a Mexican theoretical physicist. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the Alcubierre metric. ... Richard Arnowitt is an American physicist known for his contributions to theoretical particle physics and to general relativity. ... The ADM Formalism developed by Arnowitt, Deser and Misner is a Hamiltonian formulation for General Relativity. ... In theoretical physics, the ADM energy (short for Arnowitt, Deser and Misner) is a special way to define the energy in general relativity which is only applicable to some special geometries of spacetime that asymptotically approach a well-defined metric tensor at infinity - for example the asymptotically Minkowski space. ... Abhay Ashtekar (born July 5, 1949) completed his undergraduate education in India. ...


  • Robert M L Baker, Jr. (high-frequency gravitational waves),
  • O. R. Baldwin (Baldwin/Jeffery plane wave),
  • James M. Bardeen (Bardeen vacuum, black hole mechanics, gauge-invariant linear perturbations of Friedmann-Lemaître cosmologies),
  • Robert Bartnik (existence of ADM mass for asymptotically flat vacuums, quasilocal mass),
  • Jacob Bekenstein (black hole entropy),
  • Lluis Bel (second ell is not a typo, aka Louis Bel; Bel decomposition, Bel-Robinson tensor),
  • Vladimir A. Belinsky (BKL conjecture, inverse scattering transform solution generating methods),
  • Bruno Bertotti (Bertotti/Robinson electrovacuum),
  • George David Birkhoff (Birkhoff's theorem),
  • Luc Blanchet (gravitational radiation),
  • Hermann Bondi (gravitational radiation, Bondi radiation chart, Bondi mass-energy-momentum, LTB dust, maverick models),
  • William B. Bonnor (Bonnor beam solution),
  • Robert H. Boyer (Boyer-Lindquist chart in Kerr vacuum),
  • Hubert Bray (Penrose inequalities),
  • Hans Adolph Buchdahl (Buchdahl fluid, Buchdahl theorem),
  • Carl H. Brans (Brans/Dicke theory),
  • Dieter R. Brill (Brill-Hartle geon, Brill mass, positive energy for axisymmetric spacetimes, Brill chart, extensions),
  • Hans W. Brinkmann (exact gravitational waves, Brinkmann chart),
  • William L. Burke (Burke potential, textbook),
  • Lior M. Burko (Black hole interiors, Beetle-Burko scalar),

James M. Bardeen is an American physicist, well known for his work in general relativity, particularly his role in formulating the laws of black hole mechanics. ... Jacob David Bekenstein (born May 1, 1947) is a physicist who has contributed to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics and to other aspects of the connections between information and gravitation. ... Bruno Bertotti is an physicist well known for his contributions to general relativity, particularly the Bertotti/Robinson electrovacuum, an exact solution of the Einstein field equation. ... George David Birkhoff George David Birkhoff (21 March 1884, Overisel, Michigan - 12 November 1944, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an American mathematician, best known for what is now called the ergodic theorem. ... In general relativity, Birkhoffs theorem states that any spherically symmetric solution of the vacuum field equations must be static and asymptotically flat. ... Professor Sir Hermann Bondi, KCB , FRS (1 November 1919–10 September 2005) was a British (formerly Austrian) mathematician and cosmologist. ... Carl Henry Brans (1935–) is an American mathematical physicist. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... UC Santa Cruz astronomy, astrophysics, and physics professor William Lionel Burke (b. ...


  • J. Carminati (CM invariants),
  • Bernard J. Carr (self-similarity hypothesis, primordial black holes),
  • Brandon Carter (no-hair theorem, black hole mechanics, variational principle for Ernst vacuums),
  • Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (Chandrasekhar limit, colliding plane waves, quasinormal modes, relativistic stars, monograph),
  • Jean Chazy (Chazy/Curzon vacuum),
  • Matthew W. Choptuik (critical phenomena in gravitational collapse, numerical relativity),
  • Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat (formerly Yvonne Bruhat; initial value formulations),
  • Demetrios Christodoulou (naked singularity in LTB dust, stability of Minkowski vacuum),
  • Piotr T. Chruściel (asymptotics of RT vacuums, existence of vacuums admitting no maximal slicing, existence of Taub IX vacuums with nonunique extensions to NUT vacuum region, Cauchy horizons in T3-Gowdy vacuums),
  • Christopher J. S. Clarke (textbooks),
  • Alan A. Coley (dynamics of minisuperspace, similarity hypothesis),
  • Justin Corvino (construction of initial data not admitting conformal geometry approach, gravitational shielding),
  • H. E. J. Curzon (Chazy/Curzon vacuum),

In general relativity, the Carminati-McLenaghan invariants or CM scalars are a set of 16 scalar curvature invariants for the Riemann tensor. ... Bernard J. Carr is a professor of mathematics and astronomy at Queen Mary, University of London (QMUL). ... Brandon Carter is a theoretical physicist, most famous for his work on the properties of black holes and for introducing the anthropic principle. ... Chandrasekhar redirects here. ... The Chandrasekhar limit, is the maximum mass possible for a white dwarf (one of the end stages of stars when they cool down) and is approximately 3 × 1030 kg, around 1. ... Demetrios Christodoulou (born October 19, 1951) is a mathematical physicist, well known in the field of general relativity for his proof, together with Sergiu Klainerman, of the nonlinear stability of the Minkowski vacuum. ...


  • Thibault Damour (gravitational radiation)
  • Georges Darmois (matching conditions, Darmois vacuum),
  • R. Debever (type D vacuum solutions),
  • Marek Demianski (type D vacuum solutions),
  • Stanley Deser (ADM initial value formulation, effective field theory),
  • Steven Detweiler (quasinormal modes),
  • Bryce DeWitt (Wheeler/DeWitt equation),
  • Robert H. Dicke (Brans/Dicke theory, PPN formalism, background radiation),
  • Ray d'Inverno (textbook),
  • Paul A.M. Dirac (graviton),
  • W. G. Dixon (Dixon-Papapetrou equations),
  • Tevian Dray (asymptotic structure, gravitational shock waves)
  • R. W. Drever (gravitational wave detectors),

Dr. Bryce S. DeWitt (January 8, 1923—September 23, 2004) was a theoretical physicist best known for his role in formulating the fundamental Wheeler_deWitt equation. ... Robert Henry Dicke (May 6, 1916 – March 4, 1997) was an American experimental physicist, who made important contributions to the fields of astrophysics, atomic physics, cosmology and gravity. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, (August 8, 1902 - October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ...


  • Arthur Stanley Eddington (early book, Eddington chart on Schwarzschild vacuum, role of curvature, PPN formalism, popularizations of general relativity),
  • Jürgen Ehlers (Ehlers vacuum family, symmetries of PP waves, spacetime view of gravitational lensing, Newtonian limit),
  • Albert Einstein (various contributions too important to attempt to summarize here),
  • George F. R. Ellis (relativistic cosmological models, classification of curvature singularities, averaging problem in cosmology, gauge-invariant linear perturbations of spatially homogeneous cosmologies, "small universes", monograph),
  • G. Erez (Erez/Rosen vacuum),
  • Frederick J. Ernst (Ernst vacuum family, Ernst equation, solution generating methods, Ernst/Wild electrovacuum),
  • Loránd Eötvös (Weak Equivalence Principle experiment),
  • Frank B. Estabrook (hyperbolic formulations of the EFE),

One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... George Ellis is the Distinguished Professor of Complex Systems at the University of Cape Town (South Africa), in the Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. ... Image:Lorand Eotvos. ...


  • David L. Farnsworth (use of Lie groups in relativity, Kerr/Farnsworth ansatz),
  • Valeria Ferrari (Chandrasekhar/Ferrari colliding plane wave, Ferrari/Ibañez colliding plane wave, relativistic stars),
  • Alexander Feinstein (Inhomogeneous Cosmologies, Gravitational Solitons, Colliding Plane Waves, Tachyonic Inflation),
  • Richard Feynman (sticky bead argument [as 'Mr. Smith']),
  • David Finkelstein (rediscovered Eddington chart on Schwarzschild vacuum),
  • Helmut Friedrich (nonlinear global stability of de Sitter spacetime, peeling behavior is generic under small global nonlinear perturbations of Minkowksi spacetime, symmetric hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's field equations),
  • Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock (textbook, harmonic chart),
  • Gyula Fodor (Fodor method for generating static spherically symmetric perfect fluid solutions),
  • Robert L. Forward (gravitational wave detectors),
  • William A. Fowler (relativistic stellar models, gravitational collapse),
  • Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman (Aleksandr Friedman; Friedman cosmological models),
  • John L. Friedman (topological censorship),
  • C. Frønsdal (global structure of Schwarzschild vacuum),

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988; IPA: ) was an American physicist known for expanding the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, and particle theory. ... In general relativity, the sticky bead argument is a simple thought experiment designed to show that gravitational radiation is indeed predicted by general relativity, and can have physical effects. ... David Finkelstein (born July 19, 1929, New York City) is currently professor of physics at the Georgia Institute of Technology. ... Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock (or Fok, Владимир Александрович Фок) (December 22, 1898 - December 27, 1974) was a Soviet physicist, who did foundational work on quantum mechanics. ... Robert Lull Forward, commonly known as Robert L. Forward, (August 15, 1932 - September 21, 2002) was an American physicist and science fiction writer. ... There is another William Fowler who was a Scottish poet and uncle of William Drummond of Hawthornden William Alfred Willy Fowler (August 9, 1911 – March 14, 1995) was an American astrophysicist. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman or Friedmann (Александр Александрович Фридман) (June 16, 1888 – September 16, 1925) was a Russian cosmologist and mathematician. ...


The Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems are a set of results in general relativity which attempt to answer the question of whether gravity is necessarily singular. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... [...]I dont believe in natural science. ... In a Lorentzian manifold, a closed timelike curve (CTC) is a worldline of a material particle in spacetime that is closed. ...


(Born February 25, 1949, Ayios Nicholoas (Paphos) - Cyprus) Professor Mustafa Halilsoy is a prominent Turkish Cypriot theoretical physicist, and received his PhD degree in physics from Middle East Technical University specializing in gravitational physics. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... James Hartle is an American physicist. ... In theoretical physics, quantum cosmology is a young field attempting to study the effect of quantum mechanics on the earliest moments of the universe after the Big Bang. ... Stephen Hawking. ... The Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems are a set of results in general relativity which attempt to answer the question of whether gravity is necessarily singular. ... In physics, Hawking radiation (also known as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation) is a thermal radiation thought to be emitted by black holes due to quantum effects. ... Dr Charles Hellaby is a lecturer at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. ... David Hilbert (January 23, 1862, Königsberg, East Prussia – February 14, 1943, Göttingen, Germany) was a German mathematician, recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Banesh Hoffmann (September 6, 1906 – August 5, 1986) was a mathematician and physicist best known for his associations with Albert Einstein. ... Sir Frederick Hoyle (born on June 24, 1915 in Gilstead, Yorkshire, England – August 20, 2001 in Bournemouth, England)[1] was a British astronomer, notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of science fiction, including a number of books co-authored... Russell Alan Hulse (born November 28, 1950) is an American physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics, shared with his thesis advisor Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. ...


  • J. Ibañez (colliding plane wave, solution generating methods, Ferrari/Ibañez colliding plane waves),
  • Leopold Infeld (EIH approximation),
  • Richard Isaacson (energy-momentum complex),
  • James A. Isenberg (initial value formulations, gluing construction),
  • J. M. Islam (monograph),
  • Werner Israel (black hole interiors and mass inflation),

Leopold Infeld (1898 - 1968) was a Polish physicist; Rockefeller fellow at the Cambridge University. ... Werner Israel, OC, FRSC, FRS (born October 4, 1931) is a Canadian physicist. ...


This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jørg Tofte Jebsen (1888-1922) was a Norwegian physicist who discovered and published an important theorem concerning general relativity which is now known as Birkhoffs theorem. ... This term Birkhoffs theorem is used for several theorems fundamental to different areas of mathematics and physics: The ergodic theorem of George David Birkhoff relates averages over time and space; see ergodic theory. ... George Barker Jeffery (1891-1956) was a leading mathematical physicist in the early twentieth century. ... Pascual Jordan (October 18, 1902 in Hanover - July 31, 1980 in Hamburg) was a German physicist. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Ronald Kantowski is a theoretical cosmologist, well known in the field of general relativity as the author, together with Rainer K. Sachs, of the Kantowski/Sachs dust solutions to the Einstein field equation. ... One of the most fundamental problems of Riemannian geometry is this: given two Riemannian manifolds of the same dimension, how can one tell if they are locally isometric? This question was addressed by Elwin Christoffel, and completely solved by Élie Cartan using his exterior calculus with his method of moving... Edward Kasner (1878–1955), (City College of New York 1897; Columbia University M.A., 1897; Columbia University Ph. ... Roy Patrick Kerr (1934- ) is a New Zealand born mathematician who is best known for discovering the famous Kerr vacuum, an exact solution to the Einstein field equation of general relativity, which models the gravitational field outside an uncharged rotating massive object, or even a rotating black hole. ... It has been suggested that Rotating black hole be merged into this article or section. ... Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov (Russian: ; b. ... William Morris Kinnersley is an American physicist who is well known for his contributions to general relativity. ... In physics and mathematics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is the mathematical setting in which Einsteins theory of special relativity is most conveniently formulated. ... Oskar Klein (September 15, 1894 - February 5, 1977) was a Swedish theoretical physicist. ... In physics, Kaluza-Klein theory (or KK theory, for short) is a model that seeks to unify the two fundamental forces of gravitation and electromagnetism. ... Erich Kretschmann (1887-1973) was a German mathematician and Gymnasium (school) teacher. ... In the theory of Lorentzian manifolds, particularly in the context of applications to general relativity, the Kretschmann scalar is a quadratic scalar invariant. ... Martin David Kruskal (b. ... In Einsteins theory of general relativity, the Schwarzschild solution (or the Schwarzschild vacuum) describes the gravitational field outside a spherical, non-rotating mass such as a (non-rotating) star, planet, or black hole. ...


  • Cornelius Lanczos (Lanczos tensor, van Stockum dust),
  • Lev D. Landau (LL complex, textbook),
  • Kayle Lake (GRTensorII, Lake method for generating static spherically symmetric perfect fluids),
  • Georges-Henri Lemaître (cosmological model, LTB dust, Lemaître chart on Schwarzschild vacuum),
  • Josef Lense (Lense/Thirring precession),
  • Tullio Levi-Civita (static vacuums, C-metric; see also related list below),
  • R. M. Lewis (chart for Ernst vacuums),
  • André Lichnerowicz (matching conditions, Lichnerowicz equation),
  • Evgeny M. Lifshitz (Landau-Lifschitz gravitational energy-momentum complex, BKL conjecture, textbook),
  • Alan P. Lightman (problem book),

Lanczos redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In general relativity, the van Stockum dust is an exact solution of the Einstein field equation in which the gravitational field is generated by dust particles which are rotating about an axis of cylindrical symmetry. ... Lev Davidovich Landau (Ле́в Дави́дович Ланда́у) (January 22, 1908 – April 1, 1968) was a prominent Soviet physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics whose broad field of work included... Georges-Henri Lemaître (July 17, 1894 – June 20, 1966) was a Belgian Roman Catholic priest and astronomer. ... Tullio Levi-Civita. ... André Lichnerowicz (January 21, 1915 - December 11, 1998) was a noted French mathematical physicist of Polish descent. ... Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz (Russian: ; February 21, 1915 – October 29, 1985) was a notable Soviet physicist. ... Alan P. Lightman (b. ...


  • Malcolm A. H. MacCallum (non-tilted spatially homogeneous cosmologies, exact solutions book),
  • Richard A. Matzner (popularized Penrose picture of gravitational wave, rotating cosmologies),
  • Marc Mars (Mars vacuum),
  • David Maxwell (Yamabe number criterion for existence of asymptotically flat vacuum solutions),
  • R. G. McLenaghan (CM invariants),
  • Reinhard Meinel (Neugebauer/Meinel dust disk solution),
  • M. A. Melvin (Melvin electrovacuum),
  • A.W.K. Metzner (Gravitational waves, Bondi-Metzner-Sachs Group)
  • Hermann Minkowski (spacetime),
  • Charles W. Misner (mixmaster model, ADM initial value formulation, ADM mass, textbook)
  • John Moffat (various classical gravitation theories)
  • Vincent Moncrief (global properties of spatially compact dynamical vacuum spacetimes),
  • C. Møller (energy-momentum complex),

David Maxwell may refer to: David Maxwell (academic) David Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir David Maxwell (rower) David Farrow Maxwell Category: ... In general relativity, the Carminati-McLenaghan invariants or CM scalars are a set of 16 scalar curvature invariants for the Riemann tensor. ... Reinhard Meinel is the Head of the Relativistic Astrophysics group at the Institute of Theoretical Physics in Jena, Germany. ... Hermann Minkowski. ... In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single construct called the space-time continuum. ... Charles W. Misner is one of the authors of Gravitation. He has also invented Misner space, a topology and relativity-related mathematical structure. ... John Moffat is a Professor Emeritus in physics at the University of Toronto. ...


  • Hidekazu Nariai (Nariai Lambdavacuum solution),
  • Gernot Neugebauer (Neugebauer/Meinel dust disk solution),
  • Ezra T. Newman (Ted Newman; Newman/Penrose formalism, Kerr/Newman electrovacuum, NUT vacuum, RT spacetimes, relation of lensing to Weyl tensor),
  • Wei-Tou Ni (competing theory),
  • Gunnar Nordström (competing theory, RN electrovacuum),
  • Kenneth Nordtvedt (Nordtvedt effect, PPN formalism, competing theory),
  • Igor D. Novikov (Novikov chart in Schwarschild vacuum, monograph),

Ezra T. Newman is an American physicist well known for his many contributions to general relativity. ... Gunnar Nordström (1881-1923) was a Finnish theoretical physicist who is best remembered for his theory of gravitation, which was an early competitor of general relativity. ... Dr. Ken Nordtvedt is a professor in the Physics Department at Montana State University & senior researcher specializing in relativistic theories of gravity. ... In theoretical astrophysics, the Nordtvedt Effect refers to the relative motion between the Earth and the Moon which would be observed if the graviational self-energy of a body contributes to its gravitational mass but not its inertial mass. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Igor Dmitrievich Novikov (И́горь Дми́триевич Но́виков) (born November 10, 1935) is a Russian theoretical astrophysicist and cosmologist. ...


  • S. O'Brien (O'Brien/Synge matching conditions),
  • Niall Ó Murchadha (initial value formulation, proof of the Penrose inequality in spherical symmetry (with E. Malec), mathematical relativity including analysis of quasi-local mass and the constraint equations),
  • Robert Oppenheimer (gravitational collapse, OS dust),
  • Amos Ori (black hole interiors, time machines, radiation reaction, gravitational collapse),
  • István Ozsváth (Ozsváth/Schücking plane wave),

J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Amos Ori is a professor of Physics at the Technion Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, Israel. ...


  • Georgios O. Papadopoulos (Papadopoulos/Xanthopoulos solution),
  • Achilles Papapetrou (chart for Ernst vacuum family, Majumdar-Papapetrou electrovacuums, Dixon-Papapetrou equations),
  • Paul Painleve (Painleve chart in Schwarzschild vacuum),
  • Roger Penrose (singularity theorems, conformal compactification and techniques from algebraic geometry, Penrose limits, cosmic censorship hypotheses, Penrose inequalities, geometry of gravitational plane waves, impulsive waves, Penrose/Khan colliding plane wave, Newman/Penrose formalism, twistor theory, Weyl curvature hypothesis, highly influential monograph),
  • Asher Peres (gravitational wave maverick),
  • Zoltán Perjés (relavistic multipoles, Ernst vacuums),
  • Volker Perlick (solution methods, strong lensing),
  • Alexei Zinovievich Petrov (A. Z. Petrov or Aleksey Zinovjevitch Petrov; Petrov classification of algebraic properties of Weyl curvatue tensor),
  • Tsvi Piran (gravitational collapse),
  • Felix A. E. Pirani (gravitational radiation, Petrov/Pirani classification of algebraic properties of Weyl curvature tensor),
  • Jerzy F. Plebański (Plebanski vacuum, Plebanski action),
  • Eric Poisson (black hole interiors, mass inflation, monograph),
  • William H. Press (gravitational wave astronomy, problem book),
  • Richard H. Price (power law decay of perturbations, problem book),

Paul Painlevé, French politician Paul Painlevé (December 5, 1863–October 29, 1933, both at Paris, France) was a French mathematician and politician. ... Sir Roger Penrose, OM, FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. ... Asher Peres (born 1934 and died January 1, 2005) was an Israeli physicist, considered a pioneer in quantum information theory. ... Alexei Zinovievich Petrov was a mathematician born at Koshki in 1910. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... General relativity and supergravity in all dimensions meet each other at a common assumption: Any configuration space can be coordinatized by gauge fields , where the index is a Lie algebra index and is a spatial manifold index. ... Richard H. Price is a leading American physicist, well known for his important work in general relativity. ...


  • Hernando Quevedo (relativistic multipoles, exact solutions),


  • George Yuri Rainich (Rainich conditions),
  • Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri (Raychaudhuri equation),
  • Tullio Regge (Regge calculus),
  • Hans Reissner (RN electrovacuum),
  • Alan D. Rendall (Fuchsian analysis of non-oscillatory spacetime singularities, dynamics of Einstein-Vlasov systems),
  • Wolfgang Rindler (Rindler chart for Minkowski vacuum),
  • Hans Ringström (strong cosmic censorship holds for T3-Gowdy vacuums),
  • Mark D. Roberts(exact scalar Einstein solutions),
  • Howard Percy Robertson (role of curvature, PPN formalism, RW metric),
  • Ivor Robinson (Bel/Robinson tensor, Bertotti/Robinson electrovacuum),
  • Nathan Rosen (gravitational wave maverick, Erez/Rosen vacuum, EPR paradox, Einstein/Rosen bridge),
  • Remo Ruffini (particle motion in black holes, textbook),
  • Michael P. Ryan (rotating cosmological models),

George Yuri Rainich (March 25, 1886-1968) was a leading mathematical physicist in the early twentieth century. ... Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri (14 September 1923-18 June 2005) was a leading physicist well known for his contributions to relativistic cosmology, particularly Raychaudhuris equation, which is a key ingredient in proving the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems of general relativity. ... Tullio Regge (born July 11, 1931 in Turin) is an Italian physicist. ... Wolfgang Rindler is a leading physicist working in the field of General Relativity where he is well known for introducing the term event horizon, rindler coordinates, and (in collaboration with Roger Penrose) for popularizing the use of spinors in general relativity. ... Howard Percy Robertson (January 27, 1903 - August 26, 1961) was a scientist known for contributions related to cosmology and the uncertainty principle. ... Nathan Rosen (March 22, 1909 – December 18, 1995) was a physicist. ...


  • Rainer K. Sachs (peeling theorem, optical scalars, Kantowski/Sachs fluid solutions, Sachs-Wolfe effect, Bondi-Metzner-Sachs group),
  • Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (vacuum fluctuations),
  • Alfred Schild (Kerr/Schild metrics, Schild's ladder),
  • Leonard Isaac Schiff (PPN formalism, textbook),
  • Kristin Schleich (topological censorship, chaos, quantum cosmology),
  • Bernd G. Schmidt (Geroch group, classification of curvature singularities, b-boundary, quasinormal modes),
  • Richard Schoen (positive energy theorem, gravitational shielding),
  • Engelbert Schücking (Ozsváth/Schücking plane wave),
  • Bernard F. Schutz (gravitational wave detectors, textbook),
  • Karl Schwarzschild (Schwarzschild vacuum, Schwarzschild fluid),
  • Dennis William Sciama (Einstein-Cartan theory, role in legitimizing black hole concept),
  • Jose M. M. Senovilla (Senovilla dust),
  • Irwin I. Shapiro (Shapiro effect, observational tests),
  • Harlow Shapley (rotating cosmologies),
  • D. H. Sharp (Sharp-Misner mass, quasilocal energy-momentum),
  • Lawrence Shepley (rotating cosmological models),
  • Douglas A. Singleton (asymptotics of RT spacetimes),
  • Willem de Sitter (or deSitter; deSitter Lambdavacuum solution, deSitter precession),
  • Hartland Snyder (OS collapsing dust model),
  • Hans Stephani (Stephani dust solution, monograph, textbook),
  • John M. Stewart (singularities of wavefronts of gravitational waves, monograph),
  • Willem Jacob van Stockum (van Stockum dust),
  • John Lighton Synge (global structure of Schwarzschild vacuum, world function, O'Brien/Synge matching conditions),
  • László B. Szabados (quasilocal energy-momentum)
  • Peter Szekeres (Szekeres metric, colliding plane waves, Szekeres fluid),

Andrei Sakharov, 1943 For the historian, see Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov. ... Alfred Schild (1921-May 24, 1977) was a leading American physicist, well-known for his contributions to the Golden age of general relativity (1960-1975). ... Richard Melvin Schoen is an American mathematician. ... Karl Schwarzschild (October 9, 1873 - May 11, 1916) was a noted German Jewish physicist and astronomer, father of astrophysicist Martin Schwarzschild. ... Dennis William Sciama (November 18, 1926 - December 18, 1999) was a British physicist who played an important role in the Golden Age of general relativity. ... Irwin I. Shapiro is an American astrophysicist. ... Harlow Shapley in his earlier years. ... Willem de Sitter (May 6, 1872 – November 20, 1934) was a mathematician, physicist and astronomer. ... Hartland Snyder was a physicist who along with Robert Oppenheimer calculated the gravitational collapse of a pressure-free homogenous fluid sphere and found that it cut it self off from communicating with the rest of the universe. ... Willem Jacob van Stockum (November 20, 1910-June 10, 1944) was a physicist who made an important contribution to the early development of general relativity. ... John Lighton Synge (March 23, 1897–March 30, 1995) was an Irish mathematician and physicist. ...


Abraham Haskel Taub (February 1, 1911–August 9, 1999) was a distinguished American mathematician and physicist, well known for his important contributions to the early development of general relativity, as well as differential geometry and differential equations. ... Joseph Taylor is the name of: Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. ... Saul Teukolsky is one of the pioneers of numerical relativity - the subject that deals with computing facts of general relativity using supercomputers. ... It has been suggested that Rotating black hole be merged into this article or section. ... Hans Thirring (March 23, 1888 - March 22, 1976) was an Austrian theoretical physicist and father of the physicist Walter Thirring. ... Kip Stephen Thorne (born June 1, 1940) is an American theoretical physicist, known for his prolific contributions in the field of gravitation physics and astrophysics. ... Frank J. Tipler (born in 1947 in Andalusia, Alabama) is a professor of mathematical physics at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Richard C. Tolman was California Institute of Technology professor of physical chemistry and mathematical physics. ... A tolman surface brightness test is a comparison of the ratio between the redshift (measured as z) and the surface brightness of galaxies at different distances, so as to plot the relationship between the two. ... Andrzej Mariusz Trautman is a leading mathematical physicist who has made important contributions to classical gravitation in general and to general relativity in particular. ...


  • Claes Uggla (dynamical systems techniques in relativistic gravitation, exact solutions)
  • William G. Unruh (Unruh radiation),
  • T. Unti (NUT vacuum),

Bill Unruh teaching in UBC William G. Unruh (born August 21, 1945) is a Canadian physicist at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, who discovered the Unruh effect. ...


  • Prahalad Chunilal Vaidya (P. C. Vaidya; Vaidya null dust),
  • Maurice H.P.M. van Putten (textbook, model for long-duration GRBs from rotating black holes as LIGO/Virgo sources of GWs),
  • Enric Verdaguer (inverse scattering solution generating method),


  • John Wainwright (dynamical systems techniques in relativistic cosmology, exact solutions)
  • Robert M. Wald (textbook, quantum field theory on curved spacetimes),
  • Arthur Geoffrey Walker (Fermi/Walker derivatives, Robertson/Walker metric),
  • Hugo D. Wahlquist (Wahlquist fluid),
  • Joseph Weber (gravitational wave detectors),
  • Hermann Weyl (Weyl vacuums; see also related list below),
  • John Archibald Wheeler (coined name "black holes" and popularized them, geometrodynamics, relativistic stars, Zerilli/Wheeler equation, Wheeler/DeWitt equation, textbook),
  • Alfred North Whitehead (competing theory),
  • W. J. Wild (Ernst/Wild electrovacuum),
  • Clifford Martin Will (PPN formalism),
  • Jeffrey Winicour (JNS mcmsf solution, characteristic evolution and matching),
  • Donald M. Witt (topological censorship, chaos),
  • Edward Witten (positive energy theorem),
  • Louis Witten (Witten electrovacuum solutions; father of Edward),

John Wainwright may refer to several individuals: John Wainwright, an artist active about 1845-1875, in the United Kingdom. ... Robert Wald (b. ... Arthur Geoffrey Walker (17 July 1909 - 31 March 2001) was a leading mathematician and cosmologist. ... Joseph Weber (May 17, 1919 – September 30, 2000) was an American physicist. ... Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl (November 9, 1885 – December 9, 1955) was a German mathematician. ... John Archibald Wheeler (born July 9, 1911) is an eminent American theoretical physicist. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861 Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ... Clifford Martin Will (b. ... Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American mathematical physicist, Fields Medalist, and professor at the Institute for Advanced Study. ... Louis Witten is an American theoretical physicist and the father of Edward Witten. ...


Basilis C. Xanthopoulos (1951 - November 27, 1990) was a Greek theoretical physicist, well known in the field of general relativity for his contributions to the study of colliding plane waves. ...


  • Shing-Tung Yau (positive energy theorem),
  • James W. York (initial value formulation),
  • Ulvi Yurtsever (almost planar gravitational waves),

Shing-Tung Yau (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born April 4, 1949) is a prominent mathematician working in differential geometry, and involved in the theory of Calabi-Yau manifolds. ... James W. York, Jr. ...


  • V. E. Zakharov (inverse scattering transform solution generating method),
  • Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich (maverick theories, relativistic stars and black holes),
  • Franco J. Zerilli (Zerilli/Wheeler equation),
  • Nina Zipser (global nonlinear stability of Minkowski a space of electrovacuums),

Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich (Russian:Яков Борисович Зельдович) (March 8, 1914 – December 2, 1987) was a prolific Soviet physicist. ...

See also

  Results from FactBites:
General relativity (4630 words)
In general relativity, phenomena that in classical mechanics are ascribed to the action of the force of gravity (such as free-fall, orbital motion, and spacecraft trajectories) are taken in general relativity to represent inertial motion in a curved spacetime.
General relativity is incompatible with quantum mechanics; it is generally held that one of the most important unsolved problems in modern physics is the problem of obtaining a true quantum theory of gravitation.
General relativity was developed by Einstein in a process that began in 1907 with the publication of an article on the influence of gravity and acceleration on the behavior of light in special relativity.
General relativity: introduction to general relativity (6574 words)
General relativity (GR) (aka general theory of relativity (GTR)) is the geometrical theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915/16.
General relativity further calls for the curvature of space-time to be produced by the mass-energy and momentum content of the matter in space-time.
General relativity is distinguished from other metric theories of gravitation by its use of the Einstein field equations to relate space-time content and space-time curvature.
  More results at FactBites »



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