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Encyclopedia > Contributions to liberal theory
The Liberalism series,
part of the Politics series
Development
History of liberal thought
Contributions to liberal theory
Schools
Classical liberalism
Conservative liberalism
Cultural liberalism
Economic liberalism
Libertarianism
Neoliberalism
Ordoliberalism
Paleoliberalism
Social liberalism
Ideas
Freedom
Individual rights
Individualism
Laissez-faire
Liberal democracy
Liberal neutrality
Negative & positive liberty
Free market / Capitalism
Mixed economy
Open society
Rights
Organizations
Liberal parties worldwide
Liberal International · Iflry
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Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. These individuals are strongly associated with the liberal tradition and instrumental in the exposition of political liberalism as a philosophy. The contributors are listed in approximately chronological order, beginning from the roots of realism, rationalism and humanism in the Renaissance, all movements which were influential in the creation of what is thought of as liberal political theory. These include Desiderius Erasmus, Hugo Grotius and Baruch Spinoza through the Age of Reason's English philosopher John Locke and the Frenchman Voltaire and other philosophers of the Enlightenment. Liberalism as a specifically named ideology begins in the late 18th century as a movement towards self-government and away from aristocracy. It included the ideas of self-determination, the primacy of the individual and the nation, as opposed to the family and the state, as being the fundamental units of law, politics and economy. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cultural liberalism is a form of liberalism which stresses the freedom of the individual from what Lord Acton called the tyrany of the majority, the right of the non-conformist to march to a different drummer. ... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics begun in the Englightenment, and believed to be first fully forumulated by Adam Smith. ... This article is about the individualist philosophy, which is supportive of private property. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about political philosophy of Ordoliberalism. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Liberal neutrality is the idea that the liberal state should not promote any particular conception of the good. This idea formed a cornerstone of John Rawls work and has been developed by many other liberal thinkers e. ... The philosophical concept of negative liberty refers to an individuals liberty from being subjected to the authority of others. ... Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... It has been suggested that Definitions of capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... An open society is a concept originally developed by philosopher Henri Bergson. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political current in specific regions and countries. ... Liberal International is a political international for international liberal parties. ... The International Federation of Liberal & Radical Youth (IFLRY) is an international grouping of Liberal parties - it is the youth wing of the Liberal International. ... The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (founded in 1993) is a liberal party, mainly active in the European Union, composed of 49 national liberal and centrist parties from across Europe. ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... European Liberal Youth (LYMEC - Liberal Youth Movement of the European Community) is an international organisation of Liberal youth movements - mostly the youth wings of members of the European Liberal, Democrat and Reform Party. ... The Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats is a regional organization of liberal and democratic political parties in Asia. ... The Africa Liberal Network is composed of 16 parties in Africa, from 14 different countries, and is an associated organisation of Liberal International, the political family to which Liberal Democratic parties belong. ... The Liberal Network for Latin America (Red Liberal de América Latina, RELIAL) is an international network founded in 2003 with the official launch taking place in Costa Rica November 2004. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief in and allegiance to a reality that exists independently of observers. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationalism. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (sometimes known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Benedictus de Spinoza or Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה) (lived November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ... Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Anthem: La Marseillaise Metropolitan France() – on the European continent() – in the European Union()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Paris Official languages French Government Unitary republic  -  President Jacques Chirac  -  Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin Formation  -  Celtic Gaul 1200 BC   -  Franks 11 BC   -  Kingdom of France... For the sport horse, see Voltaire (horse). ... ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ...


Since then liberalism has broadened to include a wide range of approaches from Americans Ronald Dworkin, Richard Rorty and Francis Fukuyama as well as the Indian Amartya Sen, the Peruvian Hernando do Soto and the Belgian Dirk Verhofstadt. Some of these people moved away from liberalism, while others espoused other ideologies before turning to liberalism. There are many different views of what constitutes liberalism, and some liberals would feel that some of the people on this list were not true liberals. It is intended to be suggestive rather than exhaustive. Theorists whose ideas were mainly typical for one country should be listed in that country's section of liberalism worldwide. Generally only thinkers are listed, politicians are only listed when they, beside their active political work, also made substantial contributions to liberal theory. Ronald Dworkin (born 1931) is an American legal philosopher, and currently professor of Jurisprudence at University College London and the New York University School of Law. ... Richard McKay Rorty (born October 4, 1931 in New York City) is an American philosopher. ... Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952 in Chicago) is an influential American philosopher, political economist and author. ... Amartya Sen Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933 in Santiniketan, India), is an Indian philosopher, economist and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare... Hernando de Soto (born 1941 in Arequipa) is a Peruvian economist known for his work on the informal economy. ... Dirk Verhofstadt (born 1955) is a Belgian liberal (Rawlsian) theorist and brother of the Belgian prime minister Guy Verhofstadt. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political current in specific regions and countries. ...

It is the intention to add one or two lines of information on the theorists explaining why they are on the list with reference to the works important in this matter. More comprehensive articles can be found by clicking on the thinkers name.

The list is divided in three sections:

The following people are included:

Contents

Classical Contributors to Liberalism

Aristotle

Aristotle.
Aristotle.

Aristotle (Athens, 384 BC - 322 BC) is revered among political theorists for his seminal work Politics, surviving as a compilation of lecture notes taken by his students. Though Aristotle never mentioned rights, and even supported slavery, he made invaluable contributions to liberal theory through his observations on different forms of government. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 231 KB) Suject : Portrait of Aristoteles ; Origin : Imperial Roman copy (1st or 2nd century) of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos ; Material : Marble of the Penteli, region of Athens ; Location : Louvre museum, Paris, France, #MA 80 bis ; Author : Eric... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 231 KB) Suject : Portrait of Aristoteles ; Origin : Imperial Roman copy (1st or 2nd century) of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos ; Material : Marble of the Penteli, region of Athens ; Location : Louvre museum, Paris, France, #MA 80 bis ; Author : Eric... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... From the Greek word polis(state-city), the Politics or Ta Politika of Aristotle is the second half of a single treatise of which his Ethics is the first. ...


He begins with the idea that the best government provides an active and "happy" life for its people. Aristotle then considers six forms of government: Monarchy, Aristocracy, and Polity on one side as 'good' forms of government, and Tyranny, Oligarchy, and Democracy as 'bad' forms. Considering each in turn, Aristotle rejects Monarchy as infantilizing of citizens, Oligarchy as too profit-motivated, Tyranny as against the will of the people, Democracy as serving only to the poor, and Aristocracy (known today as Meritocracy) as ideal but ultimately impossible. Aristotle finally concludes that a polity—a combination between democracy and oligarchy, where most can vote but must choose among the rich and virtuous for governors—is the best compromise between idealism and realism. This article is about an emotion. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Virtue (Greek αρετη; Latin virtus) is the habitual, well-established, readiness or diposition of mans powers directing them to some goodness of act. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that Defensive realism be merged into this article or section. ...


Furthermore, Aristotle idealized the middle class as a stabilizing force and the ideal kind of citizen for his polity, because the middle class acts as a compromising force between the "excesses of the rich" and the "envy of the poor". The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


In addition, Aristotle was a firm supporter of private property. He refuted Plato's argument for a collectivist society in which family and property are held in common: Aristotle makes the argument that when one's own son or land is rightfully one's own, one puts much more effort into cultivating that item, to the ultimate betterment of society. He references barbarian tribes of his time in which property was held in common, and the laziest of the bunch would always take away large amounts of food grown by the most diligent. This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Collectivism, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis on the group, as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents to be at the expense of) the individual. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


"Humanism"

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò Machiavelli.
Niccolò Machiavelli.

Niccolò Machiavelli (Florence, 1469-1527), best known for his Il Principe was the founder of realist political philosophy, advocated republican government, citizen armies, division of power, protection of personal property, and restraint of government expenditure as being necessary to the liberties of a republic. He wrote extensively on the need for individual initiative - virtu - as an essential characteristic of stable government. He argued that liberty was the central good which government should protect, and that "good people" would make good laws, where as people who had lost their virtu could maintain their liberties only with difficulty. His Discourses on Livy outlined realism as the central idea of political study and favored "Republics" over "Principalties". Image File history File links Machiavelli. ... Image File history File links Machiavelli. ... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ...


Anti-statist liberals consider Machiavelli's distrust as his main message, noting his call for a strong state under a strong leader, who should use any means to establish his position, whereas liberalism is an ideology of individual freedom and voluntary choices.


However, often people associate Machiavelli as a proponent of the anti-liberal idea that "the end justifies the means".

Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. ... Niccolò Machiavelli is primarily known as the author of The Prince. ...

Desiderius Erasmus

Desiderius Erasmus.
Desiderius Erasmus.

Desiderius Erasmus (Netherlands, 1466-1536) was an advocate of the doctrine now known as humanism, critic of entrenched interests, irrationality and superstition. Erasmusian societies formed across Europe, to some extent in response to the turbulence of the Reformation. He dealt with the freedom of the will, a crucial point. In his De libero arbitrio diatribe sive collatio (1524), he analyzes with great cleverness and good humour the Lutheran exaggeration of the obvious limitations on human freedom. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x1145, 122 KB) The Dutch philosopher Desiderius Erasmus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x1145, 122 KB) The Dutch philosopher Desiderius Erasmus. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationalism. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...

  • Contributing literature

Hans Holbeins witty marginal drawing of Folly (1515), in the first edition, a copy owned by Erasmus himself (Kupferstichkabinett, Basle) The Praise of Folly (Greek title: Morias Enkomion (Μωρίας Εγκώμιον), Latin: Stultitiae Laus, sometimes translated as In Praise of Folly, Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in 1509...

Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius or Hugo de Groot (Netherlands, 1583-1645), laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law, in his book Mare Liberum (Free Seas) formulated the new principle that the sea was international territory and all nations were free to use it for seafaring trade, and in De jure belli ac pacis libri tres (Three books on laws of war and peace) presented a theory of just war and argued that all nations are bound by the principles of natural law. copied from http://www. ... copied from http://www. ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ...


Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes.
Thomas Hobbes.

Thomas Hobbes (England, 1588-1679) theorized that government is the result of individual actions and human traits, and that it was motivated primarily by "interest", a term which would become crucial in the development of a liberal theory of government and political economy, since it is the foundation of the idea that individuals can be self-governing and self-regulating. His work Leviathan, did not advocate this viewpoint, but instead that only a strong government could restrain unchecked interest: it did, however, advance a proto-liberal position in arguing for an inalienable "right of nature," the right to defend oneself, even against the state. Though it is problematic to classify Hobbes himself as a liberal, his work influenced Locke, Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison and many other later liberals. Image File history File links Thomas_Hobbes_(portrait). ... Image File history File links Thomas_Hobbes_(portrait). ... “Hobbes” redirects here. ...


Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza.

Baruch Spinoza (Netherlands, 1632-1677) is in his Tractatus Theologico-Politicus and Tractatus Politicus a proto-liberal defending the value of separation of church and state as well as forms of democracy. In the first mentioned book, Spinoza expresses an early criticism of religious intolerance and a defense of secular government. Spinoza was a thoroughgoing determinist who held that absolutely everything that happens occurs through the operation of necessity. For him, even human behaviour is fully determined, freedom being our capacity to know we are determined and to understand why we act as we do. So freedom is not the possibility to say "no" to what happens to us but the possibility to say "yes" and fully understand why things should necessarily happen that way. Spinoza The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Spinoza The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Benedictus de Spinoza or Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה) (lived November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... This article is about the law definition of necessity. ...

  • Contributing literature:
    • Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, 1670 (Theologico-Political Treatise, [3])
    • Tractatus Politcus, 1677 (Political Treatise)

This article is about the treatise published by Baruch Spinoza. ...

From Locke to Mill

John Locke

John Locke.
John Locke.

The notions of John Locke (United Kingdom, 1632-1704) of a "government with the consent of the governed" and man's natural rightslife, liberty, and estate (property) as well on tolerance, as laid down in A letter concerning toleration and Two treatises of government —had an enormous influence on the development of liberalism. Developed a theory of property resting on the actions of individuals, rather than on descent or nobility. One could argue that liberal theory starts with Locke, influenced by the proto-liberal contributions listed above. File links The following pages link to this file: John Locke ... File links The following pages link to this file: John Locke ... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ... Natural rights is a philosophical hition of universal rights that are seen as inherent in the nature of people and not contingent on human actions or beliefs. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... Estate is a term used in the common law. ... Property designates those things that are commonly recognized as being the possessions of a person or group. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...

A Letter Concerning Toleration by John Locke was originally published in 1689. ... The Second Treatise of Civil Government (sometimes The Second Treatise on Civil Government) was written by the philosopher John Locke and was originally published in the year 1690. ...

John Trenchard

John Trenchard (United Kingdom, 1662-1723) was co-author, with Thomas Gordon of Cato's Letters. These newspaper essays condemned tyranny and advanced principles of freedom of conscience and freedom of speech and were a main vehicle for spreading the concepts that had been developed by John Locke. John Trenchard (1662-1723), English writer and Commonwealthman, belonged to the same Dorset family as the Secretary of State Sir John Trenchard. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience) is the freedom of an individual to hold a viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A concept is an abstract idea or a mental symbol, typically associated with a corresponding representation in language or symbology, that denotes all of the objects in a given category or class of entities, interactions, phenomena, or relationships between them. ... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ...

  • Some literature:

The essays called Catos Letters were written by two Englishmen, concealing their identities with the honored ancient Roman name of Cato. ...

Charles de Montesquieu

Montesquieu.
Montesquieu.

Charles de Montesquieu (France, 1689-1755) Charles Montesquieu This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Charles Montesquieu This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Montesquieu in 1728. ...

The Spirit of Laws (French: De lesprit des lois) is a book on political theory by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, published in 1748. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Thomas Gordon

Thomas Gordon (United Kingdom, 169?-1750) was co-author, with John Trenchard of Cato's Letters. These newspaper essays condemned tyranny and advanced principles of freedom of conscience and freedom of speech and were a main vehicle for spreading the concepts that had been developed by John Locke. Thomas Gordon , English writer and Commonwealthman. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience) is the freedom of an individual to hold a viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A concept is an abstract idea or a mental symbol, typically associated with a corresponding representation in language or symbology, that denotes all of the objects in a given category or class of entities, interactions, phenomena, or relationships between them. ... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ...

  • Some literature:

The essays called Catos Letters were written by two Englishmen, concealing their identities with the honored ancient Roman name of Cato. ...

François Quesnay

François Quesnay (France, 1694-1774) François Quesnay. ...

The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Voltaire

Voltaire.

Voltaire (France, 1694-1778) Image File history File links 358518. ... Image File history File links 358518. ... For the sport horse, see Voltaire (horse). ...

  • Some literature:
    • Lettres Philosophiques sur les Anglais, 1734 (Philosophical Letters on the English)
    • Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (together with others), 1751-1772 {Encyclopaedia, or Reasoned Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades [9])
    • Essai sur l'histoire génerale et sur les moeurs et l'espirit des nations, 1756 (Essay on the Manner and Spirit of Nations and on the Principal Occurrences in History)
    • Traité sur la Tolérance à l'occasion de la mort de Jean Calas, 1763 (Treatise on Toleration In Connection with the Death of Jean Calas)
    • Dictionnaire Philosophique, 1764 (Philosophical Dictionary)

The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Benjamin Franklin

Hall's engraving of Duplessis' 1783 painting of Franklin
Hall's engraving of Duplessis' 1783 painting of Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (United States, 1706-1790) was an inventor, scientist, writer, entrepreneur, diplomat and statesman was an advocate for free trade and the end of mercantilism, industrialization, abolition of slavery, free public libraries, democratic government and national unity. His Autobiography is also a seminal work on the life of a free individual who is self-governing in his pursuit of accomplishment, without need for an over-arching state, allegiance or religion to force adherence to basic moral and ethical principles. Download high resolution version (1500x1988, 1086 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1988, 1086 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ...

Joseph Frederick Priestley is often credited for the discovery of oxygen. ... The lunar farside as seen from Apollo 11 Natural science is the rational study of the universe via rules or laws of natural order. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationalism. ...

David Hume

David Hume.
David Hume.

David Hume (United Kingdom, 1711-1776) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (825x1000, 91 KB) Found at Web Gallery of Art File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Hume Empiricism Allan Ramsay (1713-1784) Category talk:Philosophers User:Primalchaos... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (825x1000, 91 KB) Found at Web Gallery of Art File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Hume Empiricism Allan Ramsay (1713-1784) Category talk:Philosophers User:Primalchaos... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. ...

  • Some literature:
    • An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, 1751

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (France, 1712-1778) promulgated the idea that men were naturally free, but had to be educated to live in society. This required a natural liberty and a "national will" which could be directed to improvement of the society. He is famous for the quote "men are born free, but are everywhere in chains", and urging that Europeans throw off the restrictions that they lived under, and substitute, instead, a self-governing moral basis. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ...


However, Rousseau's ideal society was moderately liberal one: he advocated an unhindered power of the sovereign over the property of the individual and he opposed private ownership.

The term social contract describes a broad class of philosophical theories whose subject is the implied agreements by which people form nations and maintain social order. ...

Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot (France, 1713-1784) Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ...

The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean le Rond d'Alembert (France, 1717-1783) Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ...

The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Samuel Adams

Samuel Adams (United States, 1722-1803) Samuel Adams (September 27, 1722 - October 2, 1803) was an American leader, politician, writer, political philosopher and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ...


Richard Price

Richard Price (United Kingdom, 1723-1791) Richard Price (February 23, 1723 – April 19, 1791), was a Welsh moral and political philosopher. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Appeal to the Public on the Subject of the National Debt, 1771
    • Observations on Reversionary Payments, 1771
    • Observations on Civil Liberty and the Justice and Policy of the War with America, 1776

Anders Chydenius

Anders Chydenius.
Anders Chydenius.

Anders Chydenius (Finland (then a part of the Swedish realm), 1729-1803) His book Den Nationale Winsten proposed roughly same the ideas as Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, a decade earlier, including foundations of liberalism and capitalism and (roughly) the invisible hand. He demanded complete economic and individual freedom, including the freedom of religion (although he was a priest), worker's rights to freely move and choose their professions and employers, the freedom of speech and trade and abolitions of all privileges and price and wage controls. Image File history File links Anders_Chydenius. ... Image File history File links Anders_Chydenius. ... Anders Chydenius Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729 – 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Adam Smith FRSE (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... It has been suggested that Definitions of capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... The invisible hand is a metaphor coined by Adam Smith to illustrate how those who seek wealth by following their individual self-interest, inadvertently stimulate the economy and assist society as a whole. ...


He was also a successful politician, his achievements include the freedom of the press in Sweden.

  • Some literature:
    • Americanska Näfwerbåtar, 1753 (American birchbark canoes)
    • Källan Til Rikets Wan-Magt, 1765 (The cause of the weakness of the Kingdom)
    • Den Nationnale Winsten, 1765 (The National Gain) [13])

The National Gain is the main work of Anders Chydenius published 1765. ...

Adam Smith

Adam Smith.
Adam Smith.

Adam Smith (United Kingdom, 1723-1790) Adam Smith This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Adam Smith This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Adam Smith FRSE (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ...

Adam Smith An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith, published on March 9, 1776 during the Scottish Enlightenment. ...

William Blackstone

Sir William Blackstone (United Kingdom 1723-1780) Sir William Blackstone, (July 10, 1723 - February 14, 1780) was an English jurist and professor who produced the historical treatise on the common law called Commentaries on the Laws of England, first published in four volumes over 1765–1769. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Commentaries on the Laws of England

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant.
Immanuel Kant.

Immanuel Kant (Germany, 1724-1804) Image File history File links Immanuel_Kant_(painted_portrait). ... Image File history File links Immanuel_Kant_(painted_portrait). ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ...

  • Some literature:
    • Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten, 1785 (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals[15])
    • Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788 (Critique of Practical Reason [16])
    • Über den Gemeinspruch: Das mag in der Theorie richtig sein, taugt aber nicht für die Praxis, 1793 (On the common saying: this may be true in theory but it does not apply in practice)
    • Zum ewigen Frieden, 1795 (Perpetual Peace[17])
    • Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797 (Metaphysics of Morals [18])

The Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten, 1785) is a work by Immanuel Kant meant to establish the fundamental rational and a priori basis for morality. ... cover of 1898 English edition of the Critique of Practical Reason The Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft) is the second of Immanuel Kants three critiques, first published in 1788. ...

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot (France, 1727-1781) Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, often referred to as Turgot (10 May 1727 – 18 March 1781), was a French economist and statesman. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Le Conciliateur, 1754
    • Lettre sur la tolérance civile, 1754
    • Réflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, 1766
    • Lettres sur la liberté du commerce des grains, 1770

Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke (United Kingdom 1729-1797, Whig politician) contributed to liberal theory by emphasizing the importance of rationality in politics, self-interest as the basis for government and moderation against extremes. He is also considered important for his contributions to Conservatism because of his belief in respect for tradition. Edmund Burke (12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ...

Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley (United Kingdom/United States, 1733-1804) Joseph Frederick Priestley is often credited for the discovery of oxygen. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Essay on the First Principles of Government, 1768
    • The Present State of Liberty in Great Britain and her Colonies, 1769
    • Remarks on Dr Blackstone's Commentaries, 1769
    • Observations on Civil Liberty and the Nature and Justice of the War with America, 1772

August Ludwig von Schlözer

August Ludwig von Schlözer (Germany, 1735-1809) August Ludwig von Schlözer (July 5, 1735 - September 9, 1809) was a German historian. ...


Patrick Henry

Patrick Henry (United States, 1736-1799) Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ...

Patrick Henrys Treason speech before the House of Burgesses in an 1851 painting by Peter F. Rothermel Give me liberty or give me death is a famous quotation from a speech made by Patrick Henry to the Virginia House of Burgesses. ...

Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine.

Thomas Paine (United Kingdom/United States, 1737-1809) Download high resolution version (752x1205, 259 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (752x1205, 259 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Thomas Paine (Thetford, England, 29 January 1737 – 8 June 1809, New York City, USA) was a pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical intellectual, and deist. ...

Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ...

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson.
Thomas Jefferson.

Thomas Jefferson (United States, 1743-1826) was the third President of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence. He also wrote Notes on the State of Virginia. He was a champion of inalienable individual rights and the separation of church and state. His ideas were repeated in many other liberal revolutions around the world, including the (early) French Revolution. Download high resolution version (755x860, 47 KB) The Edgehill Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Gilbert Stuart, 1805. ... Download high resolution version (755x860, 47 KB) The Edgehill Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Gilbert Stuart, 1805. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... Notes was the only full-length book authored by Thomas Jefferson. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Condorcet (France, 1743-1794) Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (September 17, 1743 - March 28, 1794) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Esquisse d'un tableau historique des progrés de l'esprit humain, 1795 (Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind)

Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham (United Kingdom, 1748-1832) An early advocate of utilitarianism, animal welfare and women's rights. He had many students all around the world, including John Stuart Mill and several political leaders. Bentham demanded economic and individual freedom, including the separation of the state and church, freedom of expression, completely equal rights for women, the end of slavery and colonialism, uniform democracy, the abolition of physical punishment, also on children, the right for divorce, free prices, free trade and no restrictions on interest. Bentham was not a libertarian: he supported inheritance tax, restrictions on monopoly power, pensions, health insurance and other social security, but called for prudence and careful consideration in any such governmental intervention. Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1748 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Utilitarianism (1861), see Utilitarianism (book). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), a British philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ...


Emmanuel Sieyès

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (France, 1748-1836) Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, 1817, by Jacques-Louis David Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (May 3, 1748 – June 20, 1836) (IPA: or ) was a French abbé and statesman, one of the chief theorists of the French Revolution, French Consulate, and First French Empire. ...


James Madison

James Madison (United States, 1751-1836) was co-Author, with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay of The Federalist Papers, and one of the architects of both the American Constitution of 1787, as well as the Bill of Rights (1789). Later President of the United States (1809-1817). James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ...

An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ...

Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton.
Alexander Hamilton.

Alexander Hamilton (United States, 1755-1804) Download high resolution version (868x1224, 303 KB) A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792. ... Download high resolution version (868x1224, 303 KB) A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ...

An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ...

Anne Louise Germaine de Staël

Anne Louise Germaine de Staël (France, 1766-1817) Madame de Staël Anne Louise Germaine de Staël (April 22, 1766 – July 14, 1817) was a French-speaking Swiss author living in Paris and abroad who determined literary tastes of Europe at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. ...

  • Some literature:
    • De l’influence des passions sur le bonheur des individus et des nations, 1796
    • Des circonstances actuelles qui peuvent terminer la Révolution et des principes qui doivent fonder la république en France, 1798
    • Considérations sur les principaux événements de la révolution française, 1813
    • Appel aux souverains réunis à Paris pour en obtenir l’abolition de la traite des nègres, 1814

Benjamin Constant

Benjamin Constant (France, 1767-1830) Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

  • Some literature:
    • De l'esprit de conquête et l'usurpation (On the spirit of conquest and on usurpation), 1814
    • "The Liberty of Ancients Compared with that of Moderns," 1816

Jean-Baptiste Say

Jean-Baptiste Say (France, 1767-1832) Jean-Baptiste Say (January 5, 1767 – November 15, 1832) was a French economist and businessman. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Traité d'économie politique (Treatise on Political Economy), 1803

Wilhelm von Humboldt

Wilhelm von Humboldt.

Wilhelm von Humboldt (Germany, 1767-1835) Wilhelm von Humboldt source: http://www. ... Wilhelm von Humboldt source: http://www. ... Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt (June 22, 1767 - April 8, 1835), government functionary, foreign diplomat, philosopher, founder of Humboldt Universität in Berlin, friend of Goethe and especially of Schiller, is especially remembered as a German linguist who introduced a knowledge of the Basque...

  • Some literature:
    • Ideen zu einem Versuch, die Grenzen der Wirksamkeit des Staats zu bestimmen (On the Limits of State Action), 1792

David Ricardo

David Ricardo (United Kingdom, 1772-1823) David Ricardo (April 18, 1772 – September 11, 1823), a political economist, is often credited with systematising economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus, and Adam Smith. ...


James Mill

James Mill (United Kingdom, 1773-1836) James Mill James Mill (April 6, 1773 - June 23, 1836), Scottish historian, economist and philosopher, was born at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Angus, Scotland, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Elements of Political Economy, 1821

Frédéric Bastiat

Frédéric Bastiat (France, 1801-1850) Frédéric Bastiat Claude Frédéric Bastiat (June 30, 1801–December 24, 1850) was a French classical liberal author and political economist. ...

  • Some literature:
    • La Loi (The Law), 1849
    • Harmonies économiques (Economic Harmonies), 1850
    • Ce qu'on voit et ce qu'on ne voit pas (What is Seen and What is Not Seen), 1850

The Law, original french title La Loi, is a 1849 book by Frédéric Bastiat. ...

Johan Rudolf Thorbecke

The Dutch statesman Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (Netherlands, 1798-1872) was the main theorist of Dutch liberalism in the nineteenth century, outlining a more democratic alternative to the absolute monarchy, the constitutional monarchy. The constitution of 1848 was mainly his work. His main theoretical article specifically labeled as 'liberal' was Over het hedendaagsche staatsburgerschap (on modern citizenship) from 1844. He became prime minister in 1849, thus starting numerous fundamental reforms in Dutch politics. Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (January 14, 1798 - June 4, 1872) was one of the most important Dutch politicians. ...


Harriet Martineau

Harriet Martineau (United Kingdom, 1802-1876) Harriet Martineau Harriet Martineau (June 12, 1802 - June 27, 1876) was an English writer and philosopher, renowned in her day as a controversial journalist, political economist, abolitionist and life-long feminist. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Illustrations of Political Economy, 1832-1834
    • Theory and Practice of Society in America, 1837
    • The Martyr Age of the United States, 1839

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson (United States, 1803-1882) was an American philosopher who argued that the basic principles of government were mutable, and that government is required only in so far as people are not self-governing. Proponent of Democracy, and of the idea that a democratic people must have a democratic ethics. Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Self-Reliance
    • Circles
    • Politics
    • The Nominalist and the Realist

Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis de Tocqueville (France, 1805-1859) For other uses, see Tocqueville (disambiguation) Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville (Verneuil-sur-Seine, Île-de-France, July 29, 1805– Cannes, April 16, 1859) was a French political thinker and historian. ...

De la démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses. ...

William Lloyd Garrison

William Lloyd Garrison (United States, 1805-1879) William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805–May 24, 1879) was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Articles advocating abolition of slavery in the newspaperThe Liberator, 1831-1866

This article is about the abolitionist newspaper. ...

Friedrich Schiller

Friedrich Schiller (Germany, 1759-1805) Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ...


Mill and further, the development of (international) liberalism

See for the somewhat different development of an American liberalism after World War II the section on American liberal theory. American liberal theorists who also had influence on liberalism outside the United States are included in this section.

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill.

John Stuart Mill (United Kingdom, 1806-1873) is one of the first champions of modern "liberalism." As such, his work on political economy and logic helped lay the foundation for advancements in empirical science and public policy based on verifiable improvements. Strongly influenced by Bentham's utilitarianism, he disagrees with Kant's intuitive notion of right and formulates the "highest normative principle" of morals as: Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. John Stuart Mill, scan of Photogravure from 19th century book This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Stuart Mill, scan of Photogravure from 19th century book This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), a British philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος logos (the word), is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Utilitarianism (1861), see Utilitarianism (book). ...


Some consider Mill as the founder of Social liberalism. Although Mill was mainly for free markets, he accepted interventions in the economy, such as a tax on alcohol, if there were sufficient utilitarian grounds. Mill was also a champion of women's rights. Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...

  • Some literature:

On Liberty is a philosophical work in the English language by 19th century philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859. ...

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln.
Abraham Lincoln.

Abraham Lincoln (United States, 1809-1865) is best known as the President of the United States from 1861-1865. He argued for the theory of political equality and the supremacy of natural law over present political arrangements. Most famous for his debates with Stephen Douglas, Cooper Union speech on Congress's right to ban slavery from US territories, Second Inaugural Address and Gettysburg Address, as well as the Emancipation Proclamation - which converted the American Civil War into a struggle to end slavery. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2850x3742, 1215 KB) Description Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States of America. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2850x3742, 1215 KB) Description Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


Juan Bautista Alberdi

Juan Bautista Alberdi (Argentina, 1810-1884) Juan Bautista Alberdi (29 August 1810-19 June 1884) was a Argentian political theorist and diplomat. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Bases y puntos de partida para la organización política de la República Argentina (Bases and Points of Departure for the Political Organization of the Argentine Republic), 1852
    • Sistema económico y rentistico de la Confederación Argentina, según su Constitución de 1853 (Economic and rentistic system of the Argentine Confederation, according to its 1853 Constitution), 1854

Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau[1]) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance...

Civil Disobedience is an essay by Henry David Thoreau. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Jacob Burckhardt

Jacob Burckhardt (Switzerland, 1818-1897) State as derived from cultural and economic life Jacob Burckhardt in 1892 Jacob Burckhardt (May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland – August 8, 1897, Basel) was a Swiss historian of art and culture, fields which he helped found. ...

  • Some literature:
    • The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy

Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (United Kingdom, 1820-1903) was an agitator against the newer forms of liberalism espoused by Mills or Bentham. He wanted a smaller state that was only concerned with the defense of persons and property rights. For Spencer, voluntary cooperation was the way for humans to live peacefully together. Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Social Statics, 1851
    • First Principles, 1862
    • The Man versus the State, 1884
    • Essays, Scientific, Political and Speculative, 1892

Thomas Hill Green

Thomas Hill Green (United Kingdom, 1836-1882) &t:For the actor Thomas Hill see Thomas Hill. ...


Carl Menger

Carl Menger (Austria, 1840-1921) Austrian School economist Carl Menger Carl Menger Carl Menger (February 28, 1840 – February 26, 1921) was the founder of the Austrian School of economics. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Grundsätze der Volkswirtschaftslehre (Principles of Economics), 1871
    • Untersuchungen über die Methode der Sozialwissenschaften und der Politischen Ökonomie insbesondere (Investigations into the Method of the Social Sciences: with special reference to economics), 1883
    • Irrthumer des Historismus in der deutschen Nationalokonomie (The Errors of Historicism in German Economics), 1884
    • Zur Theorie des Kapitals (The Theory of Capital), 1888

William Graham Sumner

William Graham Sumner.

William Graham Sumner (United States, 1840-1910) Image File history File links Sumner. ... Image File history File links Sumner. ... William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) was the leading American advocate of a free-trade industrial society, which is what he believed the socialists meant by capitalism. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Socialism, 1878
    • The Argument Against Protective Tariffs, 1881
    • Protective Taxes and Wages, 1883
    • The Absurd Effort to Make the World Over, 1883
    • State Interference, 1887
    • Protectionism: the -ism which teaches that waste makes wealth, 1887
    • The Forgotten Man, and Other Essays, 1917

Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.

Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (United States, 1841-1935) was a jurist and writer. He wrote the influential book on legal theory The Common Law, which traced the creation of individual rights from familial rights common under Roman and Feudal law, and presented the "objective" theory of judicial interpretation. Specifically that the standard for intent and culpability should be that of the "reasonable man", and that individuals can be said to objectively intend the reasonable consequences of their actions. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. ...


Lujo Brentano

Image:Lujo Brentano.png
Lujo Brentano.

Ludwig Joseph Brentano (Germany, 1844-1931) Lujo Brentano (18 December 1844–9 September 1931) was an eminent German economist and social reformer. ...


Tomáš Masaryk

TomᚠGarrigue Masaryk (Czechoslovakia, 1850-1937) Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, portrait by Josef Jindřich Šechtl, 1918 Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (IPA: ), sometimes called Thomas Masaryk in English, (March 7, 1850 - September 14, 1937) was an advocate of Czechoslovak independence during WW I and became the first President of Czechoslovakia. ...


Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk

Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (Austria, 1851-1914) Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (February 12, 1851 – August 27, 1914) made important contributions to the development of Austrian economics. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Kapital und Kapitalzins (Capital and Interest), in three volumes, 1884, 1889 and 1909
    • Die Positive Theorie des Kapitals (The positive theory of capital and its critics), in three volumes, 1895 and 1896
    • Zum Abschluss des Marxschen Systems (Karl Marx and the Close of his system),1898

Louis Brandeis

Louis Brandeis (1856-1941) Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. ...


Thorstein Veblen

Thorstein Veblen (1857-1926) is best known as the author of Theory of the Leisure Class. Veblen was influential to a generation of American liberalism searching for a rational basis for the economy beyond corporate consolidation and "cut throat competition". Veblen's central argument was that individuals require sufficient non-economic time to become educated citizens. He caustically attacked pure material consumption for its own sake, and the idea that utility equalled conspicuous consumption. Thorstein Bunde Veblen (born Tosten Bunde Veblen July 30, 1857 – August 3, 1929) was a Norwegian-American sociologist and economist and a founder, along with John R. Commons, of the Institutional economics movement. ...


John Dewey

John Dewey (United States, 1859-1952) John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Liberalism and Social Action, 1935
    • Democracy and Education [25]

Friedrich Naumann

Friedrich Naumann (Germany, 1860-1919) Friedrich Naumann Friedrich Naumann (March 25, 1860 – August 24, 1919) was a German politician and Protestant parish priest. ...


Max Weber

Max Weber (Germany, 1864-1920) was a theorist of state power and the relationship of culture to economics. Argued that there was a moral component to capitalism rooted in "Protestant" values. Weber was along with Friedrich Naumann active in the National Social Union and later in the German Democratic Party. For other persons named Max Weber, see Max Weber (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Naumann Friedrich Naumann (March 25, 1860 – August 24, 1919) was a German politician and Protestant parish priest. ... The National-Social Association (German: , NSV) was a German political party founded in 1896 by Friedrich Naumann in opposition to the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ... The German Democratic Party, or Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), was founded by leaders of the former Progressive Peoples Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei) and the left wing of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) in the early days of the Weimar Republic. ...

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1904 and 1905 that began as a series of essays. ...

Leonard Hobhouse

Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (United Kingdom, 1864-1929) Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (September 8, 1864 - June 21, 1929) was a British liberal politician, one of the theorists of modern liberalism. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Liberalism, 1911 [27]

Benedetto Croce

Benedetto Croce (Italy, 1866-1952) Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and politician. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Che cosa è il liberalismo, 1943

Walther Rathenau

Walther Rathenau (Germany, 1867-1922) Walter Rathenau Walther Rathenau (September 29, 1867–June 24, 1922) was a German industrialist and politician who served as Foreign Minister of Germany. ...


William Beveridge

William Beveridge (United Kingdom, 1879-1963) William Henry Beveridge, 1st Baron Beveridge of Tuggal (March 5, 1879 – 16 March 1963) was a British economist and social reformer. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Full Employment in a Free Society, 1944
    • Why I am a liberal, 1945

Ludwig von Mises

Ludwig von Mises (Austria/United States, 1881-1973) Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Socialism, 1922
    • Liberalism, 1927
    • Human Action, 1949

John Maynard Keynes

The economist John Maynard Keynes (United Kingdom, 1883-1946) is best known for his work on monetary theory and macroeconomics, which was an attempt to restructure private sector capitalist economies in the wake of the lessons of World War I and The Great Depression. He proposed policies which included short term intervention in the market, statistical econometrics as an important instrument of social policy, and an active use of government power. He was sharply critical of using economics for purely nationalist goals, or economic punishment as a means of attaining political ends. He opposed the introduction of the Bretton Woods system, after World War II, arguing instead for an alternative system called the International Clearing Union. Keynes was an active member of the British Liberal Party. John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White at the Bretton Woods Conference John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced cains, IPA ) (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The International Clearing Union was one of the institutions proposed to be set up at the 1944 Bretton Woods conference by British economist John Maynard Keynes. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ...

The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money is generally considered to be the masterwork of the English economist John Maynard Keynes. ...

José Ortega y Gasset

José Ortega y Gasset (Spain, 1883-1955) José Ortega y Gasset (May 9, 1883 - October 18, 1955) was a Spanish philosopher. ...

  • Some literature:
    • La rebelión de las masas (The Rebellion of the Masses), 1930

Salvador de Madariaga

Salvador de Madariaga (Spain, 1886-1978) Salvador de Madariaga y Rojo (July 23, 1886, A Coruña, Spain - December 14, 1978, Locarno, Switzerland) was a Spanish diplomat, writer, historian and pacifist. ...


Adolf Berle

Adolf Berle (United States, 1895-1971) was author of The Modern Corporation and Private Property, detailing the importance of differentiating between the management of corporations and the share holders who are the owners. Influential in the theory of New Deal policy. Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. ...

  • Some literature with Gardiner Means:
    • The Modern Corporation and Private Property

Wilhelm Röpke

Wilhelm Röpke (Germany, 1899-1966) Wilhelm Röpke Wilhelm Röpke (October 10, 1899, Schwarmstedt, a village near Hannover - February 12, 1966, Geneva) was one of the most important spiritual fathers of the German social market economy. ...

  • Some literature:
    • International Economic Disintegration, 1942
    • The Social Crisis of Our Time, 1942
    • Civitas Humana, 1944
    • International Order and Economic Integration, 1945
    • The Solution of the German Problem, 1946

Bertil Ohlin

Bertil Ohlin (Sweden, 1899-1979) Bertil Ohlin (April 23, 1899 – August 3, 1979), was a Swedish economist and winner of the 1977 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Interregional and International Trade, 1933

Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich von Hayek.
Friedrich von Hayek.

Friedrich Hayek (Austria/United Kingdom/United States/Germany, 1899-1992) In Hayek's view, the central role of the state should be to maintain the rule of law, with as little arbitrary intervention as possible. F. A. Hayek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... F. A. Hayek File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ...

The Road to Serfdom is a book written by the economist Friedrich A. Hayek and originally published by University of Chicago Press on September, 1944. ... The Constitution of Liberty is one of the most important books of the Austrian economist and founder of the Mont Pelerin Society, Friedrich A. Hayek. ... Law, Legislation and Liberty is the 1973 magnum opus in three volumes by Nobel laureate economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek. ...

Karl Popper

Karl Raimund Popper (Austria/United Kingdom, 1902-1994) developed the idea of the open society, characterized by respect for a wide variety of opinions and behaviors and a preference for audacious but piecemeal political reform over either conservative stasis or revolutionary utopianism. In his view, all overly simplistic and grand theories of history and society shared a common feature he called historicism, which he traces back to Plato, while the open society mirrors the methodological fallibilism pioneered by Popper in his earlier works on philosophy of science. Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA, (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian born naturalized British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... An open society is a concept originally developed by philosopher Henri Bergson. ... Historicism is a term which applies to a number of theories of culture or historical development which place the greatest weight on two factors: that there is an organic succession of developments, that local conditions and peculiarities influence the results in a decisive way It can be contrasted with reductionist...

The Open Society and Its Enemies is an influential two-volume work by Karl Popper written during World War II. Failing to find a publisher in the United States, it was first printed in London, in 1945. ...

Alan Paton

Alan Paton (South Africa, 1903-1988) contributed with his book Cry, The beloved country to a clear anti-apartheid stand of South African liberalism. His party, the South African Liberal Party was banned by the apartheid government. Alan Stewart Paton (11 January 1903 – 12 April 1988) was a South African author. ... The South African Liberal Party was a South African political party, founded in 1953 by the novelist Alan Paton. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Cry, The Beloved Country, 1948

John Hicks

John Hicks (United Kingdom, 1904-1989) is known for his work in macro-economics and social choice theory. His macro-economic work produced the IS-LM model of macro-economics, which would be the basis for much theory since then, including the work of Paul Krugman and Robert Mundell. In the area of social choice he argued for the necessity of placing freedom of choice in balance against social welfare to produce the best practical outcomes. For other persons named John Hicks, see John Hicks (disambiguation). ... Macroeconomics is the study of the entire economy in terms of the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, and the general behavior of prices. ... Social choice theory studies how individual preferences are aggregated to form a collective preference. ... The IS curve moves to the right, causing higher interest rates and expansion in the real economy (real GDP). ... Paul Krugman Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an economist who has written several books, and since 2000 has written a twice-weekly op-ed column for The New York Times. ... Robert Alexander Mundell CC (born October 24, 1932) is a professor of economics at Columbia University. ...


Raymond Aron

Raymond Aron (France, 1905-1983) Raymond Aron (March 14, 1905 — October 17, 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist and political scientist. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Essais sur les libertés, 1965
    • Démocratie et totalitarisme, 1965

Simone de Beauvoir

Simone de Beauvoir (France 1908-1986) argued in her book The Second Sex that women were treated as legal and social inferiors, and that this was morally untenable. She was influential in the Women's Liberation movement. La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... The Second Sex (French: Le Deuxième Sexe, 1949) is the best known work of Simone de Beauvoir and a seminal text in twentieth-century feminism. ... Feminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on and motivated by the experiences of women. ...

The Second Sex (French: Le Deuxième Sexe, 1949) is the best known work of Simone de Beauvoir and a seminal text in twentieth-century feminism. ...

John Kenneth Galbraith

John Kenneth Galbraith

John Kenneth Galbraith (Canadian-born Economist who worked in the United States, 1908-2006) Image File history File links John_kenneth_galbraith. ... Image File history File links John_kenneth_galbraith. ... John Kenneth Galbraith John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908–April 29, 2006) was an influential Canadian-American economist. ...

  • Some literature:
    • The Affluent Society, 1958
    • The Liberal Hour, 1960

Isaiah Berlin

Isaiah Berlin (Latvia/United Kingdom, 1909-1997) is most famous for his attempt to distinguish 'two conceptions of liberty'. Berlin argued that what he called 'positive' and 'negative' liberty were mutually opposing concepts. Positive conceptions assumed that liberty could only be achieved when collective power (in the form of church or state) acted to 'liberate' mankind from its worst aspects. These, Berlin felt, tended towards totalitarianism. Negative conceptions, by contrast, argued that liberty was achieved when individuals were given maximal freedom from external constraints (so long as these did not impinge on the freedom of others to achieve the same condition). Berlin was also a critic of dogmatic Enlightenment rationalism on the grounds that it was unable to accommodate value pluralism. Sir Isaiah Berlin, OM, (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997) was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Two Concepts of Liberty, 1958
    • Four Essays on Liberty, 1969
    • From Hope and Fear Set Free, 1978

Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman.

Often classified as a fiscal conservative, classical liberal, or libertarian in the context of 20th century American political thought, Friedman considered himself first and foremost a liberal and always opposed being classified as a "conservative economist." While Friedman held deep beliefs about liberty as a moral principle, his most influential contributions to liberal thought were as a Nobel Prize winning economist, and his contributions often took the form of economic analysis centered on the adverse consequences of state interference in market economies. Image File history File links MiltonFriedman. ... Image File history File links MiltonFriedman. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awards in Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physiology or Medicine and Economics. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ...


Milton Friedman (United States, 1912-2006) Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was a prominent American economist and public intellectual. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Capitalism and Freedom, 1962
    • Free to Choose, 1980
    • Tyranny of the Status quo, 1984
    • Economic Freedom, Human Freedom, Political Freedom, 1992

Free to Choose is both a book (ISBN 0156334607) and a ten-part television series. ...

Arthur Schlesinger Jr.

Arthur Schlesinger Jr. (United States, 1917- 2007) is an historian and philosopher of history, who chronicled the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and theorized on the importance of progressive moments in advancing liberalism. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Political Progressivism or simply Progressivism is an ideology and political philosophy whose adherents promote policies that they believe would reform a countrys government, economy, or society. ...

  • Some literature:

The Vital Center: The Politics of Freedom is a 1949 book, by Harvard historian Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ...

James Buchanan

James Buchanan (United States, 1919- ) is known for his economic theories of the political process, which were among the first to take seriously the concept of politicians as rational actors that respond to incentives. For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ...

  • Some literature:
    • The Calculus of Consent / James Buchanan & Gordon Tullock, 1962
    • The Limits of Liberty, 1975
    • Democracy in Deficit / James Buchanan & Richard E. Wagner, 1977
    • The Power to Tax / James Buchanan & Geoffrey Brennan, 1980
    • The Reason of Rules / James Buchanan & Geoffrey Brennan, 1985

John Rawls

John Rawls.

John Rawls (United States, 1921-2002) is widely considered one of the most important English-language political philosophers of the 20th century. There is general agreement that the publication of his landmark work, A Theory of Justice, led to a revival in the academic study of political philosophy. The importance of this book in contemporary liberal thought and social contract theory is perhaps best described by an early libertarian rival and critic, Robert Nozick, who called it a "work in political and moral philosophy that has not seen its equal since the writings of John Stewart Mill, if then....Political philosophers must now work within Rawls' theory or explain why not." (Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, p. 183) Some of Rawls's contributions include the ideas of Justice as Fairness, the original position, reflective equilibrium, overlapping consensus, public reason, and the veil of ignorance. Rawls has the distinction among contemporary political philosophers of being frequently cited by the courts of law in the United States and referred to by practicing politicians in the United Kingdom. Image File history File links JohnRawls. ... Image File history File links JohnRawls. ... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... The term social contract describes a broad class of philosophical theories whose subject is the implied agreements by which people form nations and maintain social order. ... Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 - May 8, 1873), aka JS Mill, an English philosopher and political economist, was the most influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Justice as Fairness is the phrase used by the philosopher John Rawls to refer to his distinctive theory of justice. ... The original position is a hypothetical situation created by American philosopher John Rawls as a thought experiment to replace the imagery of a savage state of nature of prior political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes. ... Reflective equilibrium is a state of balance or coherence among a set of beliefs arrived at by a process of deliberative mutual adjustment among general principles and particular judgments. ... Overlapping consensus is a term coined by John Rawls in Political Liberalism. ... Public reason is the phrase used by American philosopher John Rawls to refer to the common reason of all citizens in a pluralist society. ... The veil of ignorance is a concept introduced by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice. ...

A Theory of Justice is a book of political and moral philosophy by John Rawls. ... Political Liberalism is an update to John Rawls 1971 Theory of Justice in which Rawls attempts to show that his theory of justice is not a comprehensive conception of the good, but is instead compatible with a liberal conception of the role of justice: namely, that government should be neutral... The Law of Peoples is American Philosopher John Rawlss work on international relations. ...

Murray Newton Rothbard

Murray Rothbard (United States, 1926-1995) was polemist of anarcho-capitalist politics and an economist of the Austrian school. He is considered by many one of the foremost advocators of liberty and freedom in the late 20th Century. His polemics brought him into various political movements movements throughout his life, notably with Ayn Rand and, later, the Libertarian Party of United States. His influence is still lasting in the libertarian and anarcho-capitalist movements. Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was a highly influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Anarcho-capitalism is a view that regards all forms of the state as unnecessary and harmful, particularly in matters of justice and self-defense, while being highly supportive of private property. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher,[1] best known for developing Objectivism and for writing the novels We the Living, The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged and the novella Anthem. ... The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded in 1971. ...


Ralf Dahrendorf

Ralf Dahrendorf (Germany/United Kingdom, 1929- ) Ralf Dahrendorf Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf, Baron Dahrendorf, KBE, (born May 1, 1929) is a German-British sociologist, philosopher, political scientist and politician. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Die Chancen der Krise: über die Zukunft des Liberalismus, 1983
    • Fragmente eines neuen Liberalismus, 1987

Karl-Hermann Flach

The journalist Karl-Hermann Flach (Germany, 1929-1973) was in his book Noch eine Chance für die Liberalen one of the main theorist of the new social liberal principles of the Free Democratic Party (Germany). He places liberalism clearly as the opposite of conservatism and opened the road for a government coalition with the social democrats. Karl-Hermann Flach (Königsberg, 1929, Frankfurt, 1973) was a well known German journalist of the Frankfurter Rundschau. ... The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei - FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ...


Joseph Raz

Joseph Raz (United Kingdom) Joseph Raz is a legal, moral and political philosopher. ...

  • Some literature:
    • The Morality of Freedom

Ronald Dworkin

Ronald Dworkin (United States, 1931- ) Ronald Dworkin (born 1931) is an American legal philosopher, and currently professor of Jurisprudence at University College London and the New York University School of Law. ...


Richard Rorty

Richard Rorty (United States, 1931- ) is one of the leading contemporary philosophers of liberalism. His fundamental claims, among others, are that liberalism is best defined as the attempt to avoid cruelty to others; that liberals need to accept the historical 'irony' that there is no metaphysical justification for their belief that not being cruel is a virtue; that literature plays a crucial role in developing the empathy necessary to promote solidarity (and therefore lack of cruelty) between humans; and that private philosophising and public political discourse are separate practices and should remain so. Richard McKay Rorty (born October 4, 1931 in New York City) is an American philosopher. ...


Amartya Sen

Amartya Sen

Amartya Sen (India, 1933- ) is an economist whose early work was based on Kenneth Arrow's General Possibility Theorem, and on the impossibility of both complete pareto optimality and solely procedural based rights. Won Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences for his work on famine, welfare economics and social choice theory. Advocate of rationality as the fundamental safe guard of freedom and justice. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Amartya Sen Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933 in Santiniketan, India), is an Indian philosopher, economist and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare... Kenneth Arrow Kenneth Joseph Arrow (born August 23, 1921) is an American economist, winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in 1972. ... Pareto efficiency, or Pareto optimality, is a central concept in game theory with broad applications in economics, engineering and the social sciences. ... The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (in Swedish Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine the allocational efficiency of a macroeconomy and the income distribution associated with it. ... Social choice theory studies how individual preferences are aggregated to form a collective preference. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Development as Freedom
    • The Argumentative Indian

Robert Nozick

Robert Nozick (United States, 1938-2002) was a libertarian (or minarchist). He advocated an unapologetically reductionist political philosophy characterized by meticulous analysis of the moral aspects of each social interaction, and did not shy away from addressing hard philosophical issues such as the original appropriation of property. Nozick is best known for providing the justification of a minimal state by showing that it can established without any unjust steps. Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... In civics, Minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism, is the view that government should be as small as possible. ...

Anarchy, State, and Utopia is a work of political philosophy written by Robert Nozick in 1974. ...

Hernando de Soto

The economist Hernando de Soto (Peru, 1941- ) is an advocate of transparency and private property rights, arguing that intransparent government leads to property not being given proper title, and therefore being "dead capital" which cannot be used as the basis of credit. Argues that laws which allocate property to those most able to use them for economic growth, so called "squatter's rights", are an important innovation. Hernando de Soto (born 1941 in Arequipa) is a Peruvian economist known for his work on the informal economy. ...

  • Some literature:
    • The Other Path, 1986
    • The Mystery of Capital, 2000

Bruce Ackerman

Bruce Ackerman (United States) Bruce Ackerman is a famous constitutional law scholar in the United States. ...

  • Some literature:
    • We, The People

Joseph Stiglitz

The economist Joseph Stiglitz was awarded a Nobel Prize for his work on market failures caused by imperfect information. While this work is rather dry to a non-economist it demonstrates how states can give great benefits to their populations with a light hand and avoid socialist policies like nationalisation. He is best known politically for his work first as an adviser to international institutions like the World Trade Organisation, and then as a commentator supportive of their principles but critical of their practices. (United States, 1943- ) Joseph Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist, author and winner of Nobel Prize for economics ( 2001). ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awards in Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physiology or Medicine and Economics. ... Perfect information is a term used in economics and game theory to describe a state of complete knowledge about the actions of other players that is instantaneously updated as new information arises. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ...

  • Some literature
    • Globalization and its Discontents
    • Making Globalization Work

Martha Nussbaum

Martha Nussbaum (United States, 1947-present) elaborates the Rawlsian Theory of Justice. For her, Rawls's Liberty Principle is only meaningful if viewed in terms of substantial freedoms, i.e. real opportunities based on personal and social circumstance. Likewise, inequality in the Difference Principle has to be clarified in terms of capabilities. Martha Nussbaum Martha Nussbaum (born Martha Craven on May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher, with a particular interest in ancient philosophy, political philosophy and ethics. ... A Theory of Justice is a book of political and moral philosophy by John Rawls. ... The feasible regions of linear programming are defined by a set of inequalities. ...


Dirk Verhofstadt

In his book Het menselijk liberalisme (The human liberalism) Dirk Verhofstadt (Belgium, 1955- ) outlines a social liberal response to anti-globalism. Dirk Verhofstadt is brother of Belgian prime minister Guy Verhofstadt, member of the Flemish Liberals and Democrats and of Liberales, an independent think tank within the liberal movement. Its members consider liberalism as a progressive movement supporting individual freedom, justice and human rights. Liberales reacts against narrow minded conservatism related to social economic, ecological and ethical issues supported by compartmentalized parties and structures. Dirk Verhofstadt (born 1955) is a Belgian liberal (Rawlsian) theorist and brother of the Belgian prime minister Guy Verhofstadt. ... Guy Verhofstadt (help· info) (born April 11, 1953) is a Belgian politician, municipal councillor in Ghent and current Prime Minister of Belgium. ... The Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten or VLD (Flemish Liberals and Democrats) is a Flemish liberal party, created in 1992 from the former PVV and a few other politicians from other parties. ... Liberales is a Belgian liberal thinktank advocating progressive leftist viewpoints. ...

  • Some literature:
    • Het einde van het BRT-monopolie, 1982 (The end of the BRT-monopoly).
    • Het menselijk liberalisme. Een antwoord op het antiglobalisme, 2002 (The human liberalism. An answer to anti-globalism).
    • Pleidooi voor individualisme, 2004 (Plea for individualism).
    • De derde feministische golf, 2006 (The third feminist wave).

Will Kymlicka

Will Kymlicka (Canada, 1962- ) tries in his philosophy to determine if forms of ethnic or minority nationalism are compatible with liberal-democratic principles of individual freedom, social equality and political democracy. In his book Multicultural Citizenship. A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights he argues that certain "collective rights" of minority cultures can be consistent with these liberal-democratic principles. Will Kymlicka is a Canadian political philosopher. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ...


See Also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Liberal Union Information (714 words)
Liberals were divided between progressive, centrist and conservative liberals, but because of the lack of organized political parties, these divisions were not very strong.
In 1888 the liberals are forced in opposition by a majority of the confessional political parties.
After the 1897 elections the liberals regain their majority and a cabinet led Pierson enacts a series of social laws, including the Learning Obligation law, which forces all children to go to school between the ages of six and twelve in order to combat child labour.
National Liberal Party (UK) at AllExperts (1438 words)
The National Liberals evolved as a distinctive group within the Liberal Party in 1931 when the main body of Liberals were maintaining in office the second Labour government of Ramsay MacDonald, who lacked a majority in Parliament.
Liberal Associations who supported National Liberal candidates remained affiliated to the National Liberal Federation until that body was dissolved in 1936, whilst one Liberal National Cabinet Minister, Walter Runciman, remained President of the National Liberal Federation even after the two groups were on opposite sides of the Commons.
At Westminster the independent Liberals were in a shattered state, with the tiny Parliamentary Party representing all shades of opinion and it was doubtful that the new leader, Clement Davies (himself a former Liberal National who had defected back to the independent Liberals) could carry all of his colleagues into a united party.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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