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Encyclopedia > Contras

The Contras is a generic term for various armed groups opposing of Nicaragua's FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional) Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle, and continuing through the eighties. Look up contra in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Sandinista” redirects here. ... The Junta of National Reconstruction ruled Nicaragua between 1979 and 1984. ... Anastasio (Tachito) Somoza Debayle (December 5, 1925 – September 17, 1980) was officially the forty-fourth and forty-fifth President of Nicaragua from May 1, 1967 to May 1, 1972 and from December 1, 1974 to July 17, 1979. ...


The term Contra is short for the Spanish term contrarevolucionario, in English "counter-revolutionaries", and was used in distinction to their opponents nickname, the Compas, short for compañeros ("comrades"). A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or of a poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ...


The Contras were initially organised, with US and Argentine support, by supporters of the overthrown Somoza regime who had served in his notorious National Guard. Over time the Contras came to include a number of other groups, each one essentially independent. Different groups of Contras had different aims and little ideological unity. United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... Anastasio (Tachito) Somoza Debayle (December 5, 1925 – September 17, 1980) was officially the forty-fourth and forty-fifth President of Nicaragua from May 1, 1967 to May 1, 1972 and from December 1, 1974 to July 17, 1979. ... In Nicaragua, the National Guard (Spanish: , otherwise known as ) was a militia created during the occupation of that country by the United States. ...


In the first years of their activity, led by former members of the National Guard, the Contras were involved in widespread murder, torture and brutality. By the end of the eighties moderate elements in the Contras had succeeded in marginalising or removing many of the brutal and corrupt elements inherited from Somoza's National Guard.


At certain times during their existence the Contras received considerable US financial and technical support, at other times the US Congress wished to distance itself and withdrew all support. United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...


Some references use the uncapitalized form, "contra", which means "against" or "counter" in Spanish.

Contents

History

The Contras initially received financial and military support from the Argentine government and the US through the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The Contras would later receive aid through clandestine initiatives by figures in the administration of President Ronald Reagan. They received some support from Nicaraguans opposed to the Sandinistas' collectivisation of their land and the alleged imprisonment and torture of dissidents. Image File history File links Information. ... The Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... A dissident is a person who actively opposes the established order. ...


Early opposition to the Sandinistas comprised many disparate strands. Though the escaped remnants of Somoza's Guardia Nacional (Nicaragua) disintegrated as a unified force, many members formed groups such as the Anti-Sandinista Guerrilla Special Forces, the 15th of September Legion, and the National Army of Liberation. The core leadership was initially dominated by former Guardia NCOs. The Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, otherwise known as Guardia or in English Nicaraguan National Guard, was a militia created during the occupation of that country by the United States. ... The Fifteenth of September Legion () was founded by former junior officers of the defeated Nicaraguan National Guard to overthrow the Sandinista National Liberation Front government. ...


Meanwhile, some of the Nicaraguan middle class, whose discontent with Somoza had led them to back the Sandinistas, had soon become disillusioned by Sandinista rule. Businessman José Francisco Cardenal went into exile and founded the Nicaraguan Democratic Union (UDN), with the Nicaraguan Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARN) as its armed wing. José Francisco Cardenal (b. ... The Nicaraguan Democratic Union (UDN, ) was founded in late 1980 by José Francisco Cardenal, an early leader of the anti-Sandinista rebel movement that became known as the Nicaraguan Contras. ...


The earliest Contras inside Nicaragua were MILPAS, peasant militias led by disillusioned Sandinistas. These militias were the majority of the first Contra groups formed in 1980-1981 in Honduras, Nicaragua's northern neighbour, allying in August 1981 as the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (Fuerza Democrática Nicaragüense, FDN) under the command of former National Guard (army) colonel Enrique Bermúdez and Jaime Irving Steidel, a Honduran-born Field Commander, later replaced by Oscar Sobalvarro. A joint political directorate was created in February 1983 under businessman and anti-Sandinista politician Adolfo Calero. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an organization of citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... The Nicaraguan Democratic Force (Fuerza Democratica Nicaraguense, or FDN) was one of the earliest Contra groups formed in 1980 in Honduras. ... The Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, otherwise known as Guardia or in English Nicaraguan National Guard, was a militia created during the occupation of that country by the United States. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


The creation of the Democratic Revolutionary Alliance (ARDE) and its armed wing, the Sandino Revolutionary Front (FRS), in April 1982 saw a second front open in the war. The group was founded in neighboring Costa Rica by Edén Pastora (Comandante Cero), a former Sandinista and participant in the August 1978 seizure of Somoza's palace. ARDE consisted largely of Sandinista dissidents and veterans of the anti-Somoza campaign who opposed the increased influence of Soviet Union, Eastern block and Cuban officials in the Managua junta. Proclaiming his ideological distance from the FDN, Pastora nevertheless styled his force the "southern front" in a common campaign. A.R.D.E or Alianza Revolucionaria Democrática were the Southern Front guerrillas dedicated to bringing democracy, and independence to Nicaragua after the hijacking of the original Sandinista revolution by communist elements in 1979. ... Edén Pastora Gómez (born January 22, 1937?) was the leader of the ADREN; the largest contra army in southern Nicaragua in the 1980s. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Coordinates: Country Nicaragua Department Managua Municipality Managua Founded 1819 Seat of the Government 1852 Capital of the Nation 1857  - Mayor Dionisio Marenco Area    - City 544 km²  - Urban 173. ...


A third force, Misurasata, appeared among the Miskito, Sumo and Rama Amerindian peoples of Nicaragua's Atlantic coast, who in December 1981 found themselves in conflict with the authorities following the government's efforts to nationalise Indian land. They had a number of grievances against the Sandinistas, including: For the insect, see mosquito The Miskito are a Native American people in Central America. ... The Sumo (also known as Sumu) are a people that live on the eastern coasts of Nicaragua and Honduras, an area commonly known as the Mosquito Coast. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ...

  • Unilateral natural resource exploitation policies which denied Indians access to much of their traditional land base and severely restricted their subsistence activities.
  • Forced removal of at least 10,000 Indians from their traditional lands to relocation centers in the interior of the country, and subsequent burning of some villages. [1]
  • Economic embargoes and blockades against native villages not sympathetic to the government.

In 1983 the Misurasata movement, led by Brooklyn Rivera, split, with the breakaway Misura group of Stedman Fagoth allying itself more closely with the FDN. A subsequent autonomy statute in September 1987 largely defused Miskito resistance.


US officials were active in attempting to unite the Contra groups. In June 1985, they reorganized as the United Nicaraguan Opposition (UNO), under the leadership of Calero, Arturo Cruz and Alfonso Robelo, all former members of the original Sandinista cadre; after its dissolution early in 1987, the Nicaraguan Resistance (RN) was organized along similar lines in May. Splits within the rebel movement emerged with Pastora's defection in May 1984 and Misurasata's April 1985 accommodation with the Sandinista government. The United Nicaraguan Opposition or UNO, was a coalition party that ran in the 1990 elections in Nicaragua. ... Arturo José Cruz Porras, a Nicaraguan banker and technocrat, became involved in politics during the Sandinista (FSLN) era. ... Alfonso Robelo Callejas (born 11 October 1939), a Nicaraguan businessman, was a member of Los Doce and founder of the Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN). ... The Nicaraguan Resistance (, RN) was the last and arguably most successful effort to unify Nicaraguas rebel Contras into a single umbrella organization. ...


Mediation by other Central American governments under Costa Rican leadership led to the Sapoa ceasefire agreement of March 23, 1988, which, along with additional agreements in February and August of 1989, provided for the Contras' disarmament and reintegration into Nicaraguan society and politics. The agreements also called for internationally-monitored elections which were subsequently held on February 25, 1990. Violeta Chamorro, a former Sandinista ally and widow of murdered anti-Somoza journalist Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, defeated Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega and became President with the backing of the center-right UNO. Some Contra elements and disgruntled Sandinistas would return briefly to armed opposition in the 1990s, sometimes styled as recontras or revueltos, but these groups were subsequently persuaded to disarm. For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicaragua is a constitutional democracy with executive, legislative, judicial, and electoral branches of government. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (born October 18, 1929) is a Nicaraguan political leader and publisher. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born 11 November 1945) is the current President of Nicaragua. ... This article is about the President of Nicaragua, for the 2006 presidential election results see: Nicaraguan general election, 2006 History of Nicaragua Presidentes de Nicaragua Categories: | ... The term center-right has two distinct meanings in politics: Center-right can be used to describe a moderately right-wing political party. ...


Human rights abuses

The Nicaragua conflict claimed an estimated 30,000 lives. The Sandinista government, its supporters, and outside groups such as Amnesty International, Americas Watch and Witness for Peace frequently accused the Contras of indiscriminate attacks on civilians. The Contras and their backers, especially in the Reagan Administration, dismissed these accusations as a propaganda campaign and accused the Sandinistas of the same crimes against humanity. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The Sandinista government alleged in their November 1984 report that since 1981 the Contras had assassinated 910 state officials; attacked nearly 100 civilian communities; caused the displacement of over 150,000 people from their homes and farms; damaged or destroyed bridges, port facilities, granaries, water and oil deposits, electrical power stations, telephone lines, saw mills, health centres, schools and dams.


A Sandinista militiaman interviewed by The Guardian stated that Contra rebels committed these atrocities against Sandinista prisoners after a battle at a Sandinista rural oupost: The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

Rosa had her breasts cut off. Then they cut into her chest and took out her heart. The men had their arms broken, their testicles cut off and their eyes poked out. They were killed by slitting their throats and pulling the tongue out through the slit.[2]

A similar report by the Contra newsletter Resistencia recounted that a small boy witnessed his mother being raped and tortured and saw her breasts cut off. The boy had since joined the Contras to fight the Sandinistas.


Human Rights groups routinely catalogued yearly allegations of war crimes. The Catholic Institute for International Relations summarized contra operating procedures in their 1987 human rights report: "The record of the contras in the field, as opposed to their official professions of democratic faith, is one of consistent and bloody abuse of human rights, of murder, torture, mutilation, rape, arson, destruction and kidnapping."[3]


In 1984 a CIA manual for training the Contras in psychological operations was leaked to the media, entitled "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla War".[4][5] On October 15 1984, six days before the second presidential debate between President Ronald Reagan and Walter Mondale, the Associated Press reported that the CIA had written a manual for the contras, entitled Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare (). The ninety-page book of instructions focused mainly on how Armed Propaganda...


The manual recommended “selective use of violence for propagandistic effects” and to “neutralize” government officials.


An influential report on alleged Contra atrocities was issued by lawyer Reed Brody shortly before the 1985 US Congressional vote on Contra aid. The report was soon published as a book, Contra Terror in Nicaragua (Brody, 1985). It charged that the Contras attacked purely civilian targets and that their tactics included murder, rape, beatings, kidnapping and disruption of harvests. Brody's report had been requested by the Sandinista government's Washington law firm Reichler & Applebaum and the Sandinista government had provided his facilities in Nicaragua.[6] In a letter to the New York Times,[7] Brody asserted that this in no way affected his report, and added that the newspaper had confirmed the veracity of four randomly chosen incidents. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Americas Watch - which was subsequently folded into Human Rights Watch - stated that "the Contras systematically engage in violent abuses... so prevalent that these may be said to be their principal means of waging war." [1] It accused the Contras of Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...

  • targeting health care clinics and health care workers for assassination.
  • kidnapping civilians.
  • torturing civilians.
  • executing civilians, including children, who were captured in combat.
  • raping women.
  • indiscriminantly attacking civilians and civilian houses.
  • seizing civilian property.
  • setting alight civilian houses in captured towns.[8]

American news media published several articles accusing Americas Watch and other bodies of ideological bias and unreliable reporting. They alleged that Americas Watch not only gave too much credence to alleged Contra abuses but also systematically tried to discredit Nicaraguan human rights groups such as the Permanent Commission on Human Rights, which blamed the major human rights abuses on the Sandinistas.[9]


In 1985, the Wall Street Journal reported: The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ...

Three weeks ago, Americas Watch issued a report on human rights abuses in Nicaragua. One member of the Permanent Commission on Human Rights commented on the Americas Watch report and its chief investigator Juan Mendez: "The Sandinistas are laying the groundwork for a totalitarian society here and yet all Mendez wanted to hear about were abuses by the contras. How can we get people in the U.S. to see what's happening here when so many of the groups who come down are pro-Sandinista?"[10]

Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Juan E. Méndez (born 11 December 1944) is an Argentine lawyer and academic who serves as the United Nations Secretary-Generals Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide. ...

U.S. military and financial assistance

See also the Iran-Contra affair

A key role in the development of the Contra alliance was played by the United States following Ronald Reagan's assumption of the presidency in January 1981. Reagan accused the Sandinistas of importing Cuban-style socialism and aiding leftist guerrillas in El Salvador. On November 23 of that year, Reagan signed the top secret National Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17), giving the CIA the authority to recruit and support the Contras with $19 million in military aid. The effort to support the Contras was one component of the Reagan Doctrine, which called for providing military support to movements opposing Soviet-supported, communist governments. The CIA distributed to the civilians The Freedom Fighter's Manual, meant to teach them simple sabotage methods (not going to work, damaging light bulbs, putting nails on roads, etc.) and more dangerous ones (how to make a molotov cocktail). The Iran-Contra Affair (also Irangate), was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and movements which aim to improve society through collective and egalitarian action; and to a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Shafik Handal Revolution or Death, We will win! El Salvador in struggle. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Reagan Doctrine was an important Cold War strategy by the United States to oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Published by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the 1980s, the Freedom Fighters Manual was a fifteen-page booklet airdropped over Nicaragua. ... “Saboteur” redirects here. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


In 1984, Nicaragua filed a suit in the International Court of Justice (ICJ) against the United States (Nicaragua vs. United States), which resulted in a 1986 judgment against the US, calling on it to "cease and to refrain" from the "unlawful use of force" against Nicaragua, through such actions as the placement of underwater mines by CIA operatives and training, funding and support for the guerrilla forces. It concluded that the US was "in breach of its obligations under customary international law not to use force against another State", "not to intervene in its affairs", "not to violate its sovereignty", "not to interrupt peaceful maritime commerce", and "in breach of its obligations under Article XIX of the Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between the Parties signed at Managua on 21 January 1956." However, regarding human rights violations by the contras, the court stated that the US can only be held accountable for acts the Contras have committed in connection with the US, and therefore the "Court does not have to determine whether the violations of humanitarian law attributed to the contras were in fact committed by them." The Court did find that the United States "has encouraged the commission by them of acts contrary to general principles of humanitarian law; but does not find a basis for concluding that any such acts which may have been committed are imputable to the United States of America as acts of the United States of America" The United States was ordered to pay reparations. [11] The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Republic of Nicaragua vs. ...


The US, which did not participate in the merits phase of the proceedings, maintained that the ICJ's power did not supersede the Constitution of the United States and argued that the court did not seriously consider the Nicaraguan role in El Salvador, whose intervention the court would not accept. The latter argument was affirmed by the primary dissenting justices, notably US Judge Schwebel who claimed that "Nicaragua does not come before the Court with clean hands." [2] Nicaragua then took its case to the UN Security Council, where a resolution supporting the ruling of the ICJ was vetoed by the United States. Nicaragua then went to the General Assembly, which passed a resolution supporting the ruling of the ICJ 94-3. Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


Direct military aid was interrupted by the Boland Amendment, passed by the United States Congress in December 1982, and subsequently extended in October 1984 to forbid action by not only the Defense Department and the Central Intelligence Agency but all US government agencies. Administration officials sought to arrange funding and military supplies by means of third-parties, culminating in the Iran-Contra Affair of 1986-1987, which concerned contra funding through the proceeds of arms sales to Iran. On February 3, 1988 the United States House of Representatives rejected President Reagan's request for $36.25 million to aid the Contras. According to the National Security Archive, Oliver North, an important official in the Iran-Contra affair, had been in contact with Manuel Noriega, the military leader of Panama later convicted on drug charges, whom he personally met. The Boland Amendment was the name given to three U.S. legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984, all aimed at limiting US government assistance to the rebel Contras in Nicaragua. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... The Iran-Contra Affair (also Irangate), was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit research and archival institution located within The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 by Thomas Blanton, it archives and publishes declassified U.S. government files concerning selected topics of American foreign policy. ... Oliver Laurence North (born October 7, 1943) is most well known for his involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair. ... Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (born February 11, 1934 or 1938) was a Panamanian general and the de facto military dictator of Panama from 1983 to 1989, despite never being the official President of Panama. ...


In 1987 American public opinion was divided by the killing of American engineer Ben Linder by the Contras. Benjamin Ernest Linder (July 7, 1959 — April 28, 1987), born in California, was a young American engineer who was killed in an ambush by a group of CIA-funded Contras while working on a small hydroelectric dam that was to bring electricity and running water to a village in the...


The issue of drug money and its importance in funding the Nicaraguan conflict was the subject of various reports and publications. The contras were funded by drug trafficking, of which the USA was aware.[12]. Senator John Kerry's 1988 Committee on Foreign Relations report on Contra drug links concluded that "senior U.S. policy makers were not immune to the idea that drug money was a perfect solution to the Contras' funding problems." [3] On the other hand, the 1989 book, Kings of Cocaine, alleges Sandinista involvement in cocaine smuggling. Barry Seal, a Medellin cartel pilot took photos which allegedly showed a high ranking Sandinista official unloading cocaine shipments at a Sandinista military airport. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... Adler Berriman Seal, or Barry Seal was a pilot, allegedly with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and later drug smuggler turned Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informant. ...


The Reagan administration's support for the Contras continued to stir controversy well into the 1990s. In August 1996, San Jose Mercury News reporter Gary Webb published a series titled Dark Alliance, alleging that the origins of crack cocaine in California was the responsibility of the Contras. [4] [5] Webb's controversial and highly damaging revelations were disputed at the time, but later revelations confirmed some of his findings. Freedom of Information Act inquiries by the National Security Archive and other investigators unearthed a number of documents showing that White House officials, including Oliver North, knew about and supported using money raised via drug trafficking to fund the Contras. The Mercs sections vary by day of the week, but Business, Sports, and The Valley are standard daily fare. ... Gary Webb Gary Webb (August 31, 1955 – December 10, 2004) was a controversial American investigative journalist, best known for his 1996 Dark Alliance investigative report series, written for the San Jose Mercury News. ... A pile of crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is a form of cocaine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with freedom of information legislation. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events...


See also

The Iran-Contra Affair (also Irangate), was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ... “Sandinista” redirects here. ... The women in revolutionary Nicaragua played a significant and uncharacteristic role in the revolution as guerillas in the armed forces, subsequently challenging their traditional roles as mother and caregiver. ... Ken Loach Kenneth Loach (born June 17, 1936), known as Ken Loach, is an English television and film director, known for his naturalistic style and socialist themes. ... Carlas Song (1996) is a British movie directed by Ken Loach with screenplay by Paul Laverty. ...

References

  • Belli, Humberto. (1985). Breaking Faith: The Sandinista Revolution and Its Impact on Freedom and Christian Faith in Nicaragua. Crossway Books/The Puebla Institute.
  • Bermudez, Enrique, "The Contras' Valley Forge: How I View the Nicaraguan Crisis", Policy Review magazine, The Heritage Foundation, Summer 1988.
  • Brody, Reed. (1985). Contra Terror in Nicaragua: Report of a Fact-Finding Mission: September 1984-January 1985. Boston: South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-313-6.
  • Brown, Timothy. (2001). The Real Contra War: Highlander Peasant Resistance in Nicaragua. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3252-3.
  • Chamorro, Edgar. (1987). Packaging the Contras: A Case of CIA Disinformation. New York: Institute for Media Analysis. ISBN 0-941781-08-9; ISBN 0-941781-07-0.
  • Christian, Shirley. (1986) Nicaragua, Revolution In the Family. New York: Vintage Books.
  • Cox, Jack. (1987) Requiem in the Tropics: Inside Central America. UCA Books.
  • Cruz S., Arturo J. (1989). Memoirs of a Counterrevolutionary. (1989). New York: Doubleday.
  • Dickey, Christopher. (1985, 1987). With the Contras: A Reporter in the Wilds of Nicaragua. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  • Garvin, Glenn. (1992). Everybody Had His Own Gringo: The CIA and the Contras. Washington: Brassey's.
  • Gugliota Guy. (1989). Kings of Cocaine Inside the Medellin Cartel. Simon and Shuster.
  • Horton, Lynn. Peasants in Arms: War and Peace in the Mountains of Nicaragua, 1979-1994. (1998). Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies.
  • Kirkpatrick, Jeane J.. (1982) Dictatorships and Double Standards. Touchstone. ISBN 0-671-43836-0
  • Miranda, Roger, and William Ratliff. (1993, 1994) "The Civil War in Nicaragua: Inside the Sandinistas." New Brunswick, NY: Transaction Publishers.
  • Moore, John Norton (1987). The Secret War in Central America: Sandinista Assault on World Order. University Publications of America.
  • Pardo-Maurer, Rogelio. (1990) The Contras, 1980-1989: A Special Kind of Politics. New York: Praeger.
  • Persons, David E. (1987) A Study of the History and Origins of the Nicaraguan Contras. Nacogdoches, Texas: Total Vision Press. Stephen Austin University Special Collections.
  • Webb, Gary (1998). Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion, Seven Stories Press. ISBN 1-888363-68-1 (hardcover, 1998), ISBN 1-888363-93-2 (paperback, 1999).

Enrique Bermudez was commander of the Contras. ... Policy Review is one of Americas leading conservative journals. ... The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... Look up contra in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Edgar Chamorro was a special ambassador to the U.N. General Assembly for Nicaragua during the Contra. ... Jeane Kirkpatrick Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick (November 19, 1926 â€“ December 7, 2006) was an American ambassador and an ardent anticommunist. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Americas Watch Committee. "Human Rights in Nicaragua 1986" (print), Americas Watch, February 1987.
  2. ^ Jonathan Steele and Tony Jenkins. "The Slaugter at the Cooperatives" (print), The Guardian, 1984-11-15. 
  3. ^ The Catholic Institute for International Relations. "Right to Survive: Human Rights in Nicaragua" (print), The Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1987. 
  4. ^ Declassified Army and CIA Manuals. Latin American Working Group. Retrieved on 2006-07-30.
  5. ^ Blum, William (2003). Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions since World War II. Noida, India: Zed Books, 290. ISBN 1-84277-369-0. 
  6. ^ The New Republic, January 20, 1986, with letters in The New Republic, February 17, 1986.
  7. ^ 'Contra' Terrorism Is, Unfortunately, True. Retrieved on 2006-10-13.
  8. ^ The Americas Watch Committee. "Human Rights in Nicaragua 1986" (print), Americas Watch, February 1987. 
  9. ^ The New Republic, January 20, 1986; The New Republic, August 22, 1988; The National Interest, Spring 1990.
  10. ^ David Asman, "Despair and fear in Managua," Wall Street Journal, March 25, 1985.
  11. ^ International Court of Justice Year 1986, 27 June 1986, General list No. 70, paragraphs 251, 252, 157, 158, 233.. International Court of Justice. Retrieved on 2006-07-30. Large PDF file from the ICJ website
  12. ^ National Security Archive (1990?). The Contras, cocaine, and covert operations: Documentation of official U.S. knowledge of drug trafficking and the Contras. The National Security Archive / George Washington University.

The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Blum (born 1933) is an American author, and critic of United States foreign policy. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... The National Interest is a prominent quarterly international affairs journal, founded in 1985 by Irving Kristol and currently published by the Nixon Center. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit research and archival institution located within The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 by Thomas Blanton, it archives and publishes declassified U.S. government files concerning selected topics of American foreign policy. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit research and archival institution located within The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 by Thomas Blanton, it archives and publishes declassified U.S. government files concerning selected topics of American foreign policy. ... The George Washington University (GW), is a private, coeducational university located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The school was founded in 1821 as The Columbian College in the District of Columbia by Baptist ministers using funds bequeathed by George Washington. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Contras - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1356 words)
The Contras (from the Spanish term La Contra, short for movement of the contrarrevolucionarios, meaning counter-revolutionaries) were the armed opponents of Nicaragua's Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle and the ending of the Somoza family's 43-year rule.
U.S. officials were also active in drawing the various Contra groups together in June 1985 as the United Nicaraguan Opposition under the leadership of Calero, Arturo Cruz and Alfonso Robelo, all former members of the original Sandinista cadre: after its dissolution early in 1987, the Nicaraguan Resistance (RN) was organised along similar lines (May 1987).
The effort to support the Contras was one component of the so-called Reagan Doctrine, championed by American conservatives, which called for providing U.S. military support to movements opposing Soviet-supported, communist-led governments.
Contras - definition of Contras in Encyclopedia (1017 words)
The Contras (Spanish contrarevolucionario, "counter-revolutionary") were the armed opponents of Nicaragua's Sandinista government following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle and the ending of the Somoza family's 43-year rule.
The Contras were considered terrorists by the Sandinistas and many Nicaraguans, and many of their attacks targeted civilians.
The earliest Contra groups formed in 1980-1981 in Honduras, Nicaragua's northern neighbour, allying in August 1981 as the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (Fuerza Democrática Nicaragüense, FDN) under the command of former National Guard (army) colonel Enrique Bermúdez.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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