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Encyclopedia > Contract bridge
Bridge (card game)

Bridge declarer play
Alternate names Contract Bridge
Type trick-taking
Players 4
Deck 52-card
Cards Anglo-American
Play Clockwise
Card rank
(highest to lowest)
A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Related games Whist, Auction bridge
Playing time WBF tournament games = 7.5 minutes per deal
Random chance Low - high depending on variant played
Skills required Memory, Tactics, Communication

Contract bridge, usually known simply as bridge, is a trick-taking card game of skill and chance (the relative proportions depend on the variant played). It is played by four players who form two partnerships (sides); the partners sit opposite each other at a table. The game consists of the auction (often called bidding) and play, after which the hand is scored. // For the game on The Price Is Right, please see Card Game (pricing game). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x968, 178 KB) Summary The photographer, Mr Alan Blackburn, has passed this photograph to me for uploading to Wikipedia. ... Trick-taking games are card games with a distinct and common play structure: Each round of play is divided into units called tricks, during which each player selects one card from his or her hand. ... Some typical Anglo-American playing cards from the Bicycle brand Set of 52 playing cards A playing card is a typically hand-sized piece of heavy paper or thin plastic. ... Whist (a trick-taking game) is a classic card game which was played widely in the 18th and 19th centuries and was a development of an older game Ruff and Honours. ... The card game auction bridge is a predecessor to contract bridge. ... World Bridge Federation (WBF) is the governing body of world contract bridge. ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... A tactic is a method employed to help achieve a certain goal. ... Trick-taking games are card games with a distinct and common play structure: Each round of play is divided into units called tricks, during which each player selects one card from his or her hand. ... // For the game on The Price Is Right, please see Card Game (pricing game). ... A game of skill is a game where the outcome is determined mainly by mental and/or physical skill, rather than by pure chance. ... A game of chance is a game whose outcome is strongly influenced by some randomizing device, and upon which contestants frequently wager money. ...


The bidding ends with a contract, which is a declaration by one partnership that their side shall take at least a stated number of tricks, with specified suit as trump or without trumps. The rules of play are similar to other trick-taking games with the addition of the fact that one player's hand is displayed face up on the table as the "dummy". The four French playing card suits used primarily in the English-speaking world: spades(♠), hearts(), diamonds() and clubs(♣). In playing cards, a suit is one of several categories into which the cards of a deck are divided. ... In card games, trumps frequently figure in trick-taking games such as bridge, euchre, and spades. ...


Much of bridge's popularity owes to the possibility that it can be played in tournaments of theoretically unlimited number of players; this form is referred to as duplicate bridge. Competitions in duplicate bridge range from everyday ones in numerous small clubs to World Championships and Olympiads. A tournament is an organized competition in which many participants play each other in individual games. ... Duplicate bridge tournament playing area Duplicate bridge is the most widely used form of bridge used in tournament settings, and is also played in many bridge clubs. ... Bermuda Bowl is the term for World team championships in contract bridge named after the first edition was held in Bermuda, in 1950. ... The World Team Olympiad is a bridge tournament organized by World Bridge Federation, held every four years starting in 1960. ...

Contents

Game play

See Contract bridge glossary for an explanation of unfamiliar words or phrases in this article.

Two partnerships of two players each are needed to play bridge. The four players sit around a table with partners opposite one another. The compass directions are often used to refer to the four players, aligned with their seating pattern. Thus, South and North form one partnership and East and West form the other. The following terms are used in Contract bridge, Duplicate bridge, and Auction bridge. ... In the common law, a partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which they have all invested. ... For the tool used to draw circles, see Compass (drafting). ... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ... {{Otheruses4|north the direction}} [[Image:CompassRose16_N.png|thumb|250px|right|[[Compass rose]] with north highlighted and at top]] {{wiktionary}} <nowiki>North is o<nowiki>ne of the [[4 (numbe</nowiki> Block quote r)|four]] cardinal directions, specifically the direction that, in Western culture, is treated as the primary direction: north... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ...


A session of bridge consists of several deals (also called hands or boards). A hand is dealt, the bidding (or auction) proceeds to a conclusion and then the hand is played. Finally the hand's result is scored.


The goal of a single deal is to achieve the highest score with given cards. The score is affected by two principal factors: the number of tricks bid in the auction, and the number of tricks taken during play. The concept of contract, which distinguishes contract bridge from its predecessors, refers to a statement by one partnership that they shall take at least a certain number of tricks, with given suit as trumps, or without trumps. It consists of two components: level and denomination (also called strain). Level represents the number of tricks to be taken above the first 6 (referred to as the book)—that ensures that at least a majority of the tricks must be taken by the partnership who wins the contract. Since there are 13 possible tricks, there are 7 levels, numbered 1-7, corresponding to 7-13 tricks to take. Five denominations are ranked, from lowest to highest, as clubs (♣), diamonds (), hearts (), spades (♠), and no trump (NT). For instance, the contract of "3 hearts" asserts that his partnership can take nine tricks (book plus three) with hearts as the trump suit. Thus, there are 7×5 = 35 possible basic contracts; 1♣ being the lowest, followed by 1 etc., up to 7NT. The word trump has a number of meanings: Trump cards are cards which rank above non-trump cards, and which automatically prevail over them unless a higher trump is played. ...


In the bidding stage, the pairs compete to determine who proposes the highest-ranked contract, and the side which wins the bidding must then fulfill that bargain by taking at least the contracted quantity of tricks in play to obtain a score. Broadly speaking, there is an incentive to accurately bid to the optimum contract and then to play to make the contracted number of tricks (or more if good play or luck allows). If the side that wins the auction (declaring side) then takes the contracted number of tricks (or more), it is said to have fulfilled the contract and is awarded a score; otherwise, the contract is said to be defeated and points are awarded to the opponents (defenders). In contract bridge the optimum contract is that contract which offers the best chances of gaining bonus points for part-score, game or slam whilst minimising the risk of failure. ...


In finding an optimum contract, it can sometimes pay to bid slightly too high and lose a small number of points, rather than allow the opposing side to bid and make a larger score. This is known as a sacrifice, and is quite common if both sides are contesting the final contract. This aspect is more common in duplicate bridge (as played in competitions and many clubs) where the goal is to get a better score than any other partnership facing the same hands, by however small a margin and in whatever way possible. A sacrifice is a usually deliberate bid of an unmakeable contract in contract bridge in the hope that the penalty will be smaller than the value of an opponents contract. ...


Dealing

The game is played with a standard deck of 52 cards. On each deal, one player is the dealer, who distributes the cards and also bids first. The dealer changes on each deal, usually going clockwise around the table. Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment. ... Some typical Anglo-American playing cards from the Bicycle brand Set of 52 playing cards A playing card is a typically hand-sized piece of heavy paper or thin plastic. ...


In rubber bridge (or other non-duplicate games), the cards are shuffled before every game, and the dealer distributes all the cards clockwise one at a time, starting with his left-hand opponent and ending with himself, so each player receives a hand of thirteen cards. At the same time, for convenience, the dealer's partner usually shuffles a second deck, to be ready for use on the following deal. The dealer's left-hand opponent will deal next. Each hand in rubber bridge is therefore random and unrelated to other hands played, and a lot of the time the score depends on the cards as well as the skill of play. Contract bridge, more usually known as Bridge, is a trick-taking card game for four players who form two partnerships, or sides. The partners on each side sit opposite one another. ... Duplicate bridge tournament playing area Duplicate bridge is the most widely used form of bridge used in tournament settings, and is also played in many bridge clubs. ... The riffle Shuffling is a procedure used to randomize a deck of playing cards to provide an element of chance in card games. ...


In duplicate bridge, the hands are shuffled only once, at the beginning of the session, and dealt into the same four hands of 13 cards. These deals are preserved for the entirety of the tournament. In this way, each time they are played, the results for different players will be comparable and any element of chance due to some players having better cards is eliminated. Cards in duplicate are passed around from table to table in bridge boards, plastic or metal containers that clearly mark the hands and identify which player holds which cards. The board may also contain a folded slip of paper to record each pair's scores after the deal is played; the director will record the scores from this slip, called the traveler, at the end of the tournament session. Alternatively, scores may be written on a pickup slip that is collected by a caddy and submitted to the director for recording after each round of play. In some competitions, boards are pre-dealt prior to the competition, especially if the same hands are to be played at multiple locations (for example in a large national or international tournament). There are also special machines for pre-dealing at large tournaments. As the boards arrive for play at each subsequent table, the four players pull their cards from the board and count them to ensure that there are 13 cards in their hand. Duplicate bridge tournament playing area Duplicate bridge is the most widely used form of bridge used in tournament settings, and is also played in many bridge clubs. ... A duplicate bridge board is a device used to pass a pre-dealt bridge hand from table to table, keeping the cards belonging to each of the four players separate. ...


Unlike rubber bridge and most other trick-taking games, in duplicate games players do not throw their cards to the center of the table; instead, played cards are placed immediately in front of each player and turned face down once each trick has been completed. This allows each player to return his hand, intact, to the board after he has finished it, so subsequent tables can play the same deal unaltered. It also allows that in case of a review or other irregularity during the play, it is clear exactly who played which cards, and the order in which they were played.


The auction

The auction determines the declaring side and the final contract. Only one of the partners of the declaring side, referred to as declarer, will play the hand, while the other will become the dummy (i.e. doing nothing). In addition, the final contract may be doubled (by the opponents) or redoubled (by the declaring side), in which case the scoring of the hand is increased, whether the contract is made or defeated.


During the auction, each player makes a call at his turn, which must be one of the following:

  • Bid (stating a level and a denomination)
  • Double (when the last call other than pass was a bid by an opponent)
  • Redouble (when the last call other than pass was a double by an opponent)
  • Pass (when unwilling to make one of the three preceding calls, i.e. "abstain")

(Note: although technically incorrect, the word "bid" is also often used informally in place of "call")


The auction starts with the dealer and proceeds clockwise with each player, having first evaluated their hands, making a call in order. The auction ends when 3 successive passes occur after a bid, double or redouble (or if all 4 players pass in the first round, in which case the deal is not scored). In contract bridge, various bidding systems have been devised to enable partners to describe their hands to each other so that they may reach the optimum contract. ...


A bid specifies a level and denomination, and ostensibly denotes a proposition to play the corresponding contract. A player wishing to bid must make a bid that is higher than the preceding bid. A bid is higher if it specifies any denomination on a higher level, or a higher-ranked denomination on the same level. Thus, after a bid of 3, bids of 2♠ or 3♣ are not allowable, but 3♠ or 4 are.


A double can be made only after the opponents have made a bid. At its simplest, this states that the player is so confident that the opponents cannot make their bid during play that the player is willing to double their score if they do and the penalty if they do not. However, in modern bridge, the double is often used in conventional sense, to ask partner to bid or to pass information to partner. A "redouble" can be made only following an opponents' double; it increases the points scored yet further. In practice, the redouble can also be used systemically for other purposes. Double and redouble are in effect only until the next bid, i.e. any subsequent bid invalidates them. The ACBL official convention card In the game of contract bridge, a convention is an agreed-upon meaning for a call (a bid, double or redouble, or a pass) during the auction phase of the hand. ...


Once the auction ends, the last bid (together with any double or redouble that followed it) becomes the contract, and the level of this bid determines the number of tricks required to achieve the contract and its denomination determines what suit, if any, will be trumps.


It should be noted, though, that the primary purpose of the early bids is to exchange information rather than to determine the final contract. Most bids are not made with the intention to become the end contract, but to describe player's hand strength and distribution, so that the partnership can make an educated guess which contract would be the optimal one. The set of agreements between partners about meanings of each bid is referred to as a bidding system. In Contract bridge, Bidding system is a collection of agreements and conventions about meaning of bids in contract bridge. ...


The pair that did not win the contract is called the defense. The pair that made the last bid is divided further: the player who first made a bid in the denomination of the final contract becomes the declarer and their partner becomes the dummy. For example, suppose West is the dealer and the bidding was:

West North East South
pass 1 pass 1♠
pass 2 double 3♠
pass 4♠ pass pass
pass

Then East and West would be the defenders, South would be the declarer (being the first to bid spades), North would be the dummy, and spades the trump suit; 10 tricks would be required by declarer (and dummy). Since East's double was invalidated by the subsequent South's 3♠ bid, it does not affect the contract.


Bidding boxes, which allow the calls to be placed using cards rather than pronounced are often used to prevent players at nearby table hearing the bidding and to avoid unintentional voice inflexions passing information to partner. A bidding box is a device used in contract bridge for the purpose of making the bidding easier. ...


The play of the hand

The play consists of thirteen tricks, each trick consisting of one card played from each of the four hands. Aces are high in bridge, followed by kings, queens, jacks, 10s, 9s ... down to 2s, the lowest card in each suit. The first card played in a trick is called the lead, and players play a card clockwise around the table. Any card may be selected from a hand as the lead, but the remaining hands must follow suit (meaning, they must play a card in the same suit as the lead), unless they have no more cards of that suit. If a hand contains no cards of the led suit then any card may be played. The hand that plays the highest card in the suit of the lead wins the trick, unless any of the played cards are of the trump suit, in which case the hand that plays the highest trump card wins the trick. The hand that wins each trick plays the lead card of the next trick, until all the cards are played. Trick-taking games are card games with a distinct and common play structure: Each round of play is divided into units called tricks, during which each player selects one card from his or her hand. ...


The first lead, called the opening lead, is made by the defender to the left of the declarer. After the opening lead is played, the dummy lays his/her hand face up on the table in four columns, one for each suit, with the column of the trump suit (if there is one) on the right as dummy looks at the table. The declarer is responsible for selecting cards to play from the dummy's hand and from own hand in turn. The defenders each choose the cards to play from their own hands. Dummy is allowed to prevent declarer from infringing the rules but otherwise must not interfere with the play; for example, dummy may attempt to prevent declarer from leading from the wrong hand (by stating e.g. "you won the last trick in dummy") but must not comment on opponents' actions or make suggestions as to play. In casual bridge games the dummy often does nothing, but in duplicate bridge dummy must play cards from the dummy hand at declarer's verbal instruction (eg "jack of hearts please partner"). This is a more convenient and less ambiguous method of card selection than declarer leaning over the table and touching a card.


The contract level sets up a specific target: in the example above, the declarer must manage to take 10 tricks (the assumed "book" of 6, plus 4 as bid, with spades as trumps), to make the contract and get a score. Success in this goal is rewarded by points in the scoring phase for the declarer's side. If the declarer fails to make the contract, the defenders are said to have set or defeated the contract (declarer has gone down), and are rewarded points for doing so.


Scoring

Main article: Bridge scoring

In the end, the goal for each pair is to make as high a score as possible. However, if the contract is made, its level is the primary factor affecting the scoring, rather than the number of tricks taken in play: for example, if the declarer takes all 13 tricks without trumps, there is still a huge score difference between the cases of contract being 1NT and 7NT. That ensures competitiveness: even if a partnership holds a majority of the high cards and the opponents have no interest in bidding, they are still encouraged to bid high in order to achieve the best possible score, which in turn often results in contracts on the verge of making. In contract bridge, there are two basic types of scoring for a single deal: duplicate and rubber scoring, which share most features, but differ in how the components of the score are accumulated. ...


When the declarer makes the contract, the declarer's side receives points for:

  • Every trick bid (20 for minor suit contracts, 30 for major suit and notrump ones, with additional 10 points for notrump)
  • Overtricks (tricks taken over the contract level)
  • Bonuses for contract level
  • Other specific bonuses

When the declarer fails to make the contract, the defending pair receives points for undertricks—the number of tricks by which declarer fell short of the goal.


Because of the structure of bonuses, certain bid levels have special significance. The most important level is game, which is any contract whose bid trick value is 100 or more points. Game level varies by the suit, since different suits are worth different amounts in scoring. The game level for notrump is 3 (9 tricks), the game level for hearts or spades (major suits) is 4 (10 tricks), and the game level for clubs or diamonds (minor suits) is 5 (11 tricks). Because of attractiveness of the game bonus, much of the bidding revolves around investigating a possibility to bid a makeable game. High bonuses are also awarded for bidding and making small slam (level 6) and grand slam (level 7, i.e. all the tricks). The contracts below game level are called partial contracts or partscores.


The concept of vulnerability affects scoring and introduces a wider range of tactics in bidding and play. Every partnership is beforehand assigned one of two states: vulnerable or non-vulnerable. When a pair is vulnerable, game and slam bonuses are higher, as well as penalties for failure to make the contract. Methods for assigning vulnerability differ for duplicate (see board) and rubber bridge. A duplicate bridge board is a device used to pass a pre-dealt bridge hand from table to table, keeping the cards belonging to each of the four players separate. ...


There are two important variations in bridge scoring: rubber scoring and duplicate scoring. They share most features, but differ how the total score is accumulated. In rubber bridge, points for each pair are tallied either "above the line" or "below the line". In duplicate bridge, all the points are accumulated and present a single score, expressed as a positive number (sum of trick points and bonus points) to the winning pair, and by implication, as a negative number to the opponents. "Chicago" bridge is a form of friendly game which uses duplicate scoring, that is, a set consists of four deals with different vulnerabilities (whether a team has already made game), and every deal is scored as a single number. Contract bridge, more usually known as Bridge, is a trick-taking card game for four players who form two partnerships, or sides. The partners on each side sit opposite one another. ...


In duplicate bridge, the same hand is played unchanged across two or more tables and the results are ranked. The resulting scores for each board are expressed in matchpoints or international match points (IMP). Regardless of the actual contract, the competitor (pair or team) with the best performance on each board gets the highest number of points for that board and vice versa. The competitor with the highest total number of points becomes the winner of the tournament. Thus, even with bad cards, a competitor can win the tournament if it has bid better and played better than the other players who played the same set of cards. Duplicate bridge tournament playing area Duplicate bridge is the most widely used form of bridge used in tournament settings, and is also played in many bridge clubs. ...


Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge

Rules of contract bridge are standardized by World Bridge Federation and published in the book Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. The last edition is issued in 1997 and consists of 93 laws (articles). All duplicate bridge sponsoring organizations on lower levels must apply these rules. A large portion of the laws, though, is devoted to dealing with various irregular situations, and as such it is mostly used by tournament directors (referees) as the reference book. Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge is the official rule book of contract bridge promulgated by the World Bridge Federation. ... World Bridge Federation (WBF) is the governing body of world contract bridge. ...


They do not apply to rubber bridge, which has its own set of Laws, the Laws of Contract Bridge, issued in 1993. In fact, simpler rules for dealing with irregularities are often applied by the players themselves or house rules are applied at rubber.


History

Trick-taking games can be traced back to the early 16th century. Whist became the dominant form and enjoyed a loyal following for centuries. The history of contract bridge, one of the worlds most popular partnership card games, dated back to the invention of trick-taking games in the early 16th century, such as whist. ... Trick-taking games are card games with a distinct and common play structure: Each round of play is divided into units called tricks, during which each player selects one card from his or her hand. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Whist (a trick-taking game) is a classic card game which was played widely in the 18th and 19th centuries and was a development of an older game Ruff and Honours. ...


According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word bridge is the English pronunciation of the game called "biritch". The oldest known rulebook of the game dates from 1886 and calls it "Biritch, or Russian Whist". The game featured several significant developments from whist: dealer chose the trump suit, or nominated his partner to do so; there was a call of no trumps (biritch); and the dealer's partner's hand became dummy. There were other similarities to bridge: points were scored above and below the line; game was 3NT, 4H and 5D (although 8 club tricks and 15 spade tricks were needed!); the score could be doubled and redoubled; and there were slam bonuses. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Biritch (birich, biryuch Russian: ) in Ancient Rus was an announcer of the will of a knyaz. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... In card games, trumps frequently figure in trick-taking games such as bridge, euchre, and spades. ...


Despite the popularity of whist,[1] this game, and variants of it, bridge[2] and bridge-whist,[3] became popular in the United States and the UK in the 1890s. The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no...


In 1904 auction bridge, known for a time as royal auction bridge [4], was developed where the players bid in a competitive auction to decide the contract and declarer. The object became to make at least as many tricks as were contracted for and penalties were introduced for failing to do so. 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The card game auction bridge is a predecessor to contract bridge. ...


The modern game of contract bridge was the result of innovations to the scoring of auction bridge made by Harold Stirling Vanderbilt and others. The most significant change was that only the tricks contracted for were counted below the line towards game and slam, which resulted in bidding becoming much more challenging and interesting. Also new was the concept of vulnerability, making sacrificing to protect the lead in a rubber more expensive, and the various scores were adjusted to produce a more balanced game. Vanderbilt set out his rules in 1925, and within a few years contract bridge had so supplanted other forms of the game that "bridge" became synonymous with "contract bridge." Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, born July 6, 1884 - died July 4, 1970, was a member of the prominent United States Vanderbilt family who was a railroad executive, a champion yachtsman and a champion bridge player. ... In contract bridge, there are two basic types of scoring for a single deal: duplicate and rubber scoring, which share most features, but differ in how the components of the score are accumulated. ...


In the USA and Australia, most of the bridge played these days is duplicate bridge and is played at clubs, tournaments and online. In the UK, bridge is still widely played in private homes (rubber or chicago) as well as at clubs (duplicate and rubber) and tournaments (duplicate).


Tournaments

Bridge is a game of skill played with randomly dealt cards, which makes it also a game of chance, or more exactly, a tactical game with inbuilt randomness, imperfect knowledge and restricted communication. The chance element is in the deal of the cards; in competitions and clubs the chance element is largely eliminated by comparing results of multiple pairs in identical situations. This is achievable when there are eight or more players, sitting at several tables, and the deals from each table are preserved and passed to the next table, thereby duplicating them for another 4 (or more) participants to play. At the end of a session, the scores for each deal are compared, and most points are awarded to the players doing the best with each particular deal. This measures skill because each player is being judged only on his ability to bid with, and play, the same cards as other players. Random redirects here. ... A game of chance is a game whose outcome is strongly influenced by some randomizing device, and upon which contestants frequently wager money. ...


This form of the game is referred to as duplicate bridge and is played in clubs and tournaments, which can gather as many as several hundred players. Duplicate bridge is a mind sport, and its popularity gradually became comparable to that of chess, which it is often compared with for its complexity and mental skills required for high-level competition. Only bridge and chess are recognized as "mind sports" by the International Olympic Committee, although they were not found eligible for main the Olympic program.[5] A game of mental skill (sometimes called a mind sport) is a game where training of muscles and skill in controlling them offers insignificant advantage, and mental abilities are paramount. ... Chess is a recreational and competitive game for two players. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece between 776 BC to 396 AD. Its membership is 203 National Olympic Committees. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


The basic premise of duplicate bridge had previously been used for whist matches as early as 1857. Initially, bridge was not thought to be suitable for duplicate competition; it wasn't until the 1920s that (auction) bridge tournaments became popular. 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The 1920s is a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


In 1925 when contract bridge first evolved, bridge tournaments were becoming popular, but the rules were somewhat in flux, and several different organizing bodies were involved in tournament sponsorship: the American Bridge League (formerly the American Auction Bridge League, which changed its name in 1929), the American Whist League, and the United States Bridge Federation. In 1935, the first officially recognized world championship was held. By 1937, however, the American Contract Bridge League had come to power (a union of the ABL and the USBF), and it remains the principal organizing body for bridge tournaments in North America. In 1958, the World Bridge Federation was founded, as bridge had become an international activity. 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The American Contract Bridge League (ACBL) is the largest bridge organization in North America. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World Bridge Federation (WBF) is the governing body of world contract bridge. ...


Bidding boxes and bidding screens

Bidding box
Bidding box

In tournaments, "bidding boxes" are frequently used. A bidding box is a box of cards, each bearing the name of one of the legal calls in bridge. A player wishing to make a call displays the appropriate card from the box, rather than making a verbal declaration. This prevents unauthorized information from being conveyed via voice inflection. In top national and international events, "bidding screens" are used. These are diagonal screens which are placed across the table, preventing a player from seeing his partner during the game. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A bidding box is a device used in contract bridge for the purpose of making the bidding easier. ... Placement of screen and accompanying equipment on a bridge table Screen is a device used in some tournaments in duplicate bridge that visually separates partners at the table from each other, in order to reduce the exchange of unauthorized information. ...


Game strategy

Bidding

Much of the complexity in bridge arises from the difficulty of arriving at a good final contract in the auction. This is a difficult problem: the two players in a partnership must try to communicate sufficient information about their hands to arrive at a makeable contract, but the information they can exchange is restricted—information may only be passed by the calls made and later by the cards played, not by other means; in addition, the agreed-upon meaning of all information passed must be available to the opponents. In Contract bridge, Bidding system is a collection of agreements and conventions about meaning of bids in contract bridge. ... The ACBL official convention card In the game of contract bridge, a convention is an agreed-upon meaning for a call (a bid, double or redouble, or a pass) during the auction phase of the hand. ...


Since a partnership who has freedom to bid gradually at leisure can exchange more information, and a partnership who can interfere with their opponents' bidding (or who raise the bidding level rapidly) can cause difficulties for their opponents, bidding systems are both informational and strategic. It is this mixture of information exchange and evaluation, deduction, and tactics that is at the heart of bidding in bridge.


A number of basic rules of thumb in bridge bidding and play are summarized as bridge maxims. A rule of thumb is an easily learned and easily applied procedure for approximately calculating or recalling some value, or for making some determination. ... This article includes a miscellany of short laws, rules and rule of thumb advice (in alphabetical order). ...


Bidding systems and conventions

A bidding system is a set of partnership agreements on the meanings of bids: each player evaluates their hand and their best tactics, in light of new information, and makes bids to give or request information from their partner with the goal of arriving at an ideal contract. A partnership's bidding system is usually made up of a core system, modified and complemented by specific conventions (optional customizations incorporated into the main system for handling specific bidding situations) which are pre-chosen between the partners prior to playing. The line between a well-known convention and a part of a system is not always clear-cut: some bidding systems include specified conventions by default. Bidding systems can be divided into mainly natural systems such as Acol and Standard American, and mainly artificial systems such as the Precision Club. The ACBL official convention card In the game of contract bridge, a convention is an agreed-upon meaning for a call (a bid, double or redouble, or a pass) during the auction phase of the hand. ... Acol is a bridge bidding system. ... Standard American is a common bidding system for the game of bridge in the United States, and is now the most widely used method of bidding at Bridge in the world. ... In the game of contract bridge Precision Club is a strong club system that was invented by C. C. Wei and used to good effect by Taiwan teams in the early 1970s. ...


Bids are usually considered to be either natural or conventional (artificial). A natural bid is one where the suit and level bid is essentially passing the information "I have this suit for you", or in the case of a double "I want to raise the stakes as I don't think the opponents can make their contract". By contrast, a conventional (artificial) bid offers and/or asks for information by means of pre-agreed coded interpretations, in which some bids convey very specific information or requests which are not part of the natural meaning of the bid. Thus in response to 4NT, a 'natural' bid of 5 would state a preference towards a diamond suit or a desire to play the contract in 5 diamonds, whereas if the partners agree to use the common Blackwood convention, a bid of 5 in this situation says nothing about the diamond suit, but tells the partner that the hand in question contains exactly one ace.


Conventions are valuable in bridge because of the need to pass information beyond the simple like or dislike of a named suit, and because the limited bidding space can be used more efficiently by taking situations where a given bid will have less utility and giving that bid an artificial meaning that conveys more useful information. There are a very large number of conventions that players often choose from. Well-known conventions include Stayman (to ask for the show of any 4 card major suit in a 1NT opening hand), Jacoby transfers (a request by the weak hand for the stronger partner to bid and play the game instead), and Blackwood convention (to ask for information on aces and kings in a slam bidding situation). In contract bridge, the Stayman convention is a convention used to find a four-four trump fit in a major suit after someone opens the bidding with a bid of 1 No Trump. ... The Jacoby transfer, in the card game contract bridge, is a convention initiated by a responder following partners no trump opening bid. ... The Blackwood convention is a bidding convention in contract bridge that was developed by Easley Blackwood. ...


The term preempt refers to a high level tactical bid by a weak hand, relying upon a long suit rather than high value cards for tricks. Pre-emptive bids serve a double purpose—they allow a player to indicate they are bidding on the basis of a long suit in an otherwise weak hand, which is important information to share, and also effectively raises the stakes before a possibly strong opposition can identify whether they have a good possibility to play the hand. Several systems include bids on weak hands with 6 or 7 card suits at the 2, 3 or even 4 level, as preempts. This article concerns Contract Bridge and uses terminology associated with the game. ...


Basic natural systems

As a rule, a natural suit bid indicates a holding or at least 4 (or more depending on the system) cards in that suit as an opening bid, or a lesser number when supporting partner; a natural NT bid indicates a balanced hand.


Most systems use a count of high card points as the basic evaluation of the strength of a hand, refining this by reference to shape and distribution if appropriate. Aces are counted as 4 points, kings as 3, queens as 2, and jacks as 1 point; therefore, the deck contains 40 points. In addition, the distribution of the cards in a hand into suits may also contribute to the strength of a hand and be counted as distribution points. A better than average hand, containing 12 or 13 points, is usually considered sufficient to open the bidding, i.e. make the first bid in the auction. A combination of two such hands (i.e. 25 or 26 points shared between partners) is often sufficient for a partnership to bid, and generally make, game in no trumps; more may be needed for a suit game). High-card point count is a method of hand evaluation in the game of contract bridge. ... The point count is the fundamental method of hand evaluation now used in the card game of bridge. ...


In natural systems, 1NT opening bid usually reflects a hand that has a relatively balanced shape (usually between 2 and 4 cards in each suit) and a limited number of high card points, somewhere between 12 and 18 (normally a 3 point range e.g. 12-14, 15-17 or 16-18).


Opening bids of 3 or higher are preemptive (tactic) bids, i.e. bids made with weak hands that especially favor a particular suit, opened at a high level in order to frustrate the opposition. A hand of ♠AK98742 73 42 ♣76 would be an ideal candidate for an opening bid of 3♠, designed to make it difficult for the opposing team to bid and find their optimum contract even if they have the bulk of the points. In contract bridge the optimum contract is that contract which offers the best chances of gaining bonus points for part-score, game or slam whilst minimising the risk of failure. ...


Openings at the 2 level may be unusually strong (2NT, natural, and 2C, artificial) or preemptive depending on the system. Unusually strong bids communicate an especially high number of points (normally 20 or more) or a high trick taking potential (normally 8 or more).


Opening bids at the one level are made with hands containing 12/13 points or more which are not suitable for one of the preceding bids - with some systems (e.g. Standard American or 5-card majors) a major suit opening shows a 5-card suit (5-card major treatment, in which an opening bid of 1 or 1♠ promises at least 5 cards in that suit. This leads to some awkward bids, for instance, when a player has four cards in each major, and is forced to open the bidding with 1 of a 3-card minor suit). In contract bridge the minor suits are diamonds () and clubs (♣). They are given that name because contracts made in those suits score less (20 points per contracted trick) than contracts made in the major suits (30 points), and they rank lower in bidding. ...


Doubles are sometimes used in bidding conventions. A natural, or penalty double, is one used to try to gain extra points when the defenders are confident of setting (defeating) the contract. The most common example of a conventional double is the takeout double of a low-level suit bid, implying support for the unbid suits and asking partner to choose one of them. A takeout double is the bid of double after an opponent has bid. ...


Variations on the basic themes

Bidding systems depart from these basic ideas in varying degrees. Standard American, for instance, is a collection of conventions designed to bolster the accuracy and power of these basic ideas, while Precision Club is a highly conventional system that uses the 1♣ opening bid for strong hands (but sets the threshold rather lower than most other systems) and requires many other changes in order to handle other situations. Many experts today use a system called 2/1 game forcing. In the UK, Acol is the standard system. There are also a variety of advanced techniques used for hand evaluation. The most basic is the Milton Work point count, but this is sometimes augmented by other guidelines such as losing trick count, law of total tricks or Zar Points. Standard American is a common bidding system for the game of bridge in the United States, and is now the most widely used method of bidding at Bridge in the world. ... 2/1 game forcing (two-over-one game-forcing) is a style of bidding in contract bridge, and is the standard style of bidding for American duplicate bridge, having surpassed Standard American. ... Acol is a bridge bidding system. ... The point count is the fundamental method of hand evaluation now used in the card game of bridge. ... Losing trick count is a method of hand evaluation in the game of Bridge. ... The Law of Total Tricks pertains to the card game of contract bridge, and is used to help determine how high to bid in a competitive auction. ... Zar Points is an advanced, statistically-derived method for evaluating Contract Bridge hands developed by Zar Petkov for use by more experienced players. ...


Common conventions or variations within natural systems include:

  • Point count required for 1 NT opening bid ('weak' ~12-14, 'strong' ~16-18 or 'intermediate' ~14-16)
  • Whether an opening bid of 1 H and 1 S requires 4 or 5 cards in the suit (4 or 5 card majors)
  • Whether 1 C (and sometimes 1D) is 'natural' or 'suspect' (also called 'phony', signifying an opening hand lacking a notable heart or spade suit)
  • Whether opening bids at the two level (particularly 2H and 2S but sometimes 2D also) are 'strong' (20+ points) or 'weak' (ie, pre-emptive with a 6 card suit).
(Note: an opening bid of 2C is usually played in natural systems as conventional, signifying an exceptionally strong hand, showing anything from near-game in one hand, and upward. See: Strong two clubs)
  • Blackwood (either the original version or Roman Key Card)
  • Stayman (Together with Blackwood, described by Andrew Robson as "the two most famous conventions in Bridge".[6])
  • Whether the partnership will play bids of 2D, 2H and (sometimes) 2S over 1 NT as 'transfers'.
  • What types of cue bids the partnership will play, if any.
  • Whether doubling a contract at the 1, 2 and sometimes 3 level signifies a belief that the opponents contract will fail and to raise the stakes (penalty double) or an indication of strength but no biddable suit, coupled with a request that partner bid something (takeout double).
  • How the partnership's bidding practices will be varied if their opponents intervene or compete.
  • Which (if any) bids are forcing and require a response.

Within play, it is also commonly agreed what systems of opening leads, signals and discards will be played: The Weak two bid is a common treatment used in the game of contract bridge to signify a weak hand with a long suit. ... In most natural bridge bidding systems, the opening bid of 2♣ is used exclusively for hands too strong for an opening bid at the one-level. ... The Blackwood convention is a bidding convention in contract bridge that was developed by Easley Blackwood. ... In contract bridge, the Stayman convention is a convention used to find a four-four trump fit in a major suit after someone opens the bidding with a bid of 1 No Trump. ... The Jacoby transfer, in the card game contract bridge, is a convention initiated by a responder following partners no trump opening bid. ... In contract bridge, a cue bid (also, cuebid or cue-bid, pronounced queue-bid) is a term that applies to two types of bid: A bid of a suit that has already been bid by opponents. ... A takeout double is the bid of double after an opponent has bid. ... In the card game bridge, a forcing bid, is a bid that obliges partner to ensure the forcing bidder will get another chance to bid. ...

  • The opening lead signifies an agreement over how the first card to be played will be chosen,
  • Signals indicate how cards played within a suit are chosen - often playing a noticeably high (or low) card when this would not be expected signals encouragement to continue playing the suit, and a low (or high) card signals discouragement and a desire for partner to choose some other suit.
  • Discards cover the situation when a player cannot follow suit and therefore has free choice what card to play or throw away. In such circumstances the thrown away card can be used to indicate some aspect of his hand, which he would like his partner to know about, or a desire for a specific suit to be played.

Opening lead is the first card played by the defenders in the playing phase of a contract bridge deal. ... In the card game of contract bridge, the partners defending against a contract may choose particular cards to play to communicate a signal. ... In the card game of contract bridge, the partners defending against a contract may choose particular cards to play to communicate a signal. ...

Advanced bidding techniques

It is noteworthy that every bid (including 'no bid') in fact serves not one, but two purposes; it first of all confirms or passes some information to partner. It also denies by implication any other kind of hand which would have tended to support alternative bids. For example, a bid of 2NT after 1NT not only shows a balanced hand of a certain points range, but it also may deny a 5 card major suit (otherwise partner would have bid it) or even a 4 card major suit (or else partner would probably have bid Stayman).


Likewise the bid of 2H in the sequence 1NT - 2C - 2D - 2H between partners confirms 4 cards in Spades as well: he must hold at least 5 hearts to make it worth looking for a heart fit after 2D denying a 4 card major, and if he has at least 5 hearts, then his Stayman bid must have been due to having exactly 4 spades, the other major (since Stayman is not useful with anything except a 4 card major suit). [7] Thus an astute partner can read much more than the surface meaning, into the bidding.


Much of advanced bidding is specific agreements related to very specific situations.


Play techniques

Terence Reese, a prolific author of bridge books, points out that there are only four ways of taking a trick by force, and two of these are very easy: Terence Reese (1913-1996) is regarded as one of the finest bridge players of all time, and also as one of the most influential and ascerbic of bridge writers with a large output including several books which remain in print as classics of bridge play. ...

  • playing a high card that no one else can beat
  • trumping an opponent's high card
  • establishing long suits (the last cards in a suit will take tricks if the opponents don't have the suit and are unable to trump)
  • playing for the opponents' high cards to be in a particular position (if their ace is to the right of your king, your king may be able to take a trick)

Nearly all trick-taking techniques in bridge can be reduced to one of these four methods.


The optimum play of the cards can require much thought and experience, and is too complicated to describe in a short article. However, some basic ideas of probability may be considered:


Some of the most important probabilities have to do with the position of high cards.

  • The probability that a given opponent holds one particular card, e.g. the king: 50%
  • The probability that a given opponent holds two particular cards, e.g. the king and the queen: approximately 25%
  • The probability that a given opponent holds at least one of two particular cards, e.g. the king or the queen: approximately 75%

When developing long suits, it is important to know the likelihood that the opponents' cards in the suit are evenly divided between them. Generally speaking, if they hold an even number of cards, they are unlikely to be exactly divided; if the opponents have an odd number in the suit, the cards will probably be divided as evenly as possible. For example, if declarer and dummy have eight trumps between them, the opponents' trumps are probably (68% chance) divided 3-2 (one opponent with three trumps, the other with two) and trumps can be drawn in three rounds. If declarer is trying to play with a seven card trump suit, it is more likely that the outstanding trumps are divided 4-2 (48%) than that the cards are evenly divided 3-3 between the opponents (36%). In the game of bridge mathematical probabilities play a significant role. ...


Basic techniques by declarer

  • counting
    • tricks
    • losers
    • shape of defenders hands
  • establishing long suits
  • finesse
  • when NOT to finesse
  • holdup (mostly at NT contracts)
  • timing
  • unblocking
  • blocking
  • managing entries
  • trumping
  • crossruff
  • when to draw trumps
  • when NOT to draw trumps
    • ruff losers
    • discard a quick loser

finesse is a parameter characterizing a Fabry-Perot interferometer. ... Holdup is a play in contract bridge, whereby the declarer ducks one or more trick to opponents, usually in notrump contracts, in order to cut their communications. ... In trick-taking games, to ruff means to play a trump card to a trick (other than when trumps were led). ... A crossruff is a play in Contract bridge, when you are in a suit contract. ...

Advanced techniques by declarer

In the card game of contract bridge, the term duck means to play low to a trick, thus losing it intentionally. ... Dummy reversal (also known as reverse dummy) is a technique in the card game of contract bridge, when the declarer uses trump cards to ruff from the hand with longer trumps, and retains the trumps in the other hand to draw the opponents remaining trumps. ... An endplay, in bridge and similar games, is a tactical play where a defender is put on lead at a strategic moment, and then has to make a play that loses one or more tricks. ... In contract bridge, coup is a generic name for various techniques in play, denoting a specific pattern in the lie and the play of cards. ... Although the squeeze play (or simply squeeze) was already discovered and described in whist, its use was best described and perfected in contract bridge. ... The Principle of Restricted Choice is used in bridge to guide a player (usually the declarer) into finding the best line of play in certain situations. ... In contract bridge the term suit combination refers to the combined holding in declarers and dummys hand of one specific suit, but is also used to denote the order in which dummys and declarers cards in that isolated suit need to be played in order to... Safety plays in contract bridge are plays which adapt the odds of the cards to the scoring system. ...

Basic techniques by defenders

  • opening lead — using information from the auction
  • when to lead trumps
  • signaling

In the card game of contract bridge, the partners defending against a contract may choose particular cards to play to communicate a signal. ...

Advanced techniques by defenders

  • avoiding an endplay
  • counting the hand (tracking the distribution of suits and high cards in the unseen hands using inferences from the bidding and play)
  • false carding
  • trump promotion
  • uppercut

In Contract Bridge, an uppercut is a defensive play that involves one of the defenders ruffing high in the knowledge that an overruff by the declarer will result in the promotion of a trump card in his/her partners hand into a winner. ...

Example

For definition of terms used in the example, see Contract bridge glossary.
J 3
J 8 7 4
A 10 7 6 5
Q 3
K Q 8 7 2

N The following terms are used in Contract bridge, Duplicate bridge, and Auction bridge. ...

W         E

S

10 9 5 4
A 2 9 6
J 4 2 K Q 9
10 7 2 K 9 6 4
A 6
K Q 10 5 3
8 3
A J 8 5

The cards are dealt as in the diagram, and North is the dealer. As neither North nor East have sufficient high card strength to open the bidding, they both pass, denying an opening hand. South, next in turn, opens with the bid of 1, which denotes a reasonable heart suit (at least 4 or 5 cards long) and at least 12 high card points. West overcalls with 1♠, North supports partner's suit with 2, and East also supports spades with 2♠. South inserts a game try of 3♣, inviting the partner to bid the game of 4 with good club support and overall values, and North complies, having extra values in form of A, fourth trump, and doubleton Queen of clubs. The bidding was: A standard convention has been developed to illustrates hands in contract bridge. ... High-card point count is a method of hand evaluation in the game of contract bridge. ... In contract bridge, an overcall is a bid made when the preceding bid was made by an opponent; the term refers only to the first such bid. ... A game try in the card game of bridge is a bid that shows interest in bidding a game and asks partner to help in making the decision. ...

West North East South
Pass Pass 1
1♠ 2 2♠ 3♣
Pass 4 Pass Pass
Pass

In bidding, North-South were trying to investigate if their cards are worthy for making a game, which yields bonus points if bid and made. East-West were competing with spades, hoping to play a contract in spades at a low level. 4 is the final contract, 10 tricks being required for N-S to make with hearts as trumps.


South is the declarer, having been first to bid hearts, and the player to his left, West, has to make the choice of the first card in the play, known as the opening lead. He chooses the ♠K because it is the suit both he and his partner have shown strength in, and because he has agreed with his partner that when they hold two touching honors (or adjacent honors) they will play the higher ones first (for information purposes). He plays the card face down, to give the players a chance to ask any last questions about the bidding. After that, North lies his cards on the table and becomes dummy, both the North and South hands will be controlled by the declarer. West turns his leading card face up, and the declarer studies his hand and dummy to make a plan of playing. The bottom line is, since he has to concede trump ace, a spade, and a diamond, he must not lose a trick in clubs.


Tactically, if the ♣K is held by West, he will find it very hard to prevent it making a trick. However there is an almost-equal chance that it is held by East, in which case it can be 'trapped' against his Ace, and will be beaten, using a strategy known as a finesse. finesse is a parameter characterizing a Fabry-Perot interferometer. ...


After considering the cards, the declarer directs dummy (North) to play a small spade. East plays low (small card) and South takes the ♠A, gaining the lead. He proceeds by drawing trumps, leading the K. West decides there is no benefit to holding back, and winning with his Ace, cashes the ♠Q. Since he may not continue spades for fear of a ruff and discard, he plays a diamond. Declarer ducks from the table, and East scores the Q. Not having anything better to do, he returns the remaining trump, taken in South's hand. The trumps now accounted for, South can now execute the finesse, hopefully trapping the king as planned. He enters the dummy (i.e. makes the dummy's hand to play the next trick) with a low diamond, using dummy's A to win the trick, and leads ♣Q from dummy at the next trick. East covers the queen with the King, and South takes the trick with the Ace, and proceeds by cashing the remaining master ♣J. (If East doesn't play the King, then South will gamble by playing a low club and the Queen will win anyway, the essence of a finesse). The game is now safe: South ruffs a small club with a dummy's trump, then ruffs a diamond in hand for an entry back, and ruffs the last club in dummy (sometimes described as a crossruff). Finally, he claims the remaining tricks by showing his hand, as it now contains only high trumps and there's no need to play the hand out to prove they are all winners. A ruff and discard (also known as ruff and slough or ruff and sluff) is a play in contract bridge. ... In the card game of contract bridge, the term duck means to play low to a trick, thus losing it intentionally. ... In trick-taking games, to ruff means to play a trump card to a trick (other than when trumps were led). ... A crossruff is a play in Contract bridge, when you are in a suit contract. ...


(The trick-by-trick notation used above can be also expressed in tabular form, but a textual explanation is usually preferred in practice, for reader's convenience. Plays of small cards or discards are often omitted from such a description, unless they were important for the outcome).


North-South have scored the required 10 tricks, and their opponents took the remaining 3. The contract is fulfilled, and North enters +620 for his side (North-South are in charge for bookkeeping in duplicate tournaments) in the traveling sheet. Every player returns his own cards into the board, and the next deal is played. Traveling sheet is a form used for recording individual results on duplicate bridge tournaments. ...


Bridge on the Internet

There are several free and some subscription-based servers available for playing bridge on the Internet. OKbridge [1] is the oldest of the still-running Internet Bridge services; players of all standards, from beginners to world champions may be found playing there. OKbridge is a subscription based club, so it offers premium services such as customer support and ethics reviews. SWAN Games [2] is a more recent competitor. Bridge Base Online [3] is the most populated online bridge club in the world, as it is free to play regular games. The above online clubs offer various features such as options to earn ACBL masterpoints, play in online tournaments, compile lists of friends, purchase software to improve Bridge skills, and earn money playing Bridge. Bridge Base Incorporated is a business which established and maintains an online website. ...


Some national contract bridge organizations now offer online bridge play to their members including the English Bridge Union, the Dutch Bridge Union and the Australian Bridge Federation. MSN and Yahoo! Games have several online rubber bridge rooms. In 2001, World Bridge Federation has issued a special edition of the lawbook adapted for internet and other electronic forms of the game.


Advantages of playing bridge online are:

  • Flexible choice of when to play.
  • Choice of opponent skill level.
  • Player rating system that attempts to measure ability without regard to the number of games played or the number of years spent accumulating masterpoints
  • Fewer restrictions on which conventions can be used.
  • Unauthorised information cannot be passed by tone of voice or body language.
  • Detailed records may be kept, to help resolve complaints.
  • The software prevents plays and calls that are against the laws.

Disadvantages are: Masterpoints are the rating system used by the American Contract Bridge League (ACBL) for its members. ... Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of sending and receiving wordless messages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

  • Inability to decide on bidding convention ahead of time, because partners are (usually) strangers.
  • A reduced social element.
  • Increased opportunities to cheat via external communication.
  • Players may leave before a hand finishes, or in the middle of an intended session.

Computer bridge

After many years of little progress, at the end of the twentieth century computer bridge made big strides forward. In 1996, the American Contract Bridge League (ACBL) initiated official World Championships Computer Bridge, to be held annually along with a major bridge event. The first Computer Bridge Championship took place in 1997 at the North American Bridge Championships in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Computer bridge is the playing of the game contract bridge by computer software. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: The Duke City Location in the state of New Mexico Coordinates: Country United States State New Mexico County Bernalillo Founded 1706 Government  - Mayor Martin Chavez Area  - City  181. ...


Strong bridge playing programs such as Jack (World Champion computer bridge 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006) and Wbridge5 (World Champion computer bridge 2005) probably rank among the top few thousand human pairs worldwide. A series of articles published in 2005 and 2006 in the Dutch bridge magazine IMP describes matches between Jack and seven top Dutch pairs. A total of 196 boards were played. Overall, the program Jack lost, but with a small margin (359 versus 385 imps). Various magazines are devoted to the card game of bridge. ...


Notable bridge people

Creators and early inventors, in the first half of the 20th century:

Influential players and theorists in the second half of the 20th century: Easley R. Blackwood, the father (June 25, 1903 - March 27, 1992), invented the Blackwood convention used in bidding in contract bridge. ... Ely Culbertson (22 July 1891 - 27 December 1955) was an American expert on the card game contract bridge. ... Jacoby, Oswald (1902-1984) was an American bridge expert and author. ... Helen Sobel Smith (1910-1969) - was an American contract bridge player, winner of 35 national events, and arguably the best woman player ever. ... Samuel Stayman (1909 - 1993) was a U.S. bridge player. ...

Modern world-top experts: Giorgio Belladonna (June 7, 1923-1995) was an Italian bridge player, one of the most famous in bridge history. ... Pietro Forquet (1925-) was an Italian bridge player, one of the most famous in bridge history. ... Benito Garozzo (1927-) is an Italian bridge player, one of the most famous in bridge history. ... Howard Schenken (1905-1979) was American bridge player, writer, and a long-time columnist. ... Charles Henry Goren (March 4, 1901 – April 3, 1991) was a famous bridge player, writer and advocate. ... Edgar Kaplan (1925-1997) was an American bridge player, one of the principal contributors to the game. ... Terence Reese (1913-1996) is regarded as one of the finest bridge players of all time, and also as one of the most influential and ascerbic of bridge writers with a large output including several books which remain in print as classics of bridge play. ... Alfred Sheinwold (1912-1997) was an American bridge player and prolific author on the topics of bridge and other card games. ... S. J. Simon (Simon Jasha Skidelsky) (born 1904 in Harbin, Manchuria, died 1948) was a British writer. ... For Pakistani actor of same name see Umer Sharif. ...

Bridge players in fiction: Norberto Bocchi (born 29 September 1961 in Parma) is Italian bridge player, winner of 4 Bermuda Bowls and World Bridge Olympiads, including the last Bermuda Bowl 2005. ... Giorgio Duboin (born September 30, 1959 in Parma) is Italian bridge player, winner of 4 Bermuda Bowls and World Bridge Olympiads, including the last Bermuda Bowl 2005. ... Robert (Bob) Hamman (1938—) is an American bridge player, considered by many [citation needed] to be the best player in the world today. ... Zia Mahmood (born 1946) is a famous Pakistani bridge player, now playing mostly in Great Britain and USA. He was the winner of several Cap Gemini World Tops, and ACBL Reisinger, Vanderbilt and Spingold cups. ... Jeff Meckstroth, (1956-), is a multiple world champion in contract bridge, winning the Bermuda Bowl representing the USA four times. ... Eric Rodwell, (1957-), is a multiple world champion in contract bridge, winning the Bermuda Bowl representing the USA four times. ... The Larry Cohen Collection Larry Cohen (born 15 July 1941, Kingston, New York, USA) is an American film producer, director, and screenwriter. ...

Flemings commissioned image of James Bond to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ... David Suchet as Hercule Poirot in The Dream Hercule Poirot (pronounced ) is a fictional Belgian detective who featured in the novels of Agatha Christie. ... Lucille Ball as Lucy, Vivian Vance as Ethel on an episode of I Love Lucy Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 - April 26, 1989) was an American actress, comedian and star of I Love Lucy. ... Ethel Mertz is a fictional television character played by Vivian Vance in the American sitcom I Love Lucy. She was married to Fred Mertz, whose character was played by William Frawley. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sunset Boulevard (1950 film). ...

Definitions of common terms

The following terms are used in Contract bridge, Duplicate bridge, and Auction bridge. ...

References

  1. ^ (Foster 1889)
  2. ^ (Elwell 1905 and Benedict 1900)
  3. ^ (Melrose 1901)
  4. ^ (Bergholt 1915)
  5. ^ Review of the Olympic programme and the recommendations on the programme of the games of the XXIX Olympiad, Beijing 2008; page 8 (2002-08).
  6. ^ Bridge Lessons series, Stayman & Transfer (Deal 1), by Andrew Robson
  7. ^ Taken from Andrew Robson Birdge Lessons series, "Stayman & Transfer", deal 14

History of bridge

  • Bridge and Auction Bridge, "Valet de Pique". 1912 London, Eveleigh Nash.
  • Bridge Whist, C.J.Melrose. 1901 London, L Upcott Gill and New York Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Elwell's Advanced Bridge, J.B.Elwell. 1905 (5th ed) London, George Newnes.
  • Foster's Whist Manual, R. F. Foster. 1899 (4th ed) London, Frederick Warne and Co with Mudie and Sons
  • Royal Auction Bridge, Ernest Bergholt. 1915? London, George Routledge & Sons.
  • The Bridge Manual, "John Doe" (George Cavendish Benedict). 1900 London, Mudie and Sons.

External links


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