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Encyclopedia > Contraception

Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. The term family planning is sometimes used as well, especially for thoughtful and premeditated selection of a birth control technique or set of techniques. Employing techniques to avoid pregnancy resulting from intercourse is called contraception (literally, against conception). A pregnant woman Human pregnancy refers to the process by which a human female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... A pair of lions having sexual intercourse in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... Abortion, in its most common usage, refers to the voluntary or induced termination of a pregnancy, generally through the use of surgical procedures or drugs. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... Categories: Biology stubs ...


Birth control is a controversial political and ethical issue in many countries and religions. Opponents promote abstinence from sexual intercourse as an alternative, but supporters consider this an inadequate replacement for the full array of birth control techniques. Sexual abstinence or chastity is the practice of voluntarily refraining from sexual intercourse and (usually) other sexual activity. ...

Contents

History of birth control

Probably the oldest methods of contraception are coitus interruptus, barrier methods, herbal abortifacients, and attempts to arrange intercourse to coincide with a woman's non-fertile times, colloquially known as the "rhythm method". While it seems like the rhythm method would have been a good choice, scientists did not figure out the details of the human menstrual cycle until the early 20th century. Coitus interruptus, also commonly called the withdrawal method, the natural method, pull and pray, or pulling out is an unreliable method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the man removes his penis from the womans vagina just before he reaches orgasm. ... An abortifacient is a substance that induces miscarriage or abortion. ... Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ... The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ...


Coitus interruptus (withdrawal of the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation) probably predates any other form of birth control. Once the relationship between the emission of semen into the vagina and pregnancy was known or suspected, some men probably managed to think through the haze of passion and withdraw in time. This is not a particularly reliable method of contraception, as the small amount of fluid secreted prior to ejaculation (pre-ejaculate or "Cowper's fluid") can still contain sperm (this is explained below). However it requires no equipment and is still better than nothing. The penis (plural penises or penes) or phallus is the external male copulatory organ, and, in mammals, the external male organ of urination. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy The vagina (from the Latin for sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female mammals, or to the cloaca in female birds and some reptiles. ... This article is about male ejaculation. ... Semen or ejaculate is the fluid discharged from the penis during ejaculation, usually at the time of orgasm. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Pre-ejaculate (also known as pre-ejaculatory fluid or Cowpers fluid) is the clear lubricating fluid that is issued from a mans penis when he is aroused. ... Pre-ejaculate (also known as pre-ejaculatory fluid or Cowpers fluid) is the clear lubricating fluid that is issued from a mans penis when he is aroused. ...


Folklore has suggested douching immediately following intercourse as a contraceptive method, and while it seems like a sensible idea to try to wash the ejaculate out of the vagina, it does not work due to the nature of the fluids and the structure of the female reproductive tract -- if anything, douching spreads semen further towards the uterus. Some slight spermicidal effect may occur if the douche solution is particularly acidic, but overall it is not an effective method. A vaginal bulb syringe. ...


The reason both withdrawal and douching are usually not very effective is that the male ejaculate typically consists of approximately 5ml (1 teaspoon) of fluid carrying in excess of 500,000,000 sperm, of which only 1 is needed to cause reproduction. Thus even a tiny amount of ejaculate can be more than enough.


Additionally, prior to ejaculation, a man typically releases small amounts of seminal fluid and sperm ("pre-ejaculate") as a result of becoming sexually aroused, during the erection, and while the penis is being stimulated by the vagina during sexual intercourse. It is theorized that pre-ejaculate is in part an attempt by the penis to assist in lubricating the vagina, and as an attempt to ameliorate the acidity of the female vagina and the male urethra (acidity caused by the usual use of the penis to excrete urine). These small amounts of pre-ejaculate can contain more than 30,000 sperm in each drop, and again, only one sperm is needed to cause impregnation. Urine is liquid waste excreted by the kidneys and eventually expelled from the body in a process known as urination. ... Categories: Biological reproduction | Biology stubs ...


There are historic records of Egyptian women using a pessary (a vaginal suppository) made of various acidic substances (crocodile dung is alleged) and lubricated with honey or oil, which may have been somewhat effective at killing sperm. However, it is important to note that the sperm cell was not discovered until Anton van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope in the late 17th century, so barrier methods employed prior to that time could not know of the details of conception. Oriental women may have used oiled paper as a cervical cap, and Europeans may have used beeswax for this purpose. The condom appeared sometime in the 17th century, initially made of a length of animal intestine. It was not particularly popular, nor as effective as modern latex condoms, but was employed both as a means of contraception and in the hopes of avoiding syphilis, which was greatly feared and devastating prior to the discovery of antibiotic drugs. This article needs cleanup. ... Anton von Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 _ August 26, 1723) was a tradesman and scientist from Delft, in the Netherlands. ... The cervical cap is a barrier method of contraception. ... A condom is a device, usually made of latex, that covers a mans penis during sexual intercourse to avoid pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as gonorrhea, syphilis and AIDS. They are also known as prophylactics, as well as a number of colloquial or slang terms, such... The extraction of Latex from a tree; Latex is used in Rubber production. ... Depression-era U.S. poster advocating early syphilis treatment Syphilis (historically called lues) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...


Various abortifacients have been used throughout human history. Some of these were effective, some were not; those that were most effective also had major side effects. The ingestion of certain poisons by the female can disrupt the reproductive system; women have drunk solutions containing mercury, arsenic, or other toxic substances for this purpose. The Greek gynaecologist Soranus in the 2nd century AD suggested that women drink water that blacksmiths had used to cool metal. The herbs tansy and pennyroyal are well-known in folklore as abortive agents, but these also "work" by poisoning the woman. Levels of the active chemicals in these herbs that will induce a miscarriage are high enough to damage the liver, kidneys, and other organs, making them very dangerous. However, in those times where risk of maternal death from postpartum complications was high, the risks and side effects of toxic medicines may have seemed less onerous. It is also believed that black cohosh tea will also be effective in certain cases as an abortifacient. An abortifacient is a substance that induces miscarriage or abortion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12 (IIB), 6 , d Density, Hardness liquid 13. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 4, p Density, Hardness 5727 kg/m3, 3. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Soranus was a Sabine god later adopted by the Roman Empire. ... Species Tanacetum bipinnatum Tanacetum camphoratum Tanacetum corymbosum Tanacetum douglasi Tanacetum horonense Tanacetum parthenium Tanacetum pathenium Tanacetum vulgare Ref: ITIS 36321 Tansy can refer to any species of the genus Tanacetum (Asteraceae), but more usually means Tanacetum vulgare, sometimes called common tansy or garden tansy, while the other Tanacetum species always... Binomial nomenclature Mentha pulegium L. This article is for the herb pennyroyal. ...


There are references in Arabic history to traders inserting a small stone into the uterus of a camel in order to prevent it from conceiving, a concept very similar to the modern IUD, but it seems unlikely that this was used as a contraceptive method for humans since knowledge of the female reproductive tract was very limited until the 20th century, and surgical techniques were poor. Female internal reproductive anatomy The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... An intrauterine device (intra meaning within, and uterine meaning of the uterus) is a birth control device also known as an IUD or a coil( this colloquialism is based on the coil-shaped design of early IUDs). ...


Oral contraceptives did not appear until the mid-20th century, when scientists better understood the process of conception and advances in biochemistry allowed for the isolation (and later synthesis) of the hormones controlling the cycle. Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ... Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. ...


Traditional birth control methods

Celibacy may refer either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... Sexual abstinence or chastity is the practice of voluntarily refraining from sexual intercourse and (usually) other sexual activity. ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... Sexual penetration (as opposed to outercourse) typically involves the insertion of the penis into a bodily orifice. ... Roman man and youth having anal sex. ... Oral sex consists of all those sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, tongue, etc. ... Coitus interruptus, also commonly called the withdrawal method, the natural method, pull and pray, or pulling out is an unreliable method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the man removes his penis from the womans vagina just before he reaches orgasm. ... Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ...

Modern birth control methods

Condoms and herbal birth control methods existed before the modern era. The herbal methods were of various degrees of efficacy, and were available in China and Europe. A condom is a device, usually made of latex, that covers a mans penis during sexual intercourse to avoid pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as gonorrhea, syphilis and AIDS. They are also known as prophylactics, as well as a number of colloquial or slang terms, such... A standard latex condom still rolled up This article is about the contraceptive device. ... The diaphragm is a barrier method of contraception: a small rubber dome filled with a spermicidal (sperm killing) cream and placed in the vagina to wall off the cervix, the opening to the uterus, thus preventing sperm from entering. ... The cervical cap is a barrier method of contraception. ... The contraceptive sponge, marketed in the U.S. under the brand Today since about 1990, combines barrier and spermicidal techniques to prevent conception. ... Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ... The term implant has different meanings: in Scientology, see Implant (Scientology) in medicine, see prosthesis This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Norplant is a form of birth control released in 1991 by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, consisting of a set of six small, silicone capsules filled with levonorgestrel, a synthetic progestin used in many birth control pills. ... The Male pill is a colloquial term for a male oral contraceptive. ... Depo Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate) is a birth control product manufactured by Pfizer Inc. ... Spermicides are substances that are sperm killing. ... A contraceptive patch is a transdermal patch applied to the skin that releases synthetic estrogen and progestin hormones to prevent pregnancy. ... The morning-after pill, also known as emergency contraception or emergency birth control, is a pill regimen that a woman can take up to three days after she has had sexual intercourse to prevent the implantation of a fertilized egg in her uterus. ... An abortifacient is a substance that induces miscarriage or abortion. ... An intrauterine device (intra meaning within, and uterine meaning of the uterus) is a birth control device also known as an IUD or a coil( this colloquialism is based on the coil-shaped design of early IUDs). ... Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ... For the process of removing or killing all microorganisms from an object, see Sterilization (microbiology). ... For the process of removing or killing all microorganisms from an object, see Sterilization (microbiology). ... For the process of removing or killing all microorganisms from an object, see Sterilization (microbiology). ... Abortion, in its most common usage, refers to the voluntary or induced termination of a pregnancy, generally through the use of surgical procedures or drugs. ...


Religious and cultural attitudes toward birth control

Protestant Christianity

Christianity in general has had mixed opinions towards contraception and its role in society over the years. Prior to the 1930s, contraception was generally condemned by all the major branches of Christianity, including by major reformers like Luther and Calvin. This condemnation was relaxed by the Episcopalian Church at the 1930 Lambeth Conference, and most Protestant groups followed suit over the course of the 20th century, though some individual Protestants adhere to the traditional view that contraception is wrong. The Episcopal Church may refer to several members of the Anglican Communion, including: Episcopal Church in the United States of America Scottish Episcopal Church Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Episcopal Church of Cuba idk of the Sudan Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church ...


Among Protestant Christianity, the sizeable ELCA, which includes a large number of US Lutheran and Episcopalian churches, makes the following statement: Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America or ELCA is a mainline Protestant denomination headquarted in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Episcopal Church may refer to several members of the Anglican Communion, including: Episcopal Church in the United States of America Scottish Episcopal Church Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Episcopal Church of Cuba idk of the Sudan Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church ...

When [having children] is not their intention, the responsible use of safe, effective contraceptives is expected of the male and the female. Respect and sensitivity should also be shown toward couples who do not feel called to conceive and/or rear children, or who are unable to do so.

This is a fairly overt acceptance of modern contraceptives. The other major Lutheran and Presbyterian associations, as well as other Protestant groups in general, may take other positions. Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Catholic Christianity

Like pre-1930s Protestantism, the Catholic Church has been morally opposed to contraception and orgasmic acts outside of the context of non-contracepted intercourse as far back as one can historically trace. For instance, the 2nd century Epistle of Barnabas takes it for granted that oral sex is immoral. The Epistle of Barnabas is an epistle with twenty-one chapters, contained complete in the Codex Sinaiticus where it appears at the end of the New Testament. ... Oral sex consists of all those sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, tongue, etc. ...


The official position of the Catholic Church regarding birth control is expressed very clearly in Pope Pius XI's 1930 encyclical entitled Casti Connubii. It was written in response to the Episcopalian then-recent approval of artificial means of contraception when used in cases of grave necessity. This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... Pius XI (born Achille Ratti May 31, 1857 - Rome, February 10, 1939) was Pope from February 6, 1922 until February 10, 1939. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Casti Connubii was a papal encyclical promulgated by Pope Pius XI in 1930. ...

Since, therefore, openly departing from the uninterrupted Christian tradition some recently have judged it possible solemnly to declare another doctrine regarding this question, the Catholic Church, ... in order that she may preserve the chastity of the nuptial union from being defiled by this foul stain, ... proclaims anew: any use whatsoever of matrimony exercised in such a way that the act is deliberately frustrated in its natural power to generate life is an offense against the law of God and of nature, and those who indulge in such are branded with the guilt of a grave sin.

In 1968 Pope Paul VI released a document called Humanae Vitae, which again forbade chemical and barrier methods but suggested natural methods such as the rhythm method or natural family planning might be considered in cases of necessity, a suggestion some see implicit in Casti Connubii as well. These methods are known as "periodic abstinence" and are argued to be morally different from positively modifying the couple's fertility, since the modus operandi is abstinence, albeit not all the time. Paul VI, Giovanni Battista Enrica Antonia Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), served as Pope from 1963 to 1978. ... Humanae Vitae (Latin of human life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope Paul VI which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding abortion, contraception, and other issues pertaining to human life. ... Casti Connubii was a papal encyclical promulgated by Pope Pius XI in 1930. ...


Couples seeking marriage in the Catholic Church are required to undergo counseling by a Catholic priest. In the past priests led couples seeking to delay children to rhythm, today they are instructed to point new couples toward the more effective natural family planning. Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ...


Roman Catholic opposition to birth control has been criticized as adding to overpopulation, poverty and destitution. Others also argue that their refusal to allow missionaries to discuss condoms in Africa has added to the AIDS epidemic there. When information regarding condoms is given to African congregations by church leaders it is often factually incorrect stating, for example, that latex is riddled with millions of invisible holes which allow the HIV virus to pass through. [1] (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3176982.stm) World population increase. ... Poverty is the state of being without, often associated with need, hardship and lack of resources across a wide range of cirstance. ... Destitution is an extreme state of poverty, in which a person is almost completely lacking in resources or means of support. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... A standard latex condom still rolled up This article is about the contraceptive device. ... AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. ...


In response, many in the Church claim that there are enough food and other resources on the planet for everyone, and that there is no correlation between population density and wealth or poverty. Some of the richest countries in the world have the densest populations, and vice versa. Supporters of birth control argue that economic growth which allows for a high population density without poverty is a direct function of the availability of birth control, as it leads to smaller families (as is the case in all nations which allow birth control), which in turn have more purchasing power to support themselves and provide their children with education, which is universally recognized as necessary for sustainable growth. Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ...


While many people in third world countries regard children as their only defense against destitution, supporters of birth control argue that the dependency on child labor is a vicious cycle. A higher availability of children as labor forces pushes down wages; more children require more food, which in turn requires the employment of children to bring in the food.


The Church has repeatedly stated its position that condoms are not adequate prevention for sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS, claiming that they are expensive, fallible and liable to provide a false sense of security. Instead the Church argues for sexual abstinence and non-promiscuous sexual relationships. Many scientists dispute the Church's position on condom security, and argue for a mixed approach of preventive measures instead. Some utterly reject sexual abstinence education as misleading (see sex education, sexual abstinence). Sex education is education about sexual reproduction in human beings, sexual intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour. ... Sexual abstinence or chastity is the practice of voluntarily refraining from sexual intercourse and (usually) other sexual activity. ...


In addition to the argument from the essentially unanimous pre-20th century Christian tradition prohibition contraception, Catholic philosophers have proposed three types of philosophical arguments. These arguments are not official Church teaching, but attempts to give a philosophical argument for what might also be accepted on faith.


St. Thomas Aquinas believed that it was wrong to perform a positive act that deliberately frustrates the primary purpose of a human organ. If the sexual organs have reproduction as their primary purpose, then it follows that contraception is wrong. Opponents of this argument claim that not all frustration of the primary purpose of an organ is wrong or that the sexual organs have interpersonal union as a co-primary purpose. Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 - March 7, 1274) was a Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, who gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


As a defense of the teaching of Humanae Vitae, Catholic thinkers John Finnis and Germain Grisez gave a new argument. They considered what it is that is wrong about killing people, and concluded that what is wrong about murder is that one is acting directly and positively against the value of human life. Since birth control when it is done by a positive act such as swallowing a pill or putting on a condom (but not when it is "done" in a negative way, i.e., through abstinence), is directly aimed at preventing the formation of life, it is an act directly and positively against the value of human life, and hence wrong. The Finnis and Grisez argument appears to have the consequence that use of non-abortifacient contraception in cases of danger of rape is also wrong when done to prevent conception, a consequence that is not taught by the Catholic Church since Humanae Vitae never addresses the case of rape. Humanae Vitae (Latin of human life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope Paul VI which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding abortion, contraception, and other issues pertaining to human life. ... Humanae Vitae (Latin of human life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope Paul VI which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding abortion, contraception, and other issues pertaining to human life. ...


Finally, a number of thinkers of the "personalist school", most notably Karol Wojtyła, who was to become Pope John Paul II, argued that contraception is contrary to the interpersonal union that sexual intercourse should cement. The most popular form of this argument asserts that sexual union should involve total mutual bodily self-giving if it is not to be a form of self-deceit. Contraception holds back something significant, namely fertility, and hence is argued to be objectively anti-unitive, even if the couple subjectively feels united (that something is held back is clearest in the case of barrier methods, but it is argued that other methods still involve holding something back from giving). But to act anti-unitively is, it is argued, to act against marital love, and this is wrong. Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


A variant version of this argument states that non-contracepted intercourse makes the couple a biological unit. What makes them a biological unit is that their organs are working together, biologically striving for reproduction, even if the intercourse is at a time when reproduction is biologically impossible. But to deliberately and positively act to make reproduction impossible is to set one's will directly against the activity of the organs that are putatively uniting the couple, and hence against the union of the two persons. Some Catholic thinkers have also employed versions of this biological unit account of intercourse to argue against orgasmic homosexual activity.


Islam

The Qur'an does not make any explicit statements about the morality of contraception, but contains statements encouraging procreation. Various interpretations have been set forth over time, and at the time of this writing, discussions on the web can be found easily that take various positions. Early Muslim literature discusses various contraceptive methods, and a study sponsored by the Egyptian government concluded that not only was azl (coitus interruptus) acceptable from a moral standpoint, but any similar method that did not produce sterility was also acceptable. However, there are several schools of thought on this as well as other issues concerning Islamic morality. The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Graphic representation of the world wide web around Wikipedia The World Wide Web (WWW, or simply Web) is an information space in which the items of interest, referred to as resources, are identified by global identifiers called Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. ... Sterility is the quality or state of being unable to reproduce. ... Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ...


Judaism

Active prevention of pregnancy is in violation of the commandment "be fruitful and multiply" (Genesis 1:22). Rabbinic authorities further consider the possibility (generally not accepted) that a union that by definition cannot lead to pregnancy would amount to "spilling seed", the sin of Onan (Genesis 38:9). A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... This article is about Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible. ... See Semicha for article about ordination of rabbis. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... Onan (אוֹנָן Strong, Standard Hebrew Onan, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÔnān) is a person described in the Bible (book of Genesis). ... This article is about Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


The option of contraception is raised by the Talmud (tractate Yevamot 12b), where the use of a pessary is discussed for women who are too young to get pregnant, presently pregnant, or nursing. In each case either the woman or her child is at risk for serious complications, and this is the basis for many rabbinic authorities permitting contraception in situations where pregnancy would seriously harm the woman. In those cases, the most "natural" method is preferred; as the use of a condom or pessary creates a physical barrier, "the pill" (or and intrauterine device) is preferred by most authorities. The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writing throughout history. ... A condom is a device, usually made of latex, that covers a mans penis during sexual intercourse to avoid pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as gonorrhea, syphilis and AIDS. They are also known as prophylactics, as well as a number of colloquial or slang terms, such... This article needs cleanup. ... Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ... An intrauterine device (intra meaning within, and uterine meaning of the uterus) is a birth control device also known as an IUD or a coil( this colloquialism is based on the coil-shaped design of early IUDs). ...


Contraceptive measures that lead to sterility, especially male sterility (e.g. through vasectomy), are problematic, and a sterilised man may have to separate from his wife (based on Deuteronomy 23:2). Sterility is the quality or state of being unable to reproduce. ... For the process of removing or killing all microorganisms from an object, see Sterilization (microbiology). ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


When Orthodox Jewish couples contemplate the use of contraceptives, they generally consult a rabbi who evaluates the need for the intervention and which method is preferable from a halachic point of view. Orthodox Judaism is one of the three major branches of Judaism. ... See Semicha for article about ordination of rabbis. ... Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ...


A remarkable use of the contraceptive pill in Judaism is by young brides. The laws of family purity state that intercourse cannot take place while a woman is menstruating (see niddah). In order to decrease the chance of menstruation occurring just before (or on) the wedding night, many brides briefly regulate their periods in the months leading up to their wedding. Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ... For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. ... In Judaism, niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew) is technically a state of minor exclusion when a woman is menstruating and for about a week later until she immerses in a ritual bath known as a mikvah. ... In Judaism, niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew) is technically a state of minor exclusion when a woman is menstruating and for about a week later until she immerses in a ritual bath known as a mikvah. ... The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ... This article is about the marriage ceremony. ...


Generally, the introduction of oral contraceptives has not caused the stir in Jewish circles that it caused in other religious groups. It was followed by a number of responsa from rabbinic decisors (poskim) which outlined the proper approach to the new phenomenon. There has been surprisingly little talk of the potential risk of increased promiscuity (z'nut). Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ... For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. ... Note: This is based on an entry from the 1906 public domain Jewish Encyclopedia The responsa literature, known in Hebrew as Sheelot U-teshuvot (questions and answers), is the body of written decisions and rulings given by rabbis to questions addressed to them. ... Posek פוסק (Hebrew; pl. ... Promiscuity is the practice of making relatively unselective, casual and indiscriminate choices. ...


External links

  • [2] (http://www.consumerreports.org/main/content/display_report.jsp?FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=551087&ASSORTMENT%3C%3East_id=333141&bmUID=1115189369630) A Guide to Condoms and birth control methods.

  Results from FactBites:
 
eMedicine - Contraception : Article by Omnia M Samra, MD (10054 words)
It augments contraceptive efficacy of the cervical cap and diaphragm.
The contraceptive efficacy of the method is equivalent to that of surgical sterilization.
Today, the combination contraceptive vaginal ring is a new form of contraception that was approved by the FDA in October 2001.
Birth control - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3311 words)
Oral contraceptives did not appear until the mid-20th century, when scientists better understood the process of conception and advances in biochemistry allowed for the isolation (and later synthesis) of the hormones controlling the cycle.
Contraception holds back something significant, namely fertility, and hence is argued to be objectively anti-unitive, even if the couple subjectively feels united (that something is held back is clearest in the case of barrier methods, but it is argued that other methods still involve holding something back from giving).
The option of contraception is raised by the Talmud (tractate Yevamot 12b), where the use of a pessary is discussed for women who are too young to get pregnant, presently pregnant, or nursing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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