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Encyclopedia > Continuously variable transmission
Transmission types
Manual

Non-synchronous
Automatic “Gearbox” redirects here. ... A manual transmission (also known as a stick shift, straight drive, or standard transmission) is a type of transmission used in automotive applications. ... A sequential manual transmission (or sequential manual gearbox) is a type of manual transmission used on motorbikes and high-performance cars or auto racing, where gears are selected in order and random access to specific gears is not possible. ... A non-synchronous transmission is a form of transmission based on gears that do not use synchronizing mechanisms. ... The automatic gear selector in a Ford Five Hundred vehicle An automatic transmission (commonly abbreviated as AT) is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the vehicle moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually (similar but larger devices are also used for railroad...

Semi-automatic Tiptronic is a type of discrete automatic transmission developed by Porsche and used in its vehicles and those of its licensees. ... Semi-automatic transmission, or also known as clutchless manual transmission, automated manual transmission, e-gear, or paddle shift gearbox is a system which uses electronic sensors, processors and actuators to do gear shifts on the command of the driver. ...

Continuously variable
Bicycle gearing
 v  d  e 

The continuously variable transmission (CVT) is a transmission in which the ratio of the rotational speeds of two shafts, as the input shaft and output shaft of a vehicle or other machine, can be varied continuously within a given range, providing an infinite number of possible ratios. A Twin-clutch gearbox or Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) is a semi-automatic transmission with separate clutches for odd and even gears. ... Saxomat was a type of automatic clutch available as an option on Saab 93, Volkswagen Beetle, Borgward, DKW, BMW, Opel, NSU and Glas. ... Variomatic Variomatic is the stepless, fully automatic transmission of the Dutch car manufacturer DAF, using a drive belt and two pulleys. ... Audi developed a new stepless transmission named Multitronic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Derailleur gears are a variable ratio transmission system commonly used on bicycles, consisting of a chain, multiple sprockets and a mechanism to move the chain from one sprocket to another. ... Hub gears or internal-gear hubs are a type of gear system used on bicycles. ...


The continuously variable transmission should not be confused with the power split transmission (PST), as used in the Toyota Prius and other hybrid vehicles that use two or more inputs with one output, despite some similarities in their function. Hybrid Synergy Drive The Toyota Prius is a hybrid electric vehicle developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation, and one of the first such vehicles to be mass-produced and marketed. ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ...


A CVT need not be automatic, nor include zero or reverse output. Such features may be adapted to CVTs in certain specific applications.


Other mechanical transmissions only allow a few different discrete gear ratios to be selected, but the continuously variable transmission essentially has an infinite number of ratios available within a finite range, so it enables the relationship between the speed of a vehicle, engine, and the driven speed of the wheels to be selected within a continuous range. This can provide better fuel economy than other transmissions by enabling the engine to run at its most efficient speeds within a narrow range. Gears on a piece of farm equipment, gear ratio 1:1. ... Fuel economy in automobiles is the amount of fuel required to move the automobile over a given distance. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ...


CVTs have been refined over the years and are much improved from their origins.

Contents

Types

Infinitely Variable Transmission (IVT)

A specific type of CVT is the infinitely variable transmission (IVT), which has an infinite range of input/output speed ratios in addition to its infinite number of possible ratios; this qualification for the IVT implies that its range of ratios includes a zero output/input speed ratio that can be continuously approached from a defined "higher" ratio. A zero output speed with a finite input speed implies an infinite input-to-output speed ratio, which can be continuously approached from a given finite input value with an IVT. Low gears are a reference to low ratios of output speed to input speed. This ratio is taken to the extreme with IVTs, resulting in a "neutral", or non-driving "low" gear limit, in which the output speed is zero, although, unlike neutral in a normal automotive transmission, the output torque may be non-zero: the output shaft is rigidly fixed at zero speed rather than being freely rotating. Most continuously variable transmissions are not infinitely variable. In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which, intuitively, small changes in the input result in small changes in the output. ...


Most IVTs result from the combination of a CVT with an epicyclic gear system (which is also known as a planetary gear system, and is termed a power split device in this applicaton) which enforces an output shaft rotation speed is equal to the difference between two other speeds (perhaps multiplied by some gear ratio, depending on implementation). If these two other speeds are the input and output of a CVT, there can be a setting of the CVT that results in an output speed of zero. The maximum output/input ratio can be chosen from infinite practical possibilities through selection of additional input or output gear, pulley or sprocket sizes without affecting the zero output or the continuity of the whole system. The IVT is always engaged, even during its zero output adjustment. Epicyclic gearing is used here to increase output speed. ...


The term "infinitely variable transmission" does not imply reverse direction, disengagement, automatic operation, or any other quality except ratio selectability within a continuous range of input/output ratios from a defined minimum to an undefined, "infinite" maximum. This means continuous range from a defined output/input to zero output/input ratio.


IVTs can in some implementations offer better efficiency when compared to other CVTs as in the preferred range of operation, most of the power flows through the planetary gear system and not the controlling CVT. Torque transmission capability can also be increased. There's also possibility to stage power splits for further increase in efficiency, torque transmission capability and better maintenance of efficiency of a wide gear ratio range.


Ratcheting CVT

The Ratcheting CVT is a transmission that relies on static friction and is based on a set of elements that successively become engaged and then disengaged between the driving system and the driven system, often using oscillating or indexing motion in conjunction with one-way clutches or ratchets that rectify and sum only "forward" motion. The transmission ratio is adjusted by changing linkage geometry within the oscillating elements, so that the summed maximum linkage speed is adjusted, even when the average linkage speed remains constant. Power is transferred from input to output only when the clutch or ratchet is engaged, and therefore when it is locked into a static friction mode where the driving & driven rotating surfaces momentarily rotate together without slippage.


These CVTs can transfer substantial torque because their static friction actually increases relative to torque throughput, so slippage is impossible in properly designed systems. Efficiency is generally high because most of the dynamic friction is caused by very slight transitional clutch speed changes. The drawback to ratcheting CVTs is vibration caused by the successive transition in speed required to accelerate the element which must supplant the previously operating & decelerating, power transmitting element. An Infinitely Variable Transmission (IVT) that is based on a Ratcheting CVT and subtraction of one speed from another will greatly amplify the vibration as the IVT output/input ratio approaches zero.


Ratcheting CVTs are distinguished from Variable Diameter Pulleys (VDPs) and Roller-based CVTs by being static friction-based devices, as opposed to being dynamic friction-based devices that waste significant energy through slippage of twisting surfaces.


Variable-diameter pulley (VDP) or Reeves Drive

In this system, there are two V-belt pulleys that are split perpendicular to their axes of rotation, with a V-belt running between them. The gear ratio is changed by moving the two sections of one pulley closer together and the two sections of the other pulley farther apart. Due to the V-shaped cross section of the belt, this causes the belt to ride higher on one pulley and lower on the other. Doing this changes the effective diameters of the pulleys, which changes the overall gear ratio. The distance between the pulleys does not change, and neither does the length of the belt, so changing the gear ratio means both pulleys must be adjusted (one bigger, the other smaller) simultaneously to maintain the proper amount of tension on the belt.


Diagrams:

Roller-based CVT

(marketed as the Traction CVT, Extroid CVT, Nuvinci CVP, or IVT)


Consider two almost-conical parts, point to point, with the sides dished such that the two parts could fill the central hole of a torus. One part is the input, and the other part is the output (they do not quite touch). Power is transferred from one side to the other by one or more rollers. When the roller's axis is perpendicular to the axis of the almost-conical parts, it contacts the almost-conical parts at same-diameter locations and thus gives a 1:1 gear ratio. The roller can be moved along the axis of the almost-conical parts, changing angle as needed to maintain contact. This will cause the roller to contact the almost-conical parts at varying and distinct diameters, giving a gear ratio of something other than 1:1. Systems may be partial or full toroidal. Full toroidal systems are the most efficient design while partial toroidals may still require a torque converter (e.g., Jatco "Extroid"), and hence lose efficiency. In geometry, a torus (pl. ...


Diagrams:

Hydrostatic CVTs

Hydrostatic transmissions use a variable displacement pump and a hydraulic motor. All power is transmitted by hydraulic fluid. These types can generally transmit more torque, but can be sensitive to contamination. Some designs are also very expensive. However, they have the advantage that the hydraulic motor can be mounted directly to the wheel hub, allowing a more flexible suspension system and eliminating efficiency losses from friction in the drive shaft and differential components. This type of transmission is relatively easy to use because all forward and reverse speeds can be accessed using a single lever. A variable displacement pump is a device that converts mechanical energy to hydraulic (fluid) energy. ... Hydraulic fluids are a large group of mineral oils, water-based or water used as the medium in hydraulic systems. ... In this differential, input torque is applied to the ring gear (blue). ...


Versatile Manufacturing first introduced hydrostatic drive in 400 swathers. Hydrostatic quickly became popular with swather and combines. Attempts to use hydrostatic in tractors however were less successful. IH hydro suffered from exxcessive cabin noise and many operators complained of not being able to rest their feet on the cab floor due to heat from the pump.


This type of transmission has been effectively applied to a variety of inexpensive and expensive versions of ridden lawn mowers and garden tractors. Many versions of riding lawn mowers and garden tractors propelled by a hydrostatic transmission are capable of pulling a reverse tine tiller and even a single bladed plow. The largest producers of such transmission are Hydro-Gear®, located in Sullivan, Illinois, and Tuff Torq®, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Kanzaki® (aka Kanzaki Kokyukoki), which is a subsidiary of Yanmar. Some transaxles in this class include Hydro-Gear's 310-0510 and T2® and Tuff Torq's K-46. A typical modern gasoline-powered mower. ... A mini-tractor, also known as a compact tractor, can be used for a variety of purposes in larger gardens: lawn mowing, leaf sweeping, cultivating, removing snow, pulling a cart. ... Yanmar Co. ...


One class of riding lawn mower that has recently gained in popularity with consumers is zero turning radius mowers. These mowers have traditionally been powered with wheel hub mounted hydraulic motors driven by continuously variable pumps, but this design is relatively expensive. Hydro-Gear®, a joint venture between Sauer-Danfoss and Agri-Fab, Inc., of Sullivan, Illinois, created the first cost-effective integrated hydrostatic transaxle suitable for propelling consumer zero turning radius mowers. An integrated hydrostatic transaxle (IHT) uses a single housing for both hydraulic elements and gear-reducing elements. As of November 2007, Hydro-Gear® remains the only company producing integrated hydrostatic transaxles for consumer zero turning radius mowers in North America. Among the currently produced models are the IZT®, EZT®, and the ZT-2800®. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Sauer-Danfoss (NYSE: SHS; formerly Sauer-Sundstrand and Danfoss Fluid Power until 2000) designs, manufactures and markets engineered hydraulic, electric and electronic systems and components, for use primarily in applications of mobile equipment. ...


Some heavy equipment may also be propelled by a hydrostatic transmission; e.g. agricultural machinery including foragers combines and some tractors. However, Hydrostats are usually not used for extended duration high torque applications due the heat that is generated by the flowing oil. Excavator. ...


Hydristor IVT

Main article: Hydristor

The Hydristor torque converter is a true IVT in that the front unit connected to the engine can displace from zero to 27 cubic inches per revolution forward and zero to -10 cubic inches per revolution reverse. The rear unit is capable of zero to 75 cubic inches per revolution. The common "kidney port" plate between the two sections communicates the hydraulic fluid under pressure and suction return in a "serpentine-torodial" flow path between the two Hydristor internal units. The IVT ratio is determined by the ratio of input displacement to output displacement. Therefore, the theoretical range of Hydristor IVT ratios is 1/infinity to +-infinity/1 but real-world ratios are constrained by physics. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Simkins' Ratcheting CVT

This transmission is an example of a Ratcheting CVT, prototyped as a bicycle transmission, protected under U.S. Patent #5516132. The input is the crank with a round hub integrated with it, and an array of twelve arms that are pivotally mounted to pins in the hub circle. Each arm has a pinion gear mounted on a one way clutch that allows only clockwise rotation of the pinion relative to the arm. All of these pinions are engaged with a large ring gear that is integrated with the chainwheel as the output, and the ring gear/chainwheel assembly is mounted to a mechanism that enables it to be adjusted from a position of concentricity with the crank hub to various amounts of eccentricity with the crank hub. Adjustment of this eccentricity variably changes the output/input ratio from 1:1 to 2.6:1 as the ring gear/sprocket assembly is moved from a position concentric with the crank hub to an eccentric position.


The eccentricity control mechanism is connected to a spring that pushes the transmission into its eccentric high gear position. The largest spread of the arms is indicative of the gear ratio because the spreading arms are the only arms whose pinions (and one-way clutches) are locked and driving the ring gear/chainwheel assembly. Strong pedaling torque causes this mechanism to react against the spring, moving the ring gear/chainwheel assembly toward a concentric, lower gear position. When the pedaling torque relaxes to lower levels, the transmission self-adjusts toward higher gears, accompanied by an increase in transmission vibration. This transmission behaves according to the definition of a Ratcheting CVT.


Variable toothed wheel CVT

Variable toothed wheel transmission relies on a toothed wheel positively engaged with a chain where the toothed wheel has the ability to add or subtract a tooth at a time in order to alter its ratio with relation to the chain it is driving. The "toothed wheel" can take on many configurations as is listed below in the patent specifications and include ladder chains, drive bars and sprocket teeth. This type of CVT is not a true CVT that can alter its ratio in infinite increments but rather approaches CVT capability by having a large number of ratios, typical 49, as is described in the VW owned German patent application DE10010741A1. The huge advantage of this type of CVT is that it is a positive mechanical drive and thus does not have the frictional losses and limitations of the Roller based or VDP CVT’s. The challenge in this type of CVT is to add or subtract a tooth from the toothed wheel in a very precise and controlled way in order to maintain synchronized engagement with the chain. This type of transmission has the potential to change ratios under load because of the large number of ratios resulting in the order of 3% ratio change differences between ratios, thus a clutch or torque converter is only necessary for pull away. None of this type of CVT is in commercial use probably because of above mentioned development challenges. Other examples of this type of CVT can be found in the following patent specifications: US5406863, WO9404411, US2669885, and WO2005036028.


Diagram and video clip


iCVT


Girotto iCVT

The Girotto iCVT is a mechanical transmission with a variable transmission ratio between an input rotor and an output rotor coupled together by means of a coupling freewheel for transmission of the rotary movement, characterized in that it comprises between the input rotor and the output rotor one or more free wheels arranged in cascade with the coupling free wheel and able to transmit to one of the two rotors the rotary movement supplied by the coupling free wheel. "Rotor" is understood as meaning clearly any rotating mechanical part able to transmit, receive or transfer rotary movement. Publication number: EP1688645


Advantages and drawbacks

Compared to hydraulic automatic transmissions: The automatic gear selector in a Ford Five Hundred vehicle An automatic transmission (commonly abbreviated as AT) is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the vehicle moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually (similar but larger devices are also used for railroad...

  • CVTs can smoothly compensate for changing vehicle speeds, allowing the engine speed to remain at its level of peak efficiency. They might also avoid torque converter losses. This improves both fuel economy and exhaust emissions. However, some units (e.g., Jatco "Extroid") also employ a torque converter. Fuel efficiency advantages as high as 20% over four-speed automatics can be obtained.
  • CVTs have much smoother operation. This can give a perception of low power, because many drivers expect a jerk when they begin to move the vehicle. The expected jerk of a non-CVT can be emulated by CVT control software though, eliminating this marketing problem.
  • Since the CVT keeps the engine turning at constant RPMs over a wide range of vehicle speeds, pressing on the accelerator pedal will make the car move faster but doesn't change the sound coming from the engine as much as a conventional automatic transmission gear-shift. This confuses some drivers and, again, leads to a mistaken impression of a lack of power.
  • Most CVTs are simpler to build and repair [citation needed].
  • CVT torque handling capability is limited by the strength of their belt or chain, and by their ability to withstand friction wear between torque source and transmission medium for friction-driven CVTs. CVTs in production prior to 2005 are predominantly belt or chain driven and therefore typically limited to low powered cars and other light duty applications. More advanced IVT units using advanced lubricants, however, have been proven to support any amount of torque in production vehicles, including that used for buses, heavy trucks, and earth moving equipment.

rpm or RPM may mean: revolutions per minute RPM Package Manager (originally called Red Hat Package Manager) RPM (movie) RPM (band), a Brazilian rock band RPM (magazine), a former Canadian music industry magazine In firearms, Rounds Per Minute: how many shots an automatic weapon can fire in one minute On... In physics, mechanical efficiency is the effectiveness of a machine and is defined as Efficiency is often indicated by a percentage, the efficiency of an ideal machine is 100%. Due to the fact that energy cannot emerge from nothing and the Second law of thermodynamics which states that the quality... ZF torque converter A cut-away model of a torque converter A torque converter is a modified form of a hydrodynamic fluid coupling, and like the fluid coupling, is used to transfer rotating power from a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine or electric motor, to a rotating... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... Look up exhaust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transferred. ... Look up jerk, jolt, surge, lurch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... rpm or RPM may mean: revolutions per minute RPM Package Manager (originally called Red Hat Package Manager) RPM (movie) RPM (band), a Brazilian rock band RPM (magazine), a former Canadian music industry magazine In firearms, Rounds Per Minute: how many shots an automatic weapon can fire in one minute On... Torque applied via an adjustable end wrench Relationship between force, torque, and momentum vectors in a rotating system In physics, torque (or often called a moment) can informally be thought of as rotational force or angular force which causes a change in rotational motion. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transferred. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ...

History

Leonardo da Vinci, in 1490, conceptualized a stepless continuously variable transmission. [1] The first patent for a toroidal CVT was filed in 1886. [2] “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


From the 1950s, CVTs have been applied to aircraft electrical power generating systems. the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ...


A CVT, called Variomatic, was designed and built by the Dutchman Hub van Doorne, co-founder of Van Doorne's Automobiel Fabriek (DAF), in the late 1950s, specifically to produce an automatic transmission for a small, affordable car. The first DAF car using van Doorne's CVT, the DAF 600,[1] was produced in 1958. Van Doorne's patents were later transferred to a company called VDT (Van Doorne Transmissie B.V.) when the passenger car division was sold to Volvo; it's CVT was used in Volvo 340. Variomatic Variomatic is the stepless, fully automatic transmission of the Dutch car manufacturer DAF, using a drive belt and two pulleys. ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ... DAF Trucks NV is a Dutch truck manufacturing company and a division of PACCAR. Its headquarters and main plant are in Eindhoven. ... The DAF 600 is a small family car that was DAFs first production passenger car, and manufactured from 1959 until 1963. ... Volvo Cars, or Volvo Personvagnar, is a well-known Swedish automobile maker founded in 1927 in the city of Gothenburg in Sweden. ... The Volvo 300 series consisted of the Volvo 340 (initially badged 345 and 343) and Volvo 360 The Volvo 340 is a rear wheel drive hatchback and from the mid-1980s onwards saloon developed in The Netherlands shortly after Volvo took over the DAF car company. ...


The Ford Fiesta and Fiat Uno were the first mainstream European cars to be equipped with steel-belted CVT (as opposed to the less robust rubber-belted DAF design), in 1987. The Ford Fiesta is a mid-class supermini car designed and built by the Ford Motor Company in Europe, and also manufactured in Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, China, India and South Africa. ... The Fiat Uno is a supermini produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


In the 1980s and 1990s, the Subaru Justy was offered with a CVT. While the Justy saw only limited success, Subaru continues to use CVT in its keicars to this day, while also supplying it to other manufacturers. The Subaru Justy is a Subaru subcompact hatchback automobile in production since 1984. ... Example: Daihatsu Copen Example: Daihatsu Cuore Example: Suzuki Cappuccino Example: Subaru R1 Keicar (K-car), also called keijidōsha (in Japanese: 軽自動車 light motor vehicle), is a Japanese category of small automobiles, including passenger cars and also vans and pick-up trucks for commercial use. ...


Nissan first introduced CVT in the 1992 Nissan March with a unit sourced from Subaru. In the late 1990s, Nissan designed its own CVT that allowed for higher torque, and includes a torque converter. This gearbox was used in a number of Japanese market models. Nissan is also the only car maker to bring roller-based CVT to the market in recent years. Their toroidal CVT, named the Extroid, was available in the Japanese market Y34 Nissan Gloria and V35 Skyline GT-8. However, the gearbox was not carried over when the Cedric/Gloria was replaced by the Nissan Fuga in 2004. The Nissan March ) is a supermini produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan Motors since 1982. ... ZF torque converter A cut-away model of a torque converter A torque converter is a modified form of a hydrodynamic fluid coupling, and like the fluid coupling, is used to transfer rotating power from a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine or electric motor, to a rotating... The Nissan Cedric is a large luxurious automobile produced by Nissan since 1960. ... The Nissan Skyline is a mid-size car originally produced by the Japanese automaker Prince Motor Company starting in 1957 and later by Nissan Motor Co. ... The Fuga will be a full-size luxury car from Nissan of Japan when it is introduced in 2005. ...


After studying pulley-based CVT for years, Honda also introduced their own version on the 1995 Honda Civic VTi. Dubbed Honda Multi Matic, this CVT gearbox accepted higher torque than traditional pulley CVTs, and also includes a torque converter for "creep" action. The CVT is also currently employed in the Honda City ZX that is manufactured in India. The Honda Civic is a compact car manufactured by Honda. ...


Toyota introduced the E-CVT in the 1997 Prius, and all subsequent Toyota and Lexus hybrids sold internationally continue to use the system (marketed under the Hybrid Synergy Drive name). Although sold as a CVT it is in fact not such a device as the gear ratios are fixed and the transmission is actually a Power Split Transmission (PST), allowing either the electric motor or the ICE (internal combustion engine) or both to propel the vehicle. The response of the complete system (under computer control) is similar in feel to a CVT in that the ICE speed is relatively low and constant under low power or high and constant under high power. This article is about the automaker. ... Hybrid Synergy Drive The Toyota Prius is a hybrid electric vehicle developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation, and one of the first such vehicles to be mass-produced and marketed. ... This article is about the automaker. ... Lexus is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corporation. ... Hybrid Synergy Drive, (HSD) is a set of hybrid car technologies developed by Toyota and used in that companys Prius, Highlander Hybrid, Camry Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h, Lexus GS 450h, and Lexus LS 600h/LS 600hL automobiles. ... The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ...


BMW used a belt-drive CVT as an option for the low and middle range MINI in 2001, forsaking it only on the supercharged version of the car where the increased torque levels demanded a conventional automatic gearbox. The CVT could also be manually "shifted" if desired with software simulated shift points. For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... The BMW or New MINI is a car produced by BMW since 2001. ...


General Motors designed a CVT for use in small cars, which was first offered in 2002. After just three years, however, this transmission will be phased out in favor of conventional planetary automatic transmissions. General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Epicyclic gearing is used here to increase output speed. ... The automatic gear selector in a Ford Five Hundred vehicle An automatic transmission (commonly abbreviated as AT) is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the vehicle moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually (similar but larger devices are also used for railroad...


Audi has, since 2000, offered a chain-type CVT as an option on some of its larger-engine models, for example the A4 3.0 L V6. Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and has been an almost wholly owned (99. ... Roller chain and sprocket Roller chain or bush roller chain is the type of chain most commonly used for transmission of mechanical power on bicycles, motorcycles, and in industrial and agricultural machinery. ... The Audi A4 is a compact executive car produced by the German automaker Audi since 1994. ... The Ford Essex V6 engine V6 and V-6 redirect here. ...


Ford introduced a chain-driven CVT known as the CFT30 — with a maximum torque capacity of 221 ft·lbf (300 N·m) — in their 2005 Ford Freestyle, Ford Five Hundred and Mercury Montego. The transmission was designed in cooperation with German automotive supplier ZF Friedrichshafen and was produced in Batavia, Ohio at Batavia Transmissions LLC (a subsidiary of Ford Motor Company) until 3/22/07. The Batavia plant also produced the belt-driven CFT23 CVT which went in the Ford Focus C-MAX and Escape Hybrid and still produces the 4-speed automatic (CD4E) for the Ford Escape and Mazda Tribute. Ford also sold Escort (European version) and Orion models in Europe with CVTs in the 1980s and 1990s. Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... For minivan, see Ford Freestar. ... The Ford Five Hundred (code name D258) was a full-size sedan produced by the Ford Motor Company during the 2005 to 2007 model years. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mercury Montego The Mercury Montego, (presumably derived from Montego Bay, Jamaica) was a mid-size vehicle in Fords Mercury line. ... ZF Friedrichshafen AG (meaning Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen Aktiengesellschaft which was until 1992 the name of the company) is a leading supplier of automobile transmissions. ... The Ford Escape (designated U204) is a compact SUV sold by the automaker Ford Motor Company beginning in the 2001 model year and priced below the Ford Explorer. ...


ZF Friedrichshafen supplied its belt drive VT-1 CVT unit to BMW for use in some versions of the European Mini Cooper. ZF Friedrichshafen AG (meaning Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen Aktiengesellschaft which was until 1992 the name of the company) is a leading supplier of automobile transmissions. ...


The 2007 Dodge Caliber[3] and the related Jeep Compass employ a CVT using a variable pulley system as their optional automatic transmission. The Dodge Caliber is a compact car produced by the Dodge division of the Chrysler Group. ... The Jeep Compass (MK) is a compact crossover SUV introduced for the 2007 model year. ...


Contract agreements were established in 2006 between MTD and Torotrak for the first full toroidal system to be manufactured for outdoor power equipment such as jet skis, ski-mobiles and ride-on mowers.


Examples

Many small tractors for home and garden use have simple hydrostatic or rubber belt CVTs. For example, the John Deere Gator line of small utility vehicles (used by many parks, stadiums, colleges, and other places where miscellaneous items must be displaced by laborers) use a belt with a conical pulley system. They can deliver a lot of power but can also build up speed to 10-15 MPH, all without need for a clutch or gearshift. Most snowmobiles use CVTs. Most new motorscooters today are equipped with CVT. Virtually all snowmobile and motor scooter CVTs are rubber belt/variable pulley CVTs. John Deere Gator the Gator is a Small utility vehicle produced by john deere. ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park. ... A typical mid 1980s twist and go scooter. ...


Some combine harvesters have CVTs. The machinery of a combine is adjusted to operate best at a particular engine speed. The CVT allows the forward speed of the combine to be adjusted independently of the engine speed. This allows the operator to slow down and speed up as needed to accommodate variations in thickness of the crop. A Caterpillar LEXION Combine. ...


CVTs have been used in SCCA Formula 500 race cars since the early 1970s. The SCCA could be considered the grass-roots level of auto racing in the United States. ... an. ...


More recently, CVT systems have been developed for go-karts and have proved to increase performance and engine life expectancy. The Tomcar range of off-road vehicles also utilizes the CVT system. Karting, go-kart, go carting and similar terms redirect here. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Some older drill presses contain a pulley-based CVT where the output shaft (which the chuck is connected to) has a pair of manually-adjustable conical pulley halves to which a wide drive belt from the motor loops through. The pulley on the motor, however, is usually fixed in diameter, or may have a series of given-diameter steps to allow a selection of speed ranges. A handwheel on the drill press, marked with a scale corresponding to the desired machine speed, is mounted to a reduction gearing system for the operator to precisely control the width of the gap between the pulley halves. This gap width thus adjusts the gearing ratio between the motor's fixed pulley and the output shaft's variable pulley, changing speed of the chuck; a tensioner pulley is implemented in the belt transmission to take up or release the slack in the belt as the speed is altered. However, the drill press' speed almost always cannot be changed without the motor running. Hand held A bit and brace, a hand-powered drill. ...


New automobiles equipped with CVT

The Audi A4 is a compact executive car produced by the German automaker Audi since 1994. ... C4 Audi S4 sedan- note this is the high-performance version of the 100, not an A6 The Audi A6 is a mid-size luxury car / executive car produced by the German automaker Audi. ... The Dodge Caliber is a compact car produced by the Dodge division of the Chrysler Group. ... The Fiat Punto is a supermini produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat since 1993. ... The Ford Escape Hybrid, launched in 2004, is a gas-electric hybrid powered version of the Ford Escape SUV developed by the Ford Motor Company. ... The Ford Five Hundred (code name D258) was a full-size sedan produced by the Ford Motor Company during the 2005 to 2007 model years. ... The Ford Focus C-MAX is a compact MPV designed by Ford for the European market and built since 2003. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... For minivan, see Ford Freestar. ... Main article: Honda Civic The Honda Civic Hybrid is a hybrid version of the Honda Civic sedan. ... The Honda City is a subcompact car manufactured by the Japanese manufacturer Honda since 1981 for the Asian market. ... The Honda HR-V is a mini SUV produced by the Japanese automaker Honda since 1999. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1993 Honda Jazz SUV 2003 Honda Jazz hatchback This article is about the use of the Jazz nameplate. ... The Honda Fit is a five-door hatchback automobile produced by Honda of Japan, that was first introduced in June 2001. ... The Honda Stream is a minivan manufactured by Honda. ... The Jeep Compass (MK) is a compact crossover SUV introduced for the 2007 model year. ... The Jeep Patriot is a compact crossover SUV to be introduced in early 2007 for the 2007 model year by the Jeep marque of DaimlerChrysler. ... The Lexus GS is a series of mid-size luxury sports sedans / executive cars sold by Lexus, the luxury division of Toyota. ... The Lexus RX400h is a second-generation Hybrid SUV, powered by a 3. ... The Lexus LS is a full-size luxury sedan that serves as the flagship of Lexus, the luxury division of Toyota. ... 2004 Mercedes-Benz W169 A200 The Mercedes-Benz A-Class (popularly known in the U.S. as the Baby Benz) is a small family car produced by the German automaker Mercedes-Benz. ... Mercedes-Benz B-Class W245 The B-Class (W245) is a compact MPV from Mercedes-Benz introduced in March 2005. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mercury Montego The Mercury Montego, (presumably derived from Montego Bay, Jamaica) was a mid-size vehicle in Fords Mercury line. ... Todays Mitsubishi Colt is a supermini built by Mitsubishi Motors at their NedCar plant in the Netherlands, using the same underpinnings as its sister car, the now discontinued Smart Forfour. ... MIVECâ„¢ (Mitsubishi Innovative Valve timing Electronic Control system)[1] is the brand name of a variable valve timing engine technology developed by Mitsubishi Motors. ... INVECS (Intelligent & Innovative Vehicle Electronic Control System)[1] is the brand name used by Mitsubishi Motors for its electronic transmission technologies. ... The Mitsubishi Lancer is a compact car built by Mitsubishi Motors. ... MIVECâ„¢ (Mitsubishi Innovative Valve timing Electronic Control system)[1] is the brand name of a variable valve timing engine technology developed by Mitsubishi Motors. ... INVECS (Intelligent & Innovative Vehicle Electronic Control System)[1] is the brand name used by Mitsubishi Motors for its electronic transmission technologies. ... The Mitsubishi Lancer is a compact car built by Mitsubishi Motors. ... MIVECâ„¢ (Mitsubishi Innovative Valve timing Electronic Control system)[1] is the brand name of a variable valve timing engine technology developed by Mitsubishi Motors. ... INVECS (Intelligent & Innovative Vehicle Electronic Control System)[1] is the brand name used by Mitsubishi Motors for its electronic transmission technologies. ... The Mitsubishi Outlander is a compact crossover SUV manufactured by Japanese automaker Mitsubishi Motors. ... MIVECâ„¢ (Mitsubishi Innovative Valve timing Electronic Control system)[1] is the brand name of a variable valve timing engine technology developed by Mitsubishi Motors. ... INVECS (Intelligent & Innovative Vehicle Electronic Control System)[1] is the brand name used by Mitsubishi Motors for its electronic transmission technologies. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The BMW or New MINI is a car produced by BMW since 2001. ... For the Final Fantasy Tactics character, see Altima (Final Fantasy Tactics). ... The Nissan Cube is a compact minivan produced by Nissan and sold in the Japanese Domestic Market. ... The Nissan Maxima is a car manufactured by Nissan that is in a line of upper mid-size executive and sports sedans. ... The Nissan Micra is a supermini produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan Motors since 1982. ... 2004 Murano SE in black (Front) 2004 Murano SE in black (Back) The Nissan Murano is a near-luxury mid-size crossover SUV manufactured by Nissan Motors which began retail sales in the 2003 model year, originally as the top-of-the-line SUV, which was larger than the Pathfinder... The Nissan Primera is a large family saloon produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan for the domestic and European markets. ... The Nissan Qashqai (Nissan Dualis in Japan, Nissan Rogue in the US, Nissan CCUV in China) is a compact crossover SUV to be released in early 2007 in Europe and Japan by the Japanese automaker Nissan. ... The Nissan Rogue is a new compact crossover SUV to be released in early 2007 for the 2008 model year by the Japanese automaker Nissan. ... The Nissan Sentra is a small car made by automaker Nissan Motors and is generally a rebadged export version of the Japanese Nissan Sunny. ... Mid-90s Nissan Serena The Nissan Serena started life as a very small people carrier, but grew larger over time. ... The Nissan Skyline is a mid-size car originally produced by the Japanese automaker Prince Motor Company starting in 1957 and later by Nissan Motor Co. ... The Nissan Teana is a front wheel drive mid-size automobile produced by Nissan of Japan, introduced in 2003. ... The Nissan Tiida is a subcompact car manufactured by Japanese automaker Nissan, replacing both the long-running Pulsar and the Sunny models as of September 30, 2004. ... Versa is the North American name for this vehicle, see Nissan Tiida for article The Nissan Versa is a new subcompact car from Nissan starting with the 2007 model year in North America. ... The Opel Vectra is a large family car produced by Opel, the main European subsidiary of General Motors. ... The Rover 25 was launched in autumn 1999 as a facelifted version of the 200 Series which had been in production since the summer of 1995. ... In the autumn of 1999, Rover gave the 400 Series a facelift and a new name - Rover 45. ... The Rover Streetwise is a small car made by Rover. ... The Saturn ION was a compact car sold by the Saturn marque of American automaker General Motors. ... The Saturn VUE is a mid-size crossover SUV from General Motors Saturn marque, and is Saturns top-selling model in the United States. ... The Subaru R1 was introduced on January 4, 2005. ... The Subaru R2 was announced in Japan on December 8, 2003. ... The Subaru Stella is a Japanese automobile produced by Subaru. ... under the hood of a Highlander The Toyota Highlander (called Kluger in Japan and Australia) is a model of SUV assembled by Toyota Motor Corp. ... 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid The Toyota Camry Hybrid is a hybrid version of Toyotas popular Camry sedan, introduced for the 2007 model year in May 2006. ... Hybrid Synergy Drive The Toyota Prius is a hybrid electric vehicle developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation, and one of the first such vehicles to be mass-produced and marketed. ...

Old automobiles equipped with CVT

The DAF 600 is a small family car that was DAFs first production passenger car, and manufactured from 1959 until 1963. ... The DAF 33 was a compact saloon car produced by the DAF company of Limburg, in the Netherlands between 1967 and 1974. ... The DAF 44 is a small family car that was manufactured by the Dutch company DAF. ^ a b 44. ... The DAF 46 is a small family car that was manufactured by the Dutch company DAF. It was introduced in 1974 to replace the 44. ... The DAF 55 is a small family car that was manufactured by the Dutch company DAF. ^ a b c d e 55. ... The DAF 66 was a small car produced by the Dutch company DAF in the 1970s. ... The Fiat Uno is a supermini produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat. ... The Ford Fiesta is a mid-class supermini car designed and built by the Ford Motor Company in Europe, and also manufactured in Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, China, India and South Africa. ... The Nissan Micra is a supermini produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan Motors since 1982. ... The Subaru Justy is a Subaru subcompact hatchback automobile in production since 1984. ... The Volvo 66 was a relabelled DAF 66, a revised car originally styled by Michelotti. ... Volvo 340DL, model 1986-1991 The Volvo 300 series is a rear wheel drive automobile sold as both a hatchback and a conventional saloon. ... The Volvo 440 is a family car produced by the Swedish automaker Volvo Cars. ... The Volvo 460 is the saloon version of the Volvo 440. ... The Daewoo Matiz is a city car produced by the South Korean automaker GM Daewoo since 1998. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hilton Holloway, Martin Buckley (2002). 20th Century Cars. Carlton. ISBN 1-84222-835-8. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
InsightCentral.net - Encyclopedia - Honda Insight CVT (1738 words)
Note that while the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius both offer CVT transmissions that both provide stepless acceleration and a continuous range of motor speed to vehicle speed ratios, the Prius CVT (called 'ECVT' by Toyota) system is mechanically entirely different.
The CVT transmission used in the Insight is very similar to the CVT transmission that Honda has used in other vehicles, including the Civic HX in the United States, and the Honda Logo in Europe and Japan.
The CVT transmission consists of an oil-pressure variable input (aka "driving") and output (aka "driven") pulley, and a metal belt that connects the two.
Continuously variable transmission system - Patent 6837818 (1991 words)
Continuously variable transmission system according to claim 3, wherein a first coupling is provided for switching the sun wheel and the planet carrier between a mutually fixed position and a mutually rotatable position and a second coupling for switching the ring gear between a freely rotatable position and a fixed position.
Continuously variable transmission system according to claim 7, wherein the differential mechanism is coupled to its pulley set through gear wheels, the differential mechanism overlapping its pulley set in such a way that the wheel shafts run parallel and next to the differential mechanism's pulley set, or are perpendicular to the differential mechanism's pulley set.
Continuously variable transmission system according to claim 1, wherein the drive means of the pulley sets, the forward-reverse control and the clutch are in a closed loop configuration with the control means.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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