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Encyclopedia > Continuo

Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. Which octave each note is played in, and what, if any, embellishments are to be added, is left to be improvised by the performer, but the indicated intervals must be played.


Basso continuo

Figured bass is most often found in basso continuo parts, particularly common in Baroque music era, around 1600 - 1750. The basso continuo instrumentalists, such as harpsichordist, lutenist or whoever is playing the chords in the continuo part, will employ it. The name is sometimes shortened to continuo and occasionally translated as thorough-bass. The term is also applied to the musical instruments playing this type of accompaniment.

A basso continuo part is made by the performer by creating (or "realizing") an accompaniment from a composed bass part by improvising harmony above the written notes. The chords to be played are either determined with reference to the other written parts in the piece or else by interpreting numbers written by the composer beneath the bass part (known as figured bass).

The instruments used to play continuo parts vary and their selection is largely based on taste. In modern performances, the combination of cello (which just plays the bass notes) and harpsichord is frequently used, but in the Baroque period various other instruments were employed, including the viola da gamba, theorbo, and the organ.

Basso continuo though continued to be used in many works in the classical period (up to around 1800). Examples of its use in the 19th century are rarer, but they do exist: masses by Anton Bruckner, for example, have a basso continuo part for the organist to play.


It is also sometimes used by classical musicians as a shorthand way of indicating chords (though it is not generally used in modern musical compositions). A form of figured bass is used in notation of accordion music. Today the most common use of figured bass notation is to indicate the inversion, however, often without the staff notation, using letter note names followed with the figure, for instance the bass note C in 64 figured bass would be written .

Although the exact figurations played above the indicated bass-line were originally improvised by the performer, modern editions of music originally written with a continuo part usually supply a keyboard part in which an arrangement the harmonies are fully written out for the player, eliminating the need for improvisation. With the rise in historically informed performance, however, the number of performers who improvise their parts, similiarly to what would have been done when the pieces were first written, has increased.


A part notated with figured bass consists of a bass-line notated in the normal western manner (with notes on a musical staff) plus added numbers and accidentals beneath the staff to indicate at what intervals above the bass notes should be played, and therefore which inversions of which chords are to be played.

The numbers indicate the number of notes above the given bass-line that a note should be played. For example:

Image:C with 64 figured bass.png

Here, the bass note is a C, and the numbers 4 and 6 indicate that notes a fourth and a sixth above it should be played, that is an F and an A. In other words, the second inversion of an F major chord is to be played.

In cases where the numbers 3 or 5 would normally be indicated, these are usually (though not always) left out, owing to the frequency these intervals occur. For example:

Image:CBG with - 6 7 figured bass.png

In this sequence, the first note has no numbers accompanying it - both the 3 and the 5 have been omitted. This means that notes a third above and a fifth above should be played - in other words, a root position chord. The next note has a 6, indicating a note a sixth above it should be played; the 3 has been omitted - in other words, this chord is a first inversion. The note has only a 7 accompanying it; here, as in the first note, both the 3 and the 5 have been omitted - the seven indicates the chord is a seventh chord. The whole sequence is equivalent to:

Image:Chords C-B63-G7.png

except, as already stated, the performer may choose himself which octave to play the notes in and will normally elaborate them in some way rather than play straight chords.

Sometimes, other numbers are omitted: a 4 on its own indicates 64; a 2 on its own or 42 indicate 642; and a 9 on its own or 97 indicate 9753.

Sometimes the figured bass changes but the bass note itself does not. In these cases the new figures are written wherever in the bar they are meant to occur. In the following example, the top line is supposed to be a melody instrument and is given merely to indicate the rhythm (it is not part of the figured bass itself):

Image:C with 6-5 in figured bass.png

When the bass note changes but the notes in the chord above it are to be held, a line is drawn next to the figure or figures to indicate this:

Image:C-B with 6-line in figured bas.png

The line extends for as long as the chord is to be held.


When an accidental is shown on its own without a number, it applies to the third of the chord; otherwise it applies to whichever note it is shown next to. For example, this:

Image:E with sharp and C with b6b figured bass.png

is equivalent to this:

Image:Emaj and Abmaj chords.png

Sometimes the accidental is placed after the number rather than before it.

Alternatively, a cross placed next to a number indicates that the pitch of that note should be raised by a semitone (so that if it is normally a flat it becomes a natural, and if it is normally a natural it becomes a sharp). A different way to indicate this is to draw a bar though the number itself. The following three notations, therefore, all indicate the same thing:

Image:Cs with natural6, 6 and barred6.png

External link

  • Chords that the (major) Scale Degrees (in the bass) Can Imply (http://www-student.furman.edu/users/r/rkelley/scaledegrharm.htm) by Robert Kelley

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