FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Continuation War
Continuation War
Part of Eastern Front of World War II

Finnish StuG III Ausf. G assault guns.
Date 25 June 194119 September 1944
Location Finland, Karelia and Murmansk
Result Soviet victory; Moscow Armistice
Belligerents
Flag of Finland Finland
Flag of Nazi Germany Germany
Flag of Italy Italy1
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom2
Commanders
Flag of Finland C.G.E. Mannerheim Flag of the Soviet Union Kirill Meretskov
Flag of the Soviet Union Leonid Govorov
Strength
530,000 Finns[1]
220,000 Germans
900,000–1,500,000 Soviets[2]
Casualties and losses
58,715 dead or missing
158,000 wounded
1,500 civilian deaths[3]
3401 captured
200,000 dead or missing
385,000 wounded
190,000 hospitalized due to sickness
64,000 captured[2]
4,000-7,000 civilian deaths
1 Italy was officially at war with the Soviet Union from June 1941, but the country's involvement in the Continuation War itself was limited to a flotilla of minor warships that operated in Lake Ladoga.
2 Although the United Kingdom formally declared war on Finland on 6 December 1941, there was only one British attack on Finnish soil - an air raid at Petsamo[4] carried out on 31 July 1941.

The Continuation War (Finnish: Jatkosota, Swedish: Fortsättningskriget, Russian: Советско-финская война; (1941—1944)) was the second of two wars fought between Finland and the Soviet Union during World War II. It lasted from 25 June 1941 until 19 September 1944. Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (930 × 581 pixel, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source http://www. ... The Sturmgeschütz III (StuG III) assault gun was Nazi Germanys most produced armoured fighting vehicle during World War II. It was built on the chassis of the Panzer III tank. ... German StuG III with high-velocity 75 mm gun, 1943 An assault gun is a gun or howitzer mounted on a motor vehicle or armored chassis, designed for use in the direct fire role in support of infantry when attacking other infantry or fortified positions. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... The areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Continuation War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Kirill Afanasievich Meretskov (Russian: Кирилл Афанасьевич Мерецков) (June 7, 1897 - December 30, 1968) was a Soviet military commander. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Leonid Aleksandrovich Govorov (Russian Леонид Александрович Говоров) (February 22, 1897 - March 19, 1955), Soviet military commander, was born in the village of Butyrki in central Russia (now in Kirov Oblast). ... The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... Battle of the Baltic concerns the German and Soviet battle for the control of the Baltic sea during World War II. Categories: | | | | | ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Combatants Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Ivan Petrov Filipp Oktyabrskiy Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured (Including Romanians) 95,000 captured, 11,000 killed The Battle of Sevastopol was fought from October 30, 1941 to July 4, 1942 between... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Case Blue (German: ) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Josef Stalin Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko, Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men, 8,800 guns, 500 tanks, 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men, 20,640 guns, 1,430 tanks, 1,100 planes[1] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Konstantin Rokossovsky, Ivan Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Three famous battles took place around Narva. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... Combatants Soviet Union Germany Commanders Soviet STAVKA German OKW Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 260,000 all causes Unknown The Baltic Offensive, also formally referred to as the Baltic Strategic Offensive Operation[1][2][3][4] as it was called by the Red Army who undertook it, denotes the battle between... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch (to 28 June), Walter Model (Army Group Centre) Georg-Hans Reinhardt (Third Panzer Army) Hans Jordan (Ninth Army) Kurt von Tippelskirch (Fourth Army) Walter Weiss (Second Army) Georgy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovsky (3rd Belorussian Front) Hovhannes Bagramyan (1st Baltic Front) Ivan Chernyakhovsky (1st Belorussian... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 370,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 350,000 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive[1... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Ferdinand Schorner (until July 23) Johannes Friessner (from July 25) (Heeresgruppe Sudukraine) Günther Blumentritt (until June 28) Walter Model (until August 16) Georg Hans Reinhardt (Army Group Centre) Konstantin Rokossovsky (1st Belorussian Front) Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Lublin-Brest Offensive is covered in the... Budapest Offensiv, together with other Soviet Balkan offensivesm is covered by the green area in the south. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 The East Prussian Offensive was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 The East Pomeranian Offensive was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 Eastern Front Barbarossa – Baltic Sea – Finland – Leningrad and Baltics – Crimea and Caucasus – Moscow – 1st Rzhev-Vyazma – 2nd Kharkov – Blue – Stalingrad – Velikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk – 2nd Smolensk – Dnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hubes Pocket – Baltic – Bagration – Lvov-Sandomierz – Lublin-Brest – Balkans (Iassy-Kishinev) – Balkans... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Bulgaria Commanders Rudolf von Bünau Wilhelm Bittrich Fyodor Tolbukhin Vladimir Stoychev Strength One army (understrength) Local irregulars,total 28,000 Four armies (full strength),total 400,000 Casualties and losses 19,000 18,000 The Vienna Offensive was launched by the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2,500... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Czech Insurgents Commanders Ferdinand Schörner Ivan Konev Strength 900,000 2,000,000 Casualties Unknown 11,997 killed or missing, 40,501 wounded or sick (52,498 casualties[1]) The Prague Offensive (Russian:Пражская наступательная операция, Prazhskaya nastupatelnaya operacia, Prague Offensive Operation) was the last major battle of... Continuation War Karelian isthmus – East Karelia – Ladoga Karelia – Silberfuchs – Hanko – Uhtua-Kiestinki – Repola-Rukajärvi – Porlammi – 1st Tuulos – Suursaari – Fourth strategic offensive – Valkeasaari – Kuuterselkä – Siiranmäki – Tienhaara – Tali-Ihantala – 2nd Kollaa – Syväri – Bay of Viipuri – Vuosalmi – 2nd Tuulos – Nietjärvi – Ilomantsi The Finnish reconquest of the Karelian Isthmus (1941... Finnish soldiers in Olonets Karelia The Finnish conquest of East Karelia (1941) refers to a military campaign carried out by Finland in 1941. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Belligerents Germany Finland Soviet Union Commanders Nikolaus von Falkenhorst (Armee Norwegen) Roman Panin (Northern Front) Strength 200 000 germans and 28 000 finnish 100 000 Casualties and losses 12 000 killed germans, 1000 finnish, 26 000 wounded germans and 4300 finnish 700 lost 8000 killed, 13 000 wounded, 1500 prisoners... Combatants Germany Finland Soviet Air Force Commanders Captain Karl-Conrad Mecke Ltn-Col Martti Miettinen Strength 2,700 1,612 Casualties 153 KIA 1,231 POWs 36 KIA 67 WIA 8 MIA Operation Tanne Ost (Fir East) was a German operation during World War II to capture the island Suursaari... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Karl Lennart Oesch Leonid Govorov Kirill Meretskov Strength 268,000 375,000 Casualties 18,000 killed, 45,000 wounded, 3,000 prisoners 40,000 killed, 130,000 wounded During World War II, in the Continuation War, the Fourth Strategic Offensive was... Beloostrov (Russian: ; Finnish: , both meaning lit. ... Lebyazhye (Russian: ; Finnish: ) is a rural locality on Karelian Isthmus, in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast. ... The Battle of Tienhaara was a part of Continuation War between Finland and the Soviet Union. ... Combatants  Finland, Germany  Soviet Union Commanders Karl Lennart Oesch Kurt Kuhlmey Dmitrii N. Gusev Strength 50,000 [1] 150,000 [1] Casualties 1,100 killed 1,100 missing 6,300 wounded[1] 4,500-5,500 killed 13,500-14,500 wounded[2][3] Map of the Karelian Isthmus. ... The Battle of the Bay of Viipuri was a battle in the Finnish-Soviet Continuation War (1941-1944). ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Strength 30,000 60,000 Casualties 795 killed in action 4,976 wounded 754 missing 3,050 killed in action 11,750 wounded 250 missing The Battle of Vuosalmi (also known as the Battle of Äyräpää-Vuosalmi) – the main bulk of it – lasted from July... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Major General Kustaa Tapola Lieutenant General A. Krutikov Casualties 700 as killed or wounded 2000+ killed in action 4000+ wounded a few hundred missing The Battle of Nietjärvi (July 15 to July 17, 1944) was part of the Continuation War (1941-1944... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Combatants Germany Finland Commanders Lothar Rendulic Hjalmar Siilasvuo Strength 200,000 60,000 Casualties 950 killed 2,000 wounded 1,300 captured 774 killed 3,000 wounded 262 missing The Lapland War (Finnish: ; German: ; Swedish: ) is a name used for the hostilities between Finland and Germany between September 1944 and... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the time it started, it was named by the Finns to make clear its relationship to the preceding Winter War of 30 November 1939 to 13 March 1940. The Soviet Union, however, perceived the war merely as one of the fronts of the Great Patriotic War against Nazi Germany and its allies.[5] Similarly, Germany saw its own operations in the region as a part of its overall war efforts of World War II. Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The United Kingdom declared war on Finland on 6 December 1941, followed by its Dominions shortly afterwards. The Continuation War is a rare case of democracies declaring war on other democracies but the British Empire forces were not major participants in the war. Nazi Germany took part by providing critical material support and military cooperation to Finland. The United States did not fight or declare war against either party, but sent substantial matériel to the Soviet Union for use in the war effort against Germany and its allies. is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The democratic peace theory, liberal peace theory,[1] or simply the democratic peace is a theory and related empirical research in international relations, political science, and philosophy which holds that democracies — usually, liberal democracies — never or almost never go to war with one another. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Matériel (from the French for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ...


Hostilities ended in 1944, and the formal conclusion of the Continuation War was ratified by the Paris peace treaty of 1947. The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ...

Contents

Introduction

Finland's supreme commander Field Marshal Mannerheim at his headquarters.
Finland's supreme commander Field Marshal Mannerheim at his headquarters.

Although the Continuation War was fought on the periphery of World War II and the troops engaged were relatively few, its history represents the only case of a genuinely democratic state participating in World War II on the side of the Axis powers, albeit without being a signatory of the Tripartite Pact. The United Kingdom declared war on Finland on 6 December 1941, Finnish Independence Day, with Canada and New Zealand declaring war on Finland on December 7, and Australia and South Africa declaring war on December 8. The United States Secretary of State Cordell Hull did congratulate the Finnish envoy on the 3rd of October 1941 for the liberation of Karelia but warned Finland not to go in to Russian territory; furthermore the US did not declare war on Finland when they went to war with the Axis countries and, together with UK, approached Stalin in the Tehran Conference to acknowledge Finnish independence. However, the US government seized Finnish merchant ships in American ports and in the summer of 1944 shut down Finnish diplomatic and commercial offices in the US as a result of President Rytis' treaty with Germany. The US government later warned Finland about the consequences of continued adherence to the Axis.[6] Image File history File links Mannerheim_studying_a_map. ... Image File history File links Mannerheim_studying_a_map. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871–July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Left to right: General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom . ... A merchant ship is one that transports cargo and passengers during peace time. ...


The best known British action on Finnish soil was a Swordfish attack on German ships in the Finnish harbour of Petsamo on 31 July 1941.[7] This attack achieved little except the loss of 3 British aircraft, but it was intended as a demonstration of British support for its Russian ally. Later in 1941, Hurricanes of RAF 151 Wing based at Murmansk provided local air cover for Russian troops and fighter escorts for Russian bombers.[8] The British contribution to the war was occasional but significant. Fairey Swordfish The Fairey Swordfish was a torpedo bomber built by the Fairey Aviation Company and used by the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy during World War II. Affectionately known as the Stringbag by its crews, it was outdated by 1939, but achieved some spectacular successes during the... The area of Petsamo (Pechenga in Russian) in northern Lapland, indigenously inhabited by Samis, came to Finland in 1920 and to the Soviet Union in 1944. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. ... No 151 Wing Royal Air Force was a British wing which fought alongside the Soviets on the Kola Peninsula during the first months of Operation Barbarossa during World War II. The delay in starting the Finnish-German offensive from Northern Finland gave the British an opportunity to intervene. ...


Finnish radio intelligence is said to have participated effectively in German actions against British convoys to Murmansk.[9] Throughout the war, German aircraft operating from airfields in northern Finland made attacks on British air and naval units based in Murmansk and Archangelsk. Operation Stella Polaris was cover name for activity where Finnish signals intelligence records, equipment and personnel were transported into Sweden after ending of Continuation war 1944. ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean The city of Arkhangelsk (Арха́нгельск, formerly in English Archangel) lies on the Northern Dvina River (Се́верная Двина́) near its exit into the White Sea in the far north of European Russia. ...


Finland adopted the concept of a "parallel war" whereby it sought to pursue its own objectives in concert with, but separate from, Nazi Germany.


Major events of World War II, and the tides of war in general, had significant impact on the course of the Continuation War:

Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Karl Lennart Oesch Leonid Govorov Kirill Meretskov Strength 268,000 375,000 Casualties 18,000 killed, 45,000 wounded, 3,000 prisoners 40,000 killed, 130,000 wounded During World War II, in the Continuation War, the Fourth Strategic Offensive was... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Race to Berlin refers to the competition of Allied generals during the final months of World War II to enter Berlin first. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ...

Background

Before World War II

Although East Karelia has never been part of a modern Finnish state, a significant part of its inhabitants were Finnic-speaking Orthodox Karelians. After the Finnish declaration of independence, voices arose advocating the annexation of East Karelia to "rescue it from oppression". This led to a few incursions to the area (Viena expedition and Aunus expedition), but these were unsuccessful. Finland unsuccessfully raised the question of East Karelia several times in the League of Nations. East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... Anthem: Maamme(Finnish) VÃ¥rt land(Swedish) Finland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Helsinki Official languages Finnish, Swedish Demonym Finnish, Finn Government Parliamentary republic1  -  President Tarja Halonen (sd)  -  Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen (c) Independence from Russian Empire   -  Autonomy March 29, 1809   -  Declared December... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... The Viena expedition was a military expedtition by Finnish volunteer forces to liberate White Karelia (or Vienan Karjala in Finnish) from the Bolsheviks in March 1918. ... The Aunus expedition was an attempt by Finnish volunteers to occupy parts of East Karelia in 1919, during the Russian Civil War. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...


In non-leftist circles, Imperial Germany's role in the "White" government's victory over rebellious Socialists during the Finnish Civil War was celebrated, although most preferred British or Scandinavian support over that of Germany. The security policy of an independent Finland turned first towards a cordon sanitaire, whereby the newly independent nations of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland would form a defensive alliance against the USSR, but after negotiations collapsed, Finland turned to the League of Nations for security. Contacts with the Scandinavian countries also met with little success. In 1932, Finland and the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact, but even contemporary analysts considered it worthless. This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... The White Guards is one translation of the Finnish term Suojeluskunta (plural: Suojeluskunnat, Finland-Swedish: Skyddskår) that unfortunately has received many different translations to English, for instance: Security Guard, Civil Guard, National Guard, White Militia, Defence Corps, Protection Guard, Protection Corps and Protection Militia. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Combatants Whites: White Guards, German Empire, Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards, Russian SFSR Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja, Kullervo Manner Strength 80,000–90,000 Finns, 550 Swedish volunteers, 13,000 Germans[1] 80,000–90,000 Finns, 4,000–10,000 Russians[1... Cordon sanitaire is a French phrase that, literally translated, means quarantine line. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. ...


The 1920 peace agreement was broken by the Soviet Union in 1937 when it stopped Finnish ships traveling between Lake Ladoga and the Gulf of Finland via the Neva River. The free use of this route for merchant vessels had been one of the articles in the agreement. Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km long Russian river flowing from the Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро - Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Carelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек - Karelskii Peresheyek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург - Sankt Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив - Finskii Zaliv). ...


The consequences of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

Main article: Winter War
Finnish ski troops in Northern Finland on 12 January 1940
Finnish ski troops in Northern Finland on 12 January 1940

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1939 enabled the Soviet Union to pressure Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland. The three Baltic countries soon gave in to Soviet demands, but Finland continued to refuse. As a result, on 30 November 1939, the Winter War began. Condemnation by the League of Nations and by countries all over the world had no effect on Soviet policy. International help to Finland was planned, but very little actual help materialized. Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... ImageMetadata File history File links Finn_ski_troops. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Finn_ski_troops. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... This term is generally used for the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II. // History of the occupation Before the beginning of World War II Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed an ostensible non-aggression treaty known as... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...


The Moscow Peace Treaty, which was signed on 12 March 1940, ended the Winter War. The Treaty was severe for Finland. A fifth of the country's industry and 11% of agricultural land were lost, as was Viipuri, the country's second largest city. Some 12% of Finland's population had to be moved to the Finnish side of the border. Hanko was rented to the Soviet Union as a military base. However, Finland had avoided having the Soviet Union annex the whole country. Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Not to be confused with the Danish town and county of Viborg in Jutland Viapori, a Finnish transcription of Sveaborg, better known as Suomenlinna castle Vyborg from the tower of the castle Vyborg (transcription of Russian Выборг) is a town with 70,000 inhabitants at Russias border to Finland... The word Hanko may refer to Hanko, Finland, town and municipality Hanko Peninsula Hanko, a Japanese signature stamp Hanko is sometimes a misspelling of Hankou (汉口), China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Main article: Interim Peace

The Moscow Peace Treaty, in 1940, was a shock to the Finns. It was perceived as the ultimate failure of Finland's foreign policy, which had been based on multilateral guarantees for support. Binding bilateral treaties were now sought and formerly frosty relations, such as with the Soviet Union and the Third Reich, had to be eased. Public opinion in Finland longed for the re-acquisition of Finnish Karelia, and put their hope in the peace conference that was assumed would follow the World War. The term Välirauha ("Interim Peace") became popular after the harsh peace was announced. Interim Peace was a short period in the history of Finland during the Second World War. ... Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Finnish Karelia, historically also Swedish Karelia or Carelia, is a historical province divided today between eastern Finland and northwestern Russia. ...


Although the peace treaty was signed, the state of war and censorship was not revoked because of the widening world war, the difficult food supply situation, and the poor shape of the Finnish military. This made it possible for president Kyösti Kallio to ask Field Marshal Mannerheim to remain commander-in-chief and supervise rearmament and fortification work. During 1940, Finland received material purchased and donated during and immediately after the Winter War. Military expenditures rose in 1940 to 45% of Finland's state budget. A war trade treaty with Britain had little effect due to German occupation of Norway and Denmark.[10] A Declaration of War is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation, and one or more others. ... Statue of K. Kallio in Helsinki Kyösti Kallio (April 10, 1873 – December 19, 1940) was the fourth President of Finland (1937-1940), having already served no fewer than four times as the countrys Prime Minister. ... C.G.E. Mannerheim wearing the rank insignia of sotamarsalkka, Finnish field marshal. ... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead...


Nazi Germany attacked Scandinavia on 9 April 1940 (Operation Weserübung). Finland, like Sweden, was spared occupation but was encircled by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. From May 1940, Finland pursued a campaign to re-establish good relations with Germany. The Finnish media not only refrained from criticism of Nazi Germany, but also took an active part in this campaign. Dissent was censored. After the fall of France, the campaign was stepped up. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H...


The implementation of the Moscow Peace Treaty created problems. The forced return of evacuated machinery, locomotives, and rail cars, inflexibility on questions which could have eased hardships created by the new border, such as fishing rights and the usage of Saimaa Canal, heightened distrust about the objectives of the Soviet Union. Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... Saimaa Canal (Finnish: Saimaan kanava, Swedish: Saima kanal) is a canal in a system of 120 interconnected lakes in the south-central and south-east part of Finland. ...


Unbeknownst to Finland, Adolf Hitler had started to plan an invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa). He had not been interested in Finland before the Winter War, but now he saw the value of Finland as a base of operations, and perhaps also the military value of the Finnish army. In the first weeks of August, German fears of a likely immediate Soviet attack on Finland caused Hitler to lift the arms embargo. Negotiations were initiated concerning German troop transfer rights in Finland in exchange for arms and other material. For the Third Reich, this was a breach of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, as well as being for Finland a breach of the Moscow Peace Treaty. Soviet negotiators had insisted that the troop transfer agreement (to Hanko) should not be published making it easy for the Finns to keep a troop transfer agreement with the Germans secret until the first German troops arrived. Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... The word Hanko may refer to Hanko, Finland, town and municipality Hanko Peninsula Hanko, a Japanese signature stamp Hanko is sometimes a misspelling of Hankou (汉口), China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The matter of German troop transfer through Sweden and Finland was an important theme in Allied propaganda during World War II, and remains after the war one of the more controversial aspects of modern Scandinavian history beside Finlands co-belligerence with Nazi Germany in the Continuation War, and the...


Despite the Soviet leadership having promised the Finns during the signing of the Moscow Peace treaty that the Soviets would not intervene in Finnish domestic policy,[citation needed] the reality of the interim peace period showed the opposite. After the ceasefire the Soviets demanded the Finnish industrial town of Enso, which clearly was on the Finnish side of the peace treaty border[citation needed]; the Finns accepted and handed over the town. The Soviet involvement in Finnish domestic politics continued with open Soviet support for the extreme left wing organization SNS Friendship Union Soviet-Finland, who openly campaigned for Finland to join the Soviet Union. The Soviets also successfully demanded that the Finnish minister Väinö Tanner resign and that, during the Finnish presidential election of 1940, neither Mannerheim, Kivimäki, Tanner nor Svinhuvud were to be candidates. The most significant event during the interim peace was Soviet foreigner minister Molotov's visit in Berlin where Molotov asked Hitler for a free hand to 'solve the Finnish question'.[11] Väinö Tanner (March 12, 1881 – April 19, 1966) was a pioneer and leader in the Co-op Movement in Finland. ...


The negotiations about Petsamo nickel mining rights had dragged on for six months when the Soviet Foreign Ministry announced in January 1941 that the negotiations had to be concluded quickly. On the same day, the Soviet Union interrupted grain deliveries to Finland. Soviet ambassador Zotov was recalled home 18 January and Soviet radio broadcasts started attacking Finland. Germans in Northern Norway reported in 1 February that the Soviet Union had collected 500 fishing ships in Murmansk, capable of transporting a division. Hitler ordered troops in Norway to occupy Petsamo (Operation Renntier) immediately if the Soviet Union started attacking Finland. The area of Petsamo (Pechenga in Russian) in northern Lapland, indigenously inhabited by Samis, came to Finland in 1920 and to the Soviet Union in 1944. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... Operation Renntier (Reindeer) was a German operation during World War II. Its goal was to secure the nickel-mines in Finnish Petsamo against Soviet aggression. ...


Finns offered half of the mine to Soviets and demanded a guarantee that no anti-government agitation would be done in the mines. These were not enough for Soviets and when Mannerheim declared that any additional concessions would endanger the defence of the country and threatened to resign if those were done, the Finnish side decided to let the negotiations lapse when there was no movement from the Soviet positions.


After the failure of the nickel negotiations, diplomatic activities were halted for a few months. The period did, however, see an increased German interest in Finland.


One sign of the interest was the recruitment of one battalion of Finnish volunteers to the German Waffen-SS, with approval of the Finnish government. It has been concluded that the battalion served as a token of Finnish commitment to cooperation with Nazi Germany. The agreement was that the Finnish volunteers would not be sent to fight against British or Greek forces (the only European nations at war with Germany at the moment of signing) and had the duration of two years. This battalion, named the Finnisches Freiwilligen Bataillon fought as part of SS Division Wiking in the Ukraine and Caucasus. When the time of service was up, the battalion was pulled back from the front in May 1943 and was transported to Tallinn and further to Hanko where it was disbanded on 11 July. The soldiers were then transferred into different units of the Finnish army. Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... SS Division Germania SS Division Wiking SS Panzergrenadier Division Wiking 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking Formed around SS Regiment Germania as SS Division Germania in late 1940, and renamed SS Division Wiking in early 1941. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... County Area 159. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The German Foreign Ministry sent Ludwig Weissauer to Finland 5 May, this time to clarify that war between Germany and the Soviet Union would not be launched before spring 1942. Finnish leadership believed that, at least officially, and forwarded the message to the Swedes and the British. When the war broke out only a couple of months later, it was understandable that both Swedish and British governments felt that the Finns had lied to them. is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the spring of 1941, joint battle plans were discussed with Germany, as well as communications and securing sea lanes. Finland made significant requests for material aid. Finland was willing to join Germany against Soviet Union with some prerequisites: a guarantee of Finnish independence, the pre-Winter War borders (or better), continuing grain deliveries, and that Finnish troops would not cross the border before a Soviet incursion. The arrival of German troops participating in Operation Barbarossa began on 7 June in Petsamo.Prior to the continuation war, the Germans offered Mannerheim command over the German troops in Finland, around 80,000 men. Mannerheim declined, because if he accepted, he and Finland would be tied to the German war aims.[12] Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The area of Petsamo (Pechenga in Russian) in northern Lapland, indigenously inhabited by Samis, came to Finland in 1920 and to the Soviet Union in 1944. ...


The Finnish parliament was informed for the first time on 9 June, when the first mobilization orders were issued for troops needed to safeguard the forthcoming general mobilization phases. On June 20, Finland's government ordered 45,000 people at the Soviet border to be evacuated. On 21 June, Finland's chief of the General Staff, Erik Heinrichs, was finally informed by his German counterpart that the attack was to begin. The Eduskunta in Finnish, or the Riksdag in Swedish, is the parliament of Finland. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Axel Erik Heinrichs (1890-1965) was a Finnish general. ...


Course of the war

Finnish Offensive of 1941

Relative strengths of Finnish, German and Soviet troops at the start of the Continuation War in June 1941. Finnish borders before the Moscow Peace Treaty shown in light colour
Relative strengths of Finnish, German and Soviet troops at the start of the Continuation War in June 1941. Finnish borders before the Moscow Peace Treaty shown in light colour

Operation Barbarossa had already commenced in the northern Baltic by the late hours of June 21, when German minelayers, which had been hiding in the Finnish archipelago, laid two large minefields across the Gulf of Finland.[13][14] These minefields ultimately proved sufficient to confine the Soviets' Baltic Fleet to the easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland. Later the same night, German bombers flew along the Gulf of Finland to Leningrad and mined the harbour and the river Neva. On the return trip, these bombers refuelled in Utti airfield. Finland feared that the Soviet Union would occupy Åland so Operation Kilpapurjehdus ("Regatta") was launched in the early hours of June 22 to occupy Åland. Soviet bombers launched attacks against Finnish ships during the operation but no damage was inflicted. Finnish submarines also laid six small minefields at 8:00-10:00 between Suursaari and Estonian coast according to pre-war defensive plans of Finland and Estonia[citation needed]. Download high resolution version (781x1650, 82 KB)Relative strengths of Finnish, German and Soviet troops at the start of the Continuation War. ... Download high resolution version (781x1650, 82 KB)Relative strengths of Finnish, German and Soviet troops at the start of the Continuation War. ... Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The River Neva (Russian: Нева́) is a 74 km-long Russian river flowing from Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро, Ladožskoe Ozero) through the Karelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек, Karelskij PereÅ¡eek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург, Sankt-Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив, Finskij Zaliv). ... Utti is a small town in Southern Finland, Finland. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... Operation Kilpapurjehdus (Sailing Race) was the covername for the militarization of the Ã…land islands. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hogland (Russian: Гогланд; Finnish: Suursaari; Swedish: Hogland) is an island in the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, located some 180 km west of Saint Petersburg and 35 km away from the coast of Finland. ...


On the morning of June 22, the German Gebirgskorps Norwegen started Operation Renntier and began its move from Northern Norway to Petsamo. Finland did not allow direct German attacks from its soil to the Soviet Union, so German forces in Petsamo and Salla had to hold their fire. There were occasional individual and group level small arms shooting between Soviet and Finnish border guards, but otherwise the front was quiet. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gebirgskorps Norwegen (Mountain Corps Norway) was a German army unit during World War II. The corps was formed in July 1940 and was later transferred to northern Norway as part of AOK Norwegen. ... Operation Renntier (Reindeer) was a German operation during World War II. Its goal was to secure the nickel-mines in Finnish Petsamo against Soviet aggression. ... The area of Petsamo (Pechenga in Russian) in northern Lapland, indigenously inhabited by Samis, came to Finland in 1920 and to the Soviet Union in 1944. ... Salla is a municipality of Finland and is located in Lapland. ...


After three days, early on the morning of June 25, the Soviet Union unleashed a major air offensive against 18 Finnish cities with 460 planes, mainly striking civilian targets[15] and airfields. The Soviet Union justified the attack as being directed against German targets in Finland, but even the British embassy had to admit that this was not so. German targets were not hit. A small number of Soviet infantry launched attacks over the Finnish side of the border in Parikkala. A meeting of parliament was scheduled for June 25 when Prime Minister Rangell had been due to present a notice about Finland's neutrality in the Soviet-German war, but the Soviet bombings led him to instead observe that Finland was once again at war with the Soviet Union. The Continuation War had begun. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mobilized Finnish units had started moving towards the border on June 21, and they were arranged into defensive formations as soon as they arrived at the border. Finland mobilized 16 infantry divisions, one cavalry brigade, and two "Jäger" brigades, which were practically normal infantry brigades, except for one battalion in the 1st Jäger Brigade (1.JPr), which was armoured using captured Soviet equipment. There were also a handful of separate battalions, mostly formed from Border Guard units and used mainly for reconnaissance. Soviet military plans estimated that the Finns would be able to mobilize only 10 infantry divisions, as they had done in the Winter War, but they failed to take into account the material the Finns had purchased between the wars and the training of all available men. In northern Finland, there were also two German Mountain Divisions at Petsamo and two German Infantry divisions at Salla. Another German infantry division was en route through Sweden to Ladoga Karelia, although one reinforced regiment was later redirected from it to Salla. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jäger (plural also Jäger, both pronounced as the surname Yeager) is a German word for hunter. In English it is often written with the plural Jägers, or as jaeger (pl. ... This article is about Karelia, the land of the Karelians, in its broadest meaning. ...


When the war started, the Soviet Union had the 23rd Army in the Karelian Isthmus consisting of the 50th, the 19th Corps and the 10th Mechanized Corps, together with 5 Infantry, 1 Motorized and 2 Armored divisions. At Ladoga Karelia, there was the 7th Army consisting of 4 Infantry divisions. In Murmansk-Salla region the Soviet Union had the 14th Army with 42nd Corps, consisting of 5 Infantry divisions (1 as reserve in Archangelsk) and 1 Armored division. Also the Soviets had around 40 battalions, separate regiments and fortification units which were not part of their divisional structure. In Leningrad, there were 3 Infantry divisions and one Mechanized Corps. The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean The city of Arkhangelsk (Арха́нгельск, formerly in English Archangel) lies on the Northern Dvina River (Се́верная Двина́) near its exit into the White Sea in the far north of European Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


The initial German strike against the Soviet Air Force had not touched air units located near Finland, so the Soviets could field nearly 750 Air Force planes and part of the 700 planes of the Soviet Navy against 300 Finnish planes. The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ...


The Soviet war against Germany did not go as well as pre-war Soviet war games had envisioned, and soon the Soviet High Command had to take units from wherever they could, so although Soviets had started the war against Finland, they could not follow the initial air offensive with a supporting land offensive. They also had to withdraw the 10th Mechanized Corps with two armoured divisions and 237th Infantry division from Ladoga Karelia thus stripping reserves from defending units. Stavka (Ставка) was the General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ...


Reconquest of Ladoga Karelia

The furthest advance of Finnish units in the Continuation War.
The furthest advance of Finnish units in the Continuation War.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Reconquest of the Karelian Isthmus

Continuation War Karelian isthmus – East Karelia – Ladoga Karelia – Silberfuchs – Hanko – Uhtua-Kiestinki – Repola-Rukajärvi – Porlammi – 1st Tuulos – Suursaari – Fourth strategic offensive – Valkeasaari – Kuuterselkä – Siiranmäki – Tienhaara – Tali-Ihantala – 2nd Kollaa – Syväri – Bay of Viipuri – Vuosalmi – 2nd Tuulos – Nietjärvi – Ilomantsi The Finnish reconquest of the Karelian Isthmus (1941...

Conquest of East Karelia

Main article: Finnish conquest of East Karelia (1941)

Finnish soldiers in Olonets Karelia The Finnish conquest of East Karelia (1941) refers to a military campaign carried out by Finland in 1941. ...

Advance from Northern Finland

See also: Operation Silver Fox Belligerents Germany Finland Soviet Union Commanders Nikolaus von Falkenhorst (Armee Norwegen) Roman Panin (Northern Front) Strength 200 000 germans and 28 000 finnish 100 000 Casualties and losses 12 000 killed germans, 1000 finnish, 26 000 wounded germans and 4300 finnish 700 lost 8000 killed, 13 000 wounded, 1500 prisoners...

The Mannerheim Cross of Liberty is the most distinguished Finnish military decoration and awarded to soldiers for extraordinary bravery; the achievement of extraordinarily important objectives by combat, or for especially well conducted operations.
The Mannerheim Cross of Liberty is the most distinguished Finnish military decoration and awarded to soldiers for extraordinary bravery; the achievement of extraordinarily important objectives by combat, or for especially well conducted operations.

The operational border between Finnish and German forces was located southeast from Lake Oulujärvi to the border, and then straight to the east. The Finnish 14.D controlled the southern part of the border, while the northern part was in the responsibility of AOK Norwegen (Col. Gen. von Falkenhorst). The Finnish III Corps (Maj. Gen. Siilasvuo) was southernmost, German XXXVI Corps (Gen. Feige) next and German Mountain Corps (Gen. Dietl) northernmost at Petsamo. Together, they had three infantry, two mountain and one SS ("Nord") divisions and two armoured battalions. Additionally, one IR and one artillery from the German 163th division were diverted there. Against them were the Soviet 14. Army (Lt. Gen Frolov) at Murmansk and part of the 7. Army, together with 6 infantry and one armoured divisions and one division strengthening the fortified area. The Mannerheim Cross of the Cross of Liberty (Mannerheim-risti / Mannerheimkorset) is a Finnish military decoration introduced after the Winter War and named after Marshal Mannerheim. ...


As Finns had not allowed German attacks across the border before 25 June, the Soviets had ample warning and used the available days to fortify the border region. Also, the concentration of the German forces to the border took longer than anticipated, so the start of the offensive was delayed until June 29, a week later than the beginning of the Operation Barbarossa, thus giving Soviets even more time to prepare their fortifications. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Mountain Corps broke through the Soviet forces in the early hours of 29 June, and managed to advance almost 30 km to Litsa river, where the offensive had to be stopped due to supply problems on 2 July. When the attack was continued a week later, the Soviets had managed to bring in reinforcements and prepare defensive positions so the attack failed to gain ground. is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The XXXVI Corps attacked along the Rovaniemi-Kandalaksha railroad at July 1, but after only a day the SS division "Nord" had lost its fighting capability and it took a week before German 169. and Finnish 6. division managed to capture Salla, and only two days later the whole offensive was stopped by a new Soviet fortified line. City Rovaniemi (1960) Administrative Province Province of Lapland Historical Province Lappland Area  - Total  - Land  - Water Ranked 5th (municipalities), and 1st (cities) 8,016 km² 7,601 km² 415 km² Population  - Total (01/2006)  - Density Ranked 13th 58,500 7. ... Kandalaksha (Russian: Кандалакша; Finnish: Kannanlahti) is a city in northwestern Russia. ... Salla is a municipality of Finland and is located in Lapland. ...


Germans had used all their forces in the offensive and didn't have any available reserves left, so these had to be transported from Germany and Norway. This caused a delay in operations which Soviets used effectively to reinforce their positions and improve their fortifications. OKW was only able to field two infantry regiments to von Falkenhorst, and their willingness to micromanage their usage lead to disagreements between OKW and von Falkenhorst, which further prevented their effective usage. Because of this, the renewed offensive failed to gain any ground at September 8 at River Litsa after which OKW ordered forces to defend. Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW most notably stands for Oberkommando der Wehrmacht - the high Command of the Third Reich armed forces. ...


At Salla, XXXVI Corps fared better from 19 August, as the Finnish 6.D had cut Soviet supply routes, forcing the Soviet 104.D and 122.D to abandon their fortified positions and heavy equipment at August 27. This was followed by advancing the operation along the railroad until after almost 50 km the attack was stopped due to exhaustion at the next Soviet defence line at the Verma river on 19 September, von Falkenhorst asked for reinforces from Germany twice to continue his offensive immediately when Soviets were still unorganized, but he was refused. is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Finnish III Corps operated under German AOK Norwegen and was located in Kuusamo-Suomussalmi region. It was a very weak formation with only one infantry division (3.D) and two separate battalions. It was commanded by MJ. Gen. Hjalmar Siilasvuo. Defending against them were Soviet 54. infantry division, which was commanded by MJ. Gen. I.V. Panin, and was reinforced at August with 88. infantry division (MJ. Gen. A.I. Zelentsov) and IR1087 and at November with 186. infantry division and one border guard regiment. Kuusamo is a municipality of Finland. ... Province Oulu Region Kainuu Sub-region Kehys-Kainuu Area - Of which land - Rank 5,856. ... Hjalmar Fridolf Siilasvuo (1892 - 1947) was a Finnish general who led troops in the Winter War, Continuation War and Lapland War. ...


The Corps was ordered to attack towards Uhtua (now Kalevala) and Kiestinki (now Kestenga). When the offensive started on 1 July, the attack was slowed by a Soviet delaying defence and it took until 9 July before the Soviet defences at the river Vuonnisenjoki in the south, and 20 July before the river Sohjananjoki in the north were reached. In the south, the attack continued on 11 July by a flanking attack across the Lake Ylä-Kuittijärvi, but the Soviet defence was so efficient, that the attack had to be stopped in early September without reaching Uhtua, still 10 km away, as the attacking forces had to relocate two battalions to the northern group. Kalevala (Russian: ; Finnish: ) is an urban-type settlement in the Republic of Karelia, Russia. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The northern group was reinforced with one infantry regiment from the SS Division "Nord", and the attack continued on July 30. A week later Kiestinki was captured, and the attack continued along the road and railroad eastward. Finnish 53IR advanced much faster along the railroad than other forces, which advanced along the road. The commander of the newly arrived Soviet 88.ID recognized an opportunity, and the Soviet IR758 attacked across the forest behind the Finnish IR, managing to encircle it on 20 August, making IR53 the largest Finnish unit the Soviets managed to encircle during the war. is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Finns managed to open a path through the forest next day, but the supply route via the railroad remained closed, so the IR53 retreated through the forest on September 2 after destroying abandoned material. Finnish forces were reinforced with the second IR from SS-Div "Nord", and the Soviet counter attack was stopped 10-15 km east of Kiestinki.


During October the forces were supplied, rested and reinforced with the rest of the SS Division "Nord", but von Falkenhorst and Siilasvuo planned to start a new attack in November. OKW gave order to AOK Norwegen not to attack, but prepare for defence. However, von Falkenhorst and Siilasvuo still started their offensive on November 1. The Finns managed to break through the Soviet defences and one Soviet IR was encircled between Finns and Germans. The situation was threatening to Soviets and they started to transfer the new 186 infantry division from Murmansk to Kiestinki. Mannerheim contacted Siilasvuo and ordered him to stop the attack, as it endangered Finland's relations with the United States. Also OKW repeated its order to von Falkenhorst to stop the offensive, release the SS Division "Nord" and transfer it to Germany. When the order to move to defensive operations was given on 17 November, the last attempt to reach Murmansk railroad failed. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ...


Naval warfare at Gulf of Finland

After the Winter War and the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states the Soviet Navy entered the war from a strong position; the Red banner Baltic fleet (KBF) was the largest navy on the Baltic sea (2 battleships, 2 light cruisers, 19 destroyers, 68 submarines 709 aircraft of the navy aviation). With a Soviet naval base at Hanko in southern Finland and Soviet control of the Baltic states the Finnish concern was that it would be easy for the Soviet Union to blockade Finland, and the long Finnish coast would be vulnerable to Soviet amphibious assaults. Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Molotov signing the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact The occupation of Baltic states refers to the occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) first by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany, by Nazi Germany from 1941-1944, and again by... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The word Hanko may refer to Hanko, Finland, town and municipality Hanko Peninsula Hanko, a Japanese signature stamp Hanko is sometimes a misspelling of Hankou (汉口), China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Finnish Navy (Merivoimat) was divided into two branches, coastal artillery and the navy. A string of fixed coastal artillery forts had been built by the Russians before World war I (Peter the Great's Naval Fortress) and was now maintained by the Finns. The Navy was small, consisting of 2 coastal defense ships, 5 submarines and a number of small craft. The Finnish Navy (Finnish: Suomen merivoimat, Swedish: Finländska marinen) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The German Navy could only provide a small part of its naval force to the Baltic Sea as it was tied up in the war with Great Britain. Germany's main concern in the Baltic sea was to protect the routes which supplied its war industry with vital iron ore imported from Sweden. German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air...


Cooperation between Germany and Finland was closest in the Baltic sea/Gulf of Finland theater and already before the war both sides had agreed on using the naval tactics from WWI. Both navies would use mine warfare in order to neutralize the superiority of the Soviet navy and let the land forces seek the victory. The naval base at Hanko was to be besieged. Hours prior to Operation Barbarossa, Finnish and German navies began to lay mine belts in the Baltic and in the Gulf of Finland. Already on the second day of the war, the Soviet navy lost its first destroyer to a mine. Because of this tactic, the Soviets were unable to make use of their superior Navy and its losses increased over the summer of 1941. Sapping, or undermining, was a siege method used in the Middle Ages against fortified castles. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov...


As its naval bases at Riga and Liepaja were lost, the Soviet Navy withdrew to Tallinn. By the end of August, German troops surrounded Tallinn and the Soviets were preparing an evacuation from the sea. As a countermeasure to this the German and the Finnish navy dropped 2400 mines, to add to the 600 mines already in the sea lanes outside Tallinn. German artillery was set up at Cap Jumida and a couple of Finnish and German torpedo boats were put on alert. The Soviet evacuation consisted of 160 ships, which evacuated 28 000 people (including Communist leadership and their families, army and navy personnel and 10,000 Estonians drawn into forced labor)and 66,000 tons of materiel. The evacuation began on the night of the 27 August, at the same time as the first German troops entered the city. During the embarkation the Soviet navy was under constant attack by German bombers and artillery; particularly as the armada reached the heavily-mined Cap Jumida. At midnight of the 28th the armada ran into the minefield of Cap Jumida while being attacked by Finnish and German torpedo boats; casualties were heavy, 65 of the 160 ships were lost, and several more were damaged. 16,000 of the 28,000 evacuees perished. With very small means the German and the Finnish navies had delivered a serious blow to the Soviet navy. It withdrew to the Kronstadt naval base outside of Leningrad where its capital ships would remain until the summer of 1944.[16][17][18] For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... Liepāja. ... County Area 159. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ...


Soon after this the Finnish navy suffered its heaviest loss on 13 September 1941, when the Finnish coastal defence ship Ilmarinen hit a mine and sank during Operation Nordwind, killing 271 Finnish sailors on board. is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Ilmarinen was a Finnish Navy Panssarilaiva (Armored ship), a coastal defence ship by British classification. ...


Soviet forces still held the naval base at Hanko on the southwest coast of Finland, but as the Siege of Leningrad tightened, it had lost its importance and was evacuated by December 1941. Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians...


Political development

On 10 July, the Finnish army began a major offensive on the Karelian Isthmus and north of Lake Ladoga. Mannerheim's order of the day, the Sword scabbard declaration, clearly states that the Finnish involvement was an offensive one.[2] By the end of August 1941, Finnish troops had reached the pre-war boundaries. The crossing of the pre-war borders led to tensions in the army, the cabinet, the parties of the parliament, and domestic opinion. Military expansionism might have gained popularity, but it was far from unanimously championed. is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... The Order of the Day of the Sword Scabbard, or the Sword Scabbard Declaration, actually refers to two related declarations from Mannerheim, Finlands Commander-in-Chief. ...

Hitler, Marshall Mannerheim (Finnish Army chief) and Finnish President Ryti meet, Immola - June 1942
Hitler, Marshall Mannerheim (Finnish Army chief) and Finnish President Ryti meet, Immola - June 1942

Also, international relations were strained — notably with Britain and Sweden, whose governments in May and June had learned in confidence from Foreign Minister Witting that Finland had absolutely no plans for a military campaign coordinated with the Germans. Finland's preparations were said to be purely defensive. Image File history File linksMetadata Hitler_Mannerheim_Ryti. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hitler_Mannerheim_Ryti. ... Risto Heikki Ryti (February 3, 1889 - October 25, 1956) was the president of Finland from 1940 to 1944. ... Categories: Stub | 1879 births | 1944 deaths | Continuation War | Finnish politicians ...


Sweden's leading cabinet members had hoped to improve the relations with Nazi Germany through indirect support of Operation Barbarossa, mainly channelled through Finland.[citation needed] Prime Minister Hansson and Foreign Minister Günther found however, that the political support in the National Unity Government and within the Social Democratic organizations turned out to be insufficient, particularly after Mannerheim's Sword Scabbard Declaration, and even more so after Finland within less than two months undeniably had begun a war of conquest. A tangible effect was that Finland became still more dependent on food and munitions from Germany. Per Albin Hansson Per Albin Hansson (October 28, 1885–October 6, 1946), leader of the Swedish Social Democrats, was Prime Minister in four governments between 1932 and 1946, including the coalition government which was formed during World War II, and included all major parties except the communists. ... Christian Günther (1886–1966) was Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs in the National Unity Government that was formed as a consequence of the Soviet attack on Finland in November, 1939, and would remain in function until World War II had ended in 1945. ... National Governments or National Unity Governments are broad coalition governments consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature and are often formed during times of war or national emergency. ... War of Conquest (abbreviated WoC) is a massively multiplayer online real-time strategy (MMORTS) game created by Rhode Island based IronZog in April of 2002. ...


The Commonwealth put Finland under blockade and the British ambassador was withdrawn. On 31 July 1941, British RAF made an air raid on the northern Finnish port of Petsamo [3]. Damages were limited since the harbour was almost empty of ships. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... RAF redirects here. ... The area of Petsamo (Pechenga in Russian) in northern Lapland, indigenously inhabited by Samis, came to Finland in 1920 and to the Soviet Union in 1944. ...


On 11 September, the US ambassador Arthur Schoenfeld was informed that the offensive on the Karelian Isthmus was halted on the pre-Winter War border (with a few straightened curves at the municipalities of Valkeasaari and Kirjasalo), and that "under no conditions" would Finland participate in an offensive against Leningrad, but would instead maintain static defence and wait for a political resolution. Witting stressed to Schoenfeld that Germany, however, should not hear of this. Mannerheims refusel to attack Leningrad was what ultimately saved Leningrad, for if a coordinated German-Finnish attack had been lanched in September 1941 there is a little doubt that the Soviet defence of the city would have been overwhelmed.[19] is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


On 22 September, a British note was presented (by Norway's ambassador Michelet) demanding the expulsion of German troops from Finland's territory and Finland's withdrawal from East Karelia to positions behind the pre-Winter War borders. Finland was threatened by a British declaration of war unless the demands were met. The declaration of war was exacted on Finland's Independence Day, 6 December. The declaration delayed the state of war until 1200GMT 7 December. The timing with respect to Japanese naval movements toward southeast Asian colonies indicates British declaration of war in the Soviet-Finnish conflict was expected to encourage Soviet declaration against Japan.[20] is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In December 1941, the Finnish advance had reached River Svir (which connects the southern ends of Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega and marks the southern border of East Karelia). By the end of 1941, the front stabilized, and the Finns did not conduct major offensive operations for the following two and a half years. The fighting morale of the troops declined when it was realized that the war would not soon end. The river Svir (Свирь, Finnish: Syväri) connects Lake Onega with Lake Ladoga in Russia, thus connecting the two largest lakes of Europe, and is considered the southern border of East Karelia. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ...


It has been suggested that the execution of the prominent pacifist Arndt Pekurinen in November 1941 was due to fear of army demoralization being exacerbated by such activism. Pacifist redirects here. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Trench warfare 1942-1943

Diplomatic manoeuvres

Operation Barbarossa was planned as a blitzkrieg lasting a few weeks. British and US observers believed that the invasion would be concluded before August. In the autumn of 1941, this turned out to be wrong, and leading Finnish military officers started to doubt Germany's capability. German troops in Northern Finland faced circumstances they were not properly prepared for, and failed badly to reach their targets, most importantly Murmansk. Finland's strategy now changed. A separate peace with the Soviet Union was offered, but Germany's strength was too great. The idea that Finland had to continue the war while putting its own forces at the least possible danger gained increasing support, perhaps in the hopes that the Wehrmacht and the Red Army would wear each other down enough for negotiations to begin, or to at least get them out of the way of Finland's independent decisions. Some may also have still hoped for an eventual victory by Germany. This article is about the military term. ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and...


Finland's participation in the war brought major benefits to Nazi Germany. The Soviet fleet was blockaded in the Gulf of Finland, so that the Baltic was freed for the training of German submarine crews as well as for German shipping, especially for the transport of the vital iron ore from northern Sweden, and nickel and rare metals needed in steel processing from the Petsamo area. The Finnish front secured the northern flank of the German Army Group North in the Baltic states. The sixteen Finnish divisions tied down numerous Soviet troops, put pressure on Leningrad — although Mannerheim refused to attack — and threatened the Murmansk railway. Additionally, Sweden was further isolated and was increasingly pressured to comply with German and Finnish wishes, though with limited success. The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... The Swedish iron ore was important to the German war effort during World War two, as Germany had an inadequate domestic supply, and other sources were cut off by the British sea blockade. ... The Finnish nickel deposits were found in the Petsamo area at Barents Sea, which until the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, was the northernmost part of Finland. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Despite Finland's contributions to the German cause, the Western Allies had ambivalent feelings, torn between residual goodwill for Finland and the need to accommodate their vital ally, the Soviet Union. As a result, Britain declared war against Finland, but the United States did not. With few exceptions, there was no combat between these countries and Finland, but Finnish sailors were interned overseas. In the United States, Finland was denounced for naval attacks made on American Lend-Lease shipments, but received approval for continuing to make payments on its World War I debt throughout the inter-war period. The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... An interbellum is a period between wars. ...


Because Finland belonged to the Anti-Comintern Pact and signed other agreements with Germany, Italy and Japan, the Allies characterized Finland as one of the Axis Powers, although the term used in Finland is "co-belligerence with Germany". The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... Co-belligerence is waging the war in cooperation against a common enemy without the formal treaty of military alliance. ...


International volunteers and support

Like in the Winter War, Swedish volunteers were recruited. Until December, for guarding the Soviet naval base at Hanko, that was then evacuated by sea, and the Swedish unit was officially disbanded. During the Continuation War, the volunteers signed for three to six months of service. In all, over 1,600 fought for Finland, though only about 60 remained by the summer of 1944. About a third of the volunteers had been engaged already in the Winter War. Another significant group, about a quarter of the men, were Swedish officers on leave. Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... The word Hanko may refer to Hanko, Finland, town and municipality Hanko Peninsula Hanko, a Japanese signature stamp Hanko is sometimes a misspelling of Hankou (汉口), China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


There was also an SS battalion of volunteers on the northern Finnish front from 1942 to 1944, that was recruited from Norway, then under German occupation, and similarly some Danes. SS redirects here. ...


About 3,400 Estonian volunteers took part in the Continuation War.


On other occasions, the Finns received around 2,100 Soviet prisoners of war in return for those POWs they turned over to the Germans. These POWs were mainly Estonians and Karelians who were willing to join the Finnish army. These, as well as some volunteers from occupied Eastern Karelia, formed the Kin Battalion (Finnish: "Heimopataljoona"). At the end of the war, the USSR required members of the Kin Battalion to be handed over. Some managed to escape before or during transport, but most of them were either sent to the Gulag or executed. The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ...


Jews in Finland

Main article: Jews in Finland

Finland refused to allow extension of Nazi anti-Semitic practices. Finnish Jews served in the Finnish army, and Jews were not only tolerated in Finland but most Jewish refugees were granted asylum (only 8 of more than 500 refugees were handed over to the Nazis).[21] The field synagogue in Eastern Karelia was one of the very few on the Axis side during the war. In the few cases in which Jewish officers from Finland's defence forces were awarded the German Iron Cross, they declined.[22] The History of the Jews in Finland began when the Jews first settled in the Kingdom of Sweden-Finland in the 18th century, during the tolerant reign of King Gustavus III. They were allowed to reside in a few towns in Swedish parts of the kingdom, such as Marstrand, Stockholm... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... For other uses of Karelia, see Karelia (disambiguation). ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ...


Finnish occupation policy

Russian children in a formerly Finnish-run transfer camp in Petrozavodsk. Staged photo taken by photographer Galina Sanko 29 June 1944, after the Finns had left the area. The sign reads, both in Finnish and Russian: "Transfer camp. Entry to camp and conversations through the fence are forbidden on pain of shooting." Picture taken a day after Russian liberation.
Russian children in a formerly Finnish-run transfer camp in Petrozavodsk. Staged photo taken by photographer Galina Sanko 29 June 1944, after the Finns had left the area. The sign reads, both in Finnish and Russian: "Transfer camp. Entry to camp and conversations through the fence are forbidden on pain of shooting." Picture taken a day after Russian liberation.[23]

About 2,600–2,800 Soviet prisoners of war were handed over to the Germans. Most of them (around 2,000) joined the Russian Liberation Army. Many of the rest were army officers and political officers, and based on their names, 74 of them were Jews, most of them dying in Nazi concentration camps, while some were given to the Gestapo for interrogation. Sometimes these hand overs were demanded in return for arms or food.[24] Image File history File links Konclagers. ... Image File history File links Konclagers. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A soldier of the Russian Liberation Army Russian Liberation Army or ROA (Русская Освободительная Армия, Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Armiya), also known as the Vlasov army, was a group of volunteer Russian forces allied with Nazi Germany during World War II. The ROA was organized by former Red Army general Andrey Vlasov, who tried... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a government to oversee a unit of the military. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


The latter was especially scarce in 1942 in Finland due to a bad harvest, and for primarily this reason the number of deaths in Finnish camps rose dramatically. Punishments for escape attempts or serious breaking of rules included solitary confinement and execution. Out of 64,188 Soviet POWs, 18,318 died in Finnish prisoner of war camps.[25] Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ...


After the war, based on the testimonies of the former prisoners of war, criminal charges were preferred against 1381 Finnish camp staff, resulting in 723 convictions and 658 persons released. They were accused of 42 executions, 242 murders. There were the seven cases led death under the request of former prisoners, 10 cases of death as a result of the tortures, eight infringements of the property rights, 280 official infringements and 86 other crimes.


A significant number of Soviet immigrants who had come to East Karelia after 1917 were placed in concentration camps. These were Russian women, young children, and the elderly as almost all of the working age male and female population was either drafted or evacuated: only ⅓ of original population of 470,000 remained in East Karelia when the Finnish occupiers arrived, and only half of them were Karelians. About 30% (24,000) of remaining Russian population were confined in camps, 6,000 of them refugees on the move captured when awaiting Soviet transportation over Lake Onega, and 3,000 from the southern side of the River Svir, allegedly to secure the area behind the front line against partisan attacks. The first of the camps were set up on 24 October 1941 in Petrozavodsk. During the spring and summer of 1942 3,500 detainees died of malnutrition. During the last half of 1942 the number of detainees dropped quickly to 15,000 as people were released to their homes or were resettled to the "safe" villages, and as the nutrition situation improved, only 500 more people died during the last two years of war.[26][27] During the following years Finns detained a few thousand more civilians from partisan active areas, but as the releases continued the total number of detained remained at 13,000–14,000. East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... The river Svir (Свирь, Finnish: Syväri) connects Lake Onega with Lake Ladoga in Russia, thus connecting the two largest lakes of Europe, and is considered the southern border of East Karelia. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Soviet partisan activity

Finnish civilians killed by Soviet partisans at Seitajärvi in Finnish Lapland 1942
Finnish civilians killed by Soviet partisans at Seitajärvi in Finnish Lapland 1942[28]
Main article: Soviet partisans#Finland and Karelia

Soviet partisans operated in Finland and in Karelia from 1941 to 1944. 24,000 ethnic Russians were interred by occupying Finnish forces. 4,000-7,000 of them died, mostly from hunger during the spring and summer of 1942 due to failed harvest of 1941.[29][26] Segregation in education and medical care between Karelians and Russians created resentment, making many ethnic Russians support the partisan attacks. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ...


Soviet partisans conducted a number of operations. The major one failed when the 1st Partisan Brigade was destroyed in the beginning of August 1942 at lake Seesjärvi. Partisans distributed propaganda newspapers "Pravda" in Finnish language and "Lenin's Banner" in Russian language. One of the leaders of the partisan movement in Finland and Karelia was Yuri Andropov.[30] For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ... Template:Languaklkkkhytgf Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , Russian pronunciation: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, and the largest native language in Europe. ... Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just fifteen months later. ...


In East Karelia most partisans attacked Finnish military supply and communication targets, but on the Finnish side of the border, almost two thirds of the attacks targeted civilians,[31] killing 200 and injuring 50, including children and elderly.[32][33][34]

Soviet Offensive 1944

Overtures for peace

Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union

Finland began to actively seek a way out of the war after the disastrous German defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad in January–February 1943. Edwin Linkomies formed a new cabinet with peace as the top priority. Negotiations were conducted intermittently in 1943–44 between Finland and its representative, Juho Kusti Paasikivi, on the one side and the Western Allies and the Soviet Union on the other but no agreement was reached. Stalin decided to force Finland to surrender; a terror bombing campaign followed. The air campaign in February 1944 included three major air attacks on Helsinki involving a total of over 6000 bombing sorties. However, Finnish anti-aircraft defences managed to repel the raids; it is estimated that only about 5% of the bombs hit the planned targets. Major air attacks also hit Oulu and Kotka but, because of radio intelligence and effective AA defences, the number of casualties was small. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (619x800, 50 KB) Summary Map of Finnish areas ceded to the Soviet Union in 1944, after the Continuation War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (619x800, 50 KB) Summary Map of Finnish areas ceded to the Soviet Union in 1944, after the Continuation War. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Josef Stalin Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B... Edwin Linkomies (1894–1963, until 1928 Edwin Flinck) was Prime Minister of Finland March 1943 to August 1944, and therefore one of the seven politicians on Soviet demands sentenced to 5½ years in prison as allegedly responsible for the Continuation War. ... Juho Kusti Paasikivi (November 27, 1870 – December 14, 1956) was President of Finland from 1946 to 1956. ...


Recapture of Karelian Isthmus

On 9 June 1944, the Soviet Union opened a major offensive against Finnish positions on the Karelian Isthmus and in the Lake Ladoga area (it was timed to accompany D-Day). On the second day of the offensive, the Soviet forces broke through the Finnish lines and, in the succeeding days, made advances that appeared to threaten the survival of Finland. On the 21.7 km wide breakthrough point the Soviet Union had concentrated 2,851 45-mm guns and 130 50-mm guns. On the heaviest places in Karelian isthmus, the Soviet Union had concentrated over 200 guns for each frontier kilometer (one for each 5m). On 9 June, Soviet artillery fired over 80,000 rounds at the Karelian isthmus. Soviet troops liberated Petrozavodsk on 28 June 1944. Before they retreated, the Finns delivered two weeks worth of food to the locals. Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Karl Lennart Oesch Leonid Govorov Kirill Meretskov Strength 268,000 375,000 Casualties 18,000 killed, 45,000 wounded, 3,000 prisoners 40,000 killed, 130,000 wounded During World War II, in the Continuation War, the Fourth Strategic Offensive was... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Karl Lennart Oesch Leonid Govorov Kirill Meretskov Strength 268,000 375,000 Casualties 18,000 killed, 45,000 wounded, 3,000 prisoners 40,000 killed, 130,000 wounded During World War II, in the Continuation War, the Fourth Strategic Offensive was... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Petrozavodsk (Russian: ; Karelian/Finnish: Petroskoi) is the capital of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, with a population of 266,160 (2002 Census). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Finland especially lacked modern anti-tank weaponry, which could stop heavy Soviet tanks, and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop offered them in exchange for a guarantee that Finland would not again seek a separate peace. On 26 June, President Risto Ryti gave this guarantee as a personal undertaking, which he intended to last for the remainder of his presidency. In addition to material deliveries, Hitler sent some assault gun brigades and a Luftwaffe fighter-bomber unit to temporarily support the most threatened defence sectors. Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Risto Heikki Ryti (February 3, 1889 - October 25, 1956) was the president of Finland from 1940 to 1944. ... The Ryti-Ribbentrop letter of agreement (Finnish: Ryti-Ribbentrop sopimus) of June 26, 1944, signifies the closest to an alliance Finland and Nazi Germany came during World War II. According to the agreement, Risto Ryti, then President of Finland, undertook not to conclude peace in the Continuation War with the... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...


With new supplies from Germany, the Finns were now able to handle the crisis, and halted the Soviets in early July 1944. At this point, the Finnish forces had retreated about one hundred kilometres bringing them to approximately the same line of defence they had held at the end of the Winter War. This line was known as the VKT-line (for "Viipuri–Kuparsaari–Taipale", running from Vyborg to River Vuoksi, and along the river to Lake Ladoga at Taipale) where the Soviet offensive was stopped in the Battle of Tali-Ihantala in spite of their numerical and material superiority. Finland had already become a sideshow for the Soviet leadership, who now turned their attention to Poland and southeastern Europe. The Allies had already succeeded in their landing in France and were pushing towards Germany, and the Soviet leadership did not want to give them a free hand in Central Europe. Although the Finnish front was once again stabilized, the Finns were exhausted and wanted to get out of the war. The VKT-line or Viipuri-Kuparsaari-Taipale line (Finnish: ) was a Finnish defensive line on Karelian Isthmus during the Continuation War, spanning from Viipuri (Vyborg) through Tali and Kuparsaari along the northern shore of Vuoksi River, Suvanto and Taipaleenjoki to Taipale on the western shore of Lake Ladoga, using natural... The River Vuoksi (Finnish) or River Vuoksa (Russian standard transcription) runs in the northernmost part of the Karelian Isthmus, from Lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland flowing into Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... Taipale at the eastern end of the Mannerheim Line (pre-1940 border). ... Combatants  Finland, Germany  Soviet Union Commanders Karl Lennart Oesch Kurt Kuhlmey Dmitrii N. Gusev Strength 50,000 [1] 150,000 [1] Casualties 1,100 killed 1,100 missing 6,300 wounded[1] 4,500-5,500 killed 13,500-14,500 wounded[2][3] Map of the Karelian Isthmus. ...


Armistice and the Aftermath

Mannerheim had repeatedly reminded the Germans that in case their troops in Estonia retreated, Finland would be forced to make peace even on extremely unfavourable terms. Soviet-occupied Estonia would have provided the Soviets a favourable base for amphibious invasions and air attacks against Helsinki and other cities, and would have strangled Finnish access to the sea. When the Germans indeed withdrew, the Finnish desire to end the war increased. Perhaps realizing the validity of this point, initial German reaction to Finland's announcement of ambitions for a separate peace was limited to only verbal opposition. However, the Germans arrested hundreds of sailors on Finnish merchant ships in Germany, Denmark and Norway.


President Ryti resigned, making a separate peace possible, and Finland's military leader and national hero, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, was extraordinarily appointed president by the parliament, accepting responsibility for ending the war. This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ...


On 4 September, the cease-fire ended military actions on the Finnish side. The Soviet Union ended hostilities exactly 24 hours after the Finns. The Moscow armistice was signed in Moscow on 19 September between the Soviet Union and Finland. Finland had to make many concessions: the Soviet Union regained the borders of 1940, with the addition of the Petsamo area; the Porkkala Peninsula (adjacent to Finland's capital Helsinki) was leased to the USSR as a naval base for fifty years and transit rights were granted; Finland's army was to demobilize in haste, and Finland was required to expel all German troops from its territory. As the Germans refused to leave Finland voluntarily, the Finns had no choice but to fight their former allies in the Lapland War. The Finns were also to clear the mine fields in Karelia (including East Karelia) and in the Gulf of Finland. The mine clearance was a long operation, especially in the sea areas, lasting until 1952 and inflicting casualties of 100 killed and over 200 wounded, most of them in Lapland. is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Continuation War. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The area of Petsamo (Pechenga in Russian) in northern Lapland, indigenously inhabited by Samis, came to Finland in 1920 and to the Soviet Union in 1944. ... Porkkala is a peninsula in the Gulf of Finland located at Kirkkonummi in Southern Finland. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Combatants Germany Finland Commanders Lothar Rendulic Hjalmar Siilasvuo Strength 200,000 60,000 Casualties 950 killed 2,000 wounded 1,300 captured 774 killed 3,000 wounded 262 missing The Lapland War (Finnish: ; German: ; Swedish: ) is a name used for the hostilities between Finland and Germany between September 1944 and...


Nevertheless, in contrast to the rest of the Eastern front, where the war was fought to the end, a Soviet occupation of Finland did not result and Finland retained sovereignty. Neither did Communists rise to power as they had done in Eastern Bloc countries. A policy called Paasikivi-Kekkonen line formed the basis of Finnish foreign policy towards the Soviet Union. The Paasikivi-Kekkonen line is president Urho Kekkonens (1956-1981) realization and development of his predecessors Paasikivi doctrine, aimed at Finlands survival as an independent sovereign democratic and capitalist country in the immediate proximity of the Soviet Union. ...

353,240 Soviet personnel were awarded this medal for the defence of the Soviet Transarctic from 5 December 1944.
353,240 Soviet personnel were awarded this medal for the defence of the Soviet Transarctic from 5 December 1944.
Memorial at Lappeenranta to the dead of the Winter and Continuation Wars. The wall in the background carries the names of Finnish dead buried inside Karelia. The figures are cleaners carrying out a daily clean and tidying of the memorial. May 2000

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Awards and decorations of the Soviet Union are decorations from the Former Soviet Union that recognised achievements and personal accomplishments, both military and civilian. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Lapp1. ... Image File history File links Lapp1. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead...

Analysis

Aims of the War

Unlike the Winter War, which was a Soviet war of aggression against Finland, the Continuation War was a war of aggression initiated by the Finns,[35][36] which attempted to rectify the territorial losses of the Winter War and pre-empt Soviet aggression. There is a debate in Finland on whether the country had a realistic option of not joining the German Operation Barbarossa, and about how much of the Finnish action was morally justified. However, there exists a consensus that one of the main Finnish objectives was an attempt to get back the areas lost in the Winter War. Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... In international law, a war of aggression is generally considered to be any war for which the purpose is not to repel an invasion, or respond to an attack on the territory of a sovereign nation. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... A preemptive attack (or preemptive war) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat an imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (usually unavoidable) war. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead...


Finland's main goal during World War II was, although it was nowhere openly stated, to survive the war as an independent democratic country, capable of maintaining its sovereignty in a politically hostile environment. Specifically for the Continuation War, Finland also aimed at reversing its territorial losses under the March 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty and by extending its territory further east, to have more non-Finnish land to defend before armies from the USSR could enter Finnish territories. Some small right-wing groups also supported a Greater Finland ideology. Finland's efforts during World War II were, as regards survival and with hindsight, successful, although the price was high in war casualties, reparation payments, territorial loss, bruised international reputation, and subsequent adaptation to Soviet international perspectives during the Cold War (see: Finlandization). The Finnish-German alliance was different from most of the other Axis relationships, an example of which is represented by the participation of Finnish Jews in the fight against the Soviet Union.[37] The Finns did not take any anti-Jewish measures in Finland, despite repeated requests from Nazi Germany.[38] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... The current borders of modern-day Finland are light blue. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


The Soviet Union's war goals are harder to assess on account of the secretive nature of the Stalinist Soviet Union. Soviet sources maintain that Soviet policies up to the Continuation War were best explained as defensive measures by offensive means: the division of occupied Poland with Germany, the annexation of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, and the attempted invasion of Finland in the Winter War are seen by them as elements in the construction of a security zone or buffer region between the perceived threat from the capitalist powers of Western Europe and the Communist Soviet Union – as some see the post-war establishment of Soviet satellite states in the Warsaw Pact countries and the Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance concluded with post-war Finland.[39][40][41] Notable modern western scholars such as Norman Davies and John Lukacs reject this view and claim that the pre-war Soviet policy was aimed at staying out of the war and regaining land lost after the fall of the Russian Empire.[42] For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Finno–Soviet Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, also known as the YYA Treaty from the Finnish Ystävyys-, yhteistyö- ja avunantosopimus (YYA-sopimus) (Swedish: Vänskaps-, samarbets- och biståndsavtalet (VSB-avtalet)), was in effect from 1948 to 1992. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... John Lukacs (born 31 January 1924 in Budapest his name spelled Lukács) is a Hungarian-born historian who has written more than twenty-five books, including Five Days in London, May 1940 and The New Republic. ...


Battles and operations

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Continuation War Karelian isthmus – East Karelia – Ladoga Karelia – Silberfuchs – Hanko – Uhtua-Kiestinki – Repola-Rukajärvi – Porlammi – 1st Tuulos – Suursaari – Fourth strategic offensive – Valkeasaari – Kuuterselkä – Siiranmäki – Tienhaara – Tali-Ihantala – 2nd Kollaa – Syväri – Bay of Viipuri – Vuosalmi – 2nd Tuulos – Nietjärvi – Ilomantsi The Finnish reconquest of the Karelian Isthmus (1941... Continuation War Karelian isthmus – East Karelia – Ladoga Karelia – Silberfuchs – Hanko – Uhtua-Kiestinki – Repola-Rukajärvi – Porlammi – 1st Tuulos – Suursaari – Fourth strategic offensive – Valkeasaari – Kuuterselkä – Siiranmäki – Tienhaara – Tali-Ihantala – 2nd Kollaa – Syväri – Bay of Viipuri – Vuosalmi – 2nd Tuulos – Nietjärvi – Ilomantsi Finnish soldiers in Olonets Karelia The Finnish occupation... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Operation Silberfuchs (Silver Fox) was a German operation during World War II. Its main goal was the capture of the Soviet port at Murmansk through attacks from Finnish territory. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Karl Lennart Oesch Leonid Govorov Kirill Meretskov Strength 268,000 375,000 Casualties 18,000 killed, 45,000 wounded, 3,000 prisoners 40,000 killed, 130,000 wounded During World War II, in the Continuation War, the Fourth Strategic Offensive was... Combatants  Finland, Germany  Soviet Union Commanders Karl Lennart Oesch Kurt Kuhlmey Dmitrii N. Gusev Strength 50,000 [1] 150,000 [1] Casualties 1,100 killed 1,100 missing 6,300 wounded[1] 4,500-5,500 killed 13,500-14,500 wounded[2][3] Map of the Karelian Isthmus. ... The Battle of the Bay of Viipuri was a battle in the Finnish-Soviet Continuation War (1941-1944). ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Strength 30,000 60,000 Casualties 795 killed in action 4,976 wounded 754 missing 3,050 killed in action 11,750 wounded 250 missing The Battle of Vuosalmi (also known as the Battle of Äyräpää-Vuosalmi) – the main bulk of it – lasted from July... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Major General Kustaa Tapola Lieutenant General A. Krutikov Casualties 700 as killed or wounded 2000+ killed in action 4000+ wounded a few hundred missing The Battle of Nietjärvi (July 15 to July 17, 1944) was part of the Continuation War (1941-1944... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Co-belligerence is waging the war in cooperation against a common enemy without the formal treaty of military alliance. ... Several Finnish volunteers served with the Waffen SS in the Second World War. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. Finland was part of Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century to 1809, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire becoming the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. ... The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... List of military corps — List of Finnish corps in the Continuation War This is a list of Finnish army corps that existed during the Continuation War. ... List of military divisions — List of Finnish divisions in the Continuation War This is a list of Finnish divisions that existed during the Continuation War, 1941 - 1944. ... This is a list of wars fought by independent Finland between 1917 and 1945: The Civil War (1918) Treaty of Tarto (1920) Heimosodat by Finnish volunteers The Estonian Liberation War (1918-1920) The Viena expedition (1918) The Petsamo expedition (1918 and 1920) The Aunus expedition (1919) The Rising of East... The Lotta Svärd emblem designed by Eric Wasström in 1921. ... The Paasikivi-Kekkonen line is president Urho Kekkonens (1956-1981) realization and development of his predecessors Paasikivi doctrine, aimed at Finlands survival as an independent sovereign democratic and capitalist country in the immediate proximity of the Soviet Union. ... The Salpa-line between Lake Saimaa and the Gulf of Finland. ... This Luftwaffe detachment served in Finland and Norway for air support of Axis forces in sector, with command offices in Oslo, Norway (at date July 26, 1944). ... No 151 Wing Royal Air Force was a British wing which fought alongside the Soviets on the Kola Peninsula during the first months of Operation Barbarossa during World War II. The delay in starting the Finnish-German offensive from Northern Finland gave the British an opportunity to intervene. ...

References

  1. ^ Figure indicates total number of all men in service in the theatre of war.
  2. ^ a b Manninen, Ohto, Molotovin cocktail- Hitlerin sateenvarjo, 1994, Painatuskeskus, ISBN 951-37-1495-0
  3. ^ National Defence College (1994), Jatkosodan historia 6, Porvoo. ISBN 951-0-15332-X
  4. ^ FAA archive :raid on Petsamo
  5. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Finland, Moscow, 1974, ISBN 0-02-880010-9
  6. ^ World War II :Finland
  7. ^ FAA archive :raid on Petsamo
  8. ^ The Royal Air Force in Russia :Hurricanes at Murmansk
  9. ^ Ahtokari, Reijo and Pale, Erkki: Suomen Radiotiedustelu 1927-1944 (Finnish radio intelligence 1927-1944), Helsinki, Hakapaino Oy, pp. 191-198, ISBN 952-90-9437-X
  10. ^ Seppinen, Ilkka, Suomen ulkomaankaupan ehdot, 1939-1944, 1983, ISBN 951-9254-48-X
  11. ^ Transcript of secret taping of Hitler's conversation with Mannerheim
  12. ^ Max Jacobsson 1999 Century of Violence
  13. ^ Nordberg, Erkki, Arvio ja ennuste Venäjän sotilaspolitiikasta Suomen suunnalla, 2003, ISBN 951-884-362-7
  14. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Premium, Finland, 2006, http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-26105
  15. ^ Jokipii, Mauno, Jatkosodan synty, 1987, ISBN 951-1-08799-1
  16. ^ Finnish Navy in WW II - Mine warfare
  17. ^ Naval War in the Baltic Sea 1941-1945
  18. ^ Finnish navy in Continuation War, year 1941
  19. ^ Battle of the Baltic,The wars 1918-1945 Robert Jackson 2007 page 105 ISBN 184415422-x
  20. ^ Wuorinen 1948 p.135
  21. ^ http://yad-vashem.org.il/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%205852.pdf
  22. ^ Rautkallio, Hannu, Suomen juutalaisten aseveljeys (Finnish Jews as German Brothers in Arms), 1989, Tammi
  23. ^ http://gov.karelia.ru/Karelia/1174/sk.pdf
  24. ^ Helsingin Sanomat 8 November 2003: Wartime refugees made pawns in cruel diplomatic game.
  25. ^ Ylikangas, Heikki, Heikki Ylikankaan selvitys Valtioneuvoston kanslialle, Government of Finland
  26. ^ a b Laine, Antti, Suur-Suomen kahdet kasvot, 1982, ISBN 951-1-06947-0, Otava
  27. ^ Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulun historian laitos, Jatkosodan historia 1-6, 1994
  28. ^ Anna-Stina Nykänen (2006-11-19). Sixty years on, there are no grounds to withhold images kept in a Finnish Defence Forces' safe. Too awful an image of war. HELSINGIN SANOMAT (International Edition). Retrieved on 2008-01-17. “The half-naked bodies of Finnish women and children lie strewn on the ground, their corpses partly decomposed. The body of a fair-haired boy of around five years of age is lifted onto the flat bed of a truck. A Finnish soldier holds the burnt and blackened corpse of an infant in his arms.
    Another envelope reveals images of cannibalism. Russian troops, surrounded by Finns and with no hope of relief, have started to eat their dead. A third envelope contains graphic images of executions. A Russian infiltrator, caught behind the Finnish lines, laughs and smiles at the camera as a Finnish officer raises a pistol to despatch him.”
  29. ^ (Russian)"Равнение на Победу" (Eyes toward Victory), the Republic of Karelia (Russian). the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, National Delphi Council of Russia. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  30. ^ (Russian)Andropov Yuri Vladimirovich. Biography.
  31. ^ (Finnish)Eino Viheriävaara, (1982). Partisaanien jäljet 1941-1944, Oulun Kirjateollisuus Oy. ISBN 951-99396-6-0
  32. ^ Veikko Erkkilä, (1999). Vaiettu sota, Arator Oy. ISBN 952-9619-18-9.
  33. ^ Lauri Hannikainen, (1992). Implementing Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts: The Case of Finland, Martinuss Nijoff Publishers, Dordrecht. ISBN 0-7923-1611-8.
  34. ^ (Finnish)Tyyne Martikainen, (2002). Partisaanisodan siviiliuhrit, PS-Paino Värisuora Oy. ISBN 952-91-4327-3.
  35. ^ Jatkosodan synty suomalaisen menneisyyden kipupisteenä (Finnish)
  36. ^ SUOMEN MARSSI JATKOSOTAAN (Finnish)
  37. ^ Tuulikki Vuonokari (2003-11-21). "Jews in Finland During the Second World War". University of Tampere. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  38. ^ Letter to the New York Times by Mark Cohen, Executive Director of Holocaust Publications in New York, April 28, 1987
  39. ^ (Russian)The problem of ensuring the security of Leningrad from the north in light of Soviet war planning of 1932-1941 by V.N. Baryshnikov: The actual war with Finland began first of all due to unresolved issues in Leningrad's security from the north and Moscow's concerns for the perspective of Finland's politics. At the same time, a desire to claim better strategic positions in case of a war with Germany had surfaced within the Soviet leadership.
  40. ^ (Russian)Финская война. Взгляд "с той стороны". A.I.Kozlov:After the rise of National Socialism to power in Germany, the geopolitical importance of the former "buffer states" had drastically changed. Both the Soviet Union and Germany vied for the inclusion of these states into their spheres of influence. Soviet politicians and military considered it likely, that in case of an aggression against the USSR, German armed forces will use the territory of the Baltic states and Finland as staging areas for invasion - by either conquering or coercing these countries. None of the states of the Baltic region, excluding Poland, had sufficient military power to resist a German invasion.
  41. ^ (Russian)[1] Stalin's Missed Chance, by Mikhail Meltyukhov:The English-French influence in the Baltics, characteristic for the '20s - early '30s was increasingly limited by the growth of the German influence. Due to the strategic importance of the region, the Soviet leadership also aimed to increase its influence there, using both diplomatic means as well as active social propaganda. By the end of the '30s, the main contenders for the influence in the Baltics were Germany and the Soviet Union. Being a buffer zone between Germany and the USSR, the Baltic states were bound to them by a system of economic and non-aggression treaties of 1926, 1932 and 1939
  42. ^ Norman Davies 2007 'No simple victory'ISBN978-0-670-01832-1

Title page of the 3rd ed. ... RAF redirects here. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:National Defence College parade. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stalins Missed Chance is a study by Russian military historian Mikhail Ivanovich Meltyukhov (Russian: ), author of several books and articles on Soviet military history. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Meltyukhov (Russian: Мельтюхов Михаил Иванович) is a Russian military historian. ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Continuation War
  • Vehviläinen, Olli (2002). Finland in the Second World War: Between Germany and Russia. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0-333-80149-0. 
  • Jokipii, Mauno (1987). Jatkosodan synty. Otava. ISBN 951-1-08799-1. 
  • Sana, Elina (1994). Luovutetut/ The Extradited: Finland's Extraditions to the Gestapo. WSOY. ISBN 951-0-27975-7. 
  • Seppinen, Ilkka (1983). Suomen Ulkomaankaupan ehdot 1939-1944. ISBN 951-9254-48-X. 
  • Schwartz, Andrew J. (1960). America and the Russo-Finnish War. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press. 
  • Platonov, S.P. (editor) (1964). Битва за Ленинград. Voenizdat Ministerstva oborony SSSR. 
  • Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulun Historian laitos (editor) (1994). Jatkosodan historia 1-6. WSOY. 
  • Leskinen, Jari & Juutilainen, Antti (editors) (2005). Jatkosodan pikkujättiläinen. WSOY. ISBN 951-0-28690-7. 
  • (Russian) Хельге Сеппяля Финляндия как оккупант в 1941-1944 годах Журнал "Север" ISSN 0131-6222, 1995. See
  • Finnish National Archive Luovutukset: Research on prisoner-of-war deaths, extraditions and deportations from Finland between 1939-55, Research project, See
  • Wuorinen, John H. (editor) (1948). Finland and World War II 1939-1944. The Ronald Press Company. 

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The editorial offices in the centre of Helsinki. ... SanomaWSOY is the leading media group in the Nordic countries with operations in 20 European countries, based in Helsinki. ... SanomaWSOY is the leading media group in the Nordic countries with operations in 20 European countries, based in Helsinki. ... SanomaWSOY is the leading media group in the Nordic countries with operations in 20 European countries, based in Helsinki. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Continuation War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (11103 words)
The war was formally concluded by the Paris peace treaty of 1947.
Although the Continuation War was fought on the periphery of World War II and the troops engaged were relatively few, its history is intriguing as it challenges both conventional wisdom about the moral clarity of the Allied effort and the popular and academic theory that democratic countries do not wage war against each other.
Memories of the 1939 Winter War with the Soviet Union, and the inability of the Allies to support the Finns in it, were key motivators for the alliance with Germany.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m