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Encyclopedia > Continental System

The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. By 1804, France was the dominant military force in continental Europe, however the British Isles stood outside French control and the United Kingdom was an important force in encouraging and financing resistance to France. Napoleon lacked the resources to attempt an invasion of the United Kingdom or to defeat the Royal Navy at sea. His one attempt to do so ended with defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Napoleon resorted instead to economic warfare. As a result of the Industrial Revolution, Great Britain was emerging as Europe's manufacturing center, and Napoleon believed it would be vulnerable to embargo on trade with the European nations under his control. Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David. ... The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ... Combatants Allies: • United Kingdom, • Prussia, • Austria, • Russia France Casualties Full list Full list The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one. ... The British Isles consist of Great Britain, Ireland and a number of much smaller surrounding islands. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland First French Empire, Spain Commanders The Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line, 4 frigates, 2 others France: 18 ships of the line, 8 others Spain: 15 ships of the line Casualties 449 killed; 1,214... A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ...


The Continental System was just such an embargo. In November 1806, having recently conquered or allied with every major power on the European continent, Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree forbidding his allies and conquests from trading with the British. In 1807 he tightened his grip and, in an effort to destroy the commerce of the United Kingdom, issued the Milan Decree. Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Continental Europe refers to the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... The Berlin Decree was issued by Napoleon on November 21, 1806. ... The Milan Decree was issued in 1807 by Napoleon I of France to enforce the Berlin Decree of 1806 which had initiated the Continental System that was the basis for his plan to defeat the British by waging economic warfare. ...


Ultimately the embargo failed. Its effect on the United Kingdom and on British trade is uncertain, but thought to be much less harmful than on the continental European states. The continental European states needed the British goods, and Napoleon had put in place internal tariffs, all favoring France and hurting the other nations. The embargo encouraged British merchants to aggressively seek out new markets and to engage in smuggling with continental Europe. Napoleon's exclusively land-based customs enforcers could not stop British smugglers, especially as these operated with the connivance of Napoleons chosen rulers of Spain, Westphalia and other German states, who faced severe shortages of goods from the French colonies. The British, by Orders in Council (1807), prohibited her trade partners from trading with France. In response the United States Congress passed the Embargo Act of 1807. This contributed to the general ill will between the two countries and, together with the issue of the impressment of foreign seamen, eventually led to armed conflict between the United States and the United Kingdom in the War of 1812. The Orders in Council of 1807 were a specific use of an order of the British Privy Council, made under the Royal prerogative, during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The Embargo Act of 1807 was an American law prohibiting all export of cargo from American ports. ... The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and British Empire from 1812 to 1815, on land in North America and at sea around the world. ...


Portugal openly refused to join the Continental system. After the Tilsit Treaty of July 1807, Napoleon attempted to capture the Portuguese Fleet and the House of Braganza, to occupy the Portuguese ports and to expel the British from Portuguese soil, and failed. King John VI of Portugal took his fleet and fled to Brazil with a Royal Navy escort. The Portuguese population rose in revolt against the French invaders, the British Army under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington intervened and the Peninsular War began in 1808. A railway bridge in Tilsit Sovetsk (Советск) is a town on the Neman River in the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, which prior to 1945 was known by its German name, Tilsit, and was in East Prussia. ... Braganza can be: the English name for the Portuguese city and district of Bragança the name of the royal Portuguese House This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... John VI (Portuguese João, pron. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... The Peninsular War (1808–1814) (known as War of Independence in Spain, as French Invasions in Portugal, as Guerre dEspagne in France and as Frenchs War in Catalonia) was a major conflict during the Napoleonic Wars, fought in the Iberian Peninsula with Spanish, Portuguese, and the British forces...


Sweden, Britain's ally in the Third Coalition, also flatly refused to comply and was invaded by Russia in February 1808.


In fact, the Continental System caused more collateral damage to the nations of the "Grand Empire" than it did to the United Kingdom. Russia in particular chafed under the embargo, and in 1812, that country reopened trade with the United Kingdom. 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
More on Continental Airlines (1296 words)
Continental was formerly part of the Wings Alliance and has partnerships with Northwest Airlines and Delta Air Lines They code-share with Amtrak to some cities in the northeastern United States and with SNCF French Rail to stations in France.
This airline is nowadays known as Continental Micronesia and it uses Continental's livery on its jets.
Continental had also become partners with Avant Airlines of Santiago, Chile and it was, along with America West, the first two USA airlines to launch the Interline E-Ticket system.
Continental System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (526 words)
The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars.
By 1804, France was the dominant military force in continental Europe, however the British Isles stood outside French control and the United Kingdom was an important force in encouraging and financing resistance to France.
After the Tilsit Treaty of July 1807, Napoleon attempted to capture the Portuguese Fleet and the House of Braganza, to occupy the Portuguese ports and to expel the British from Portuguese soil, and failed.
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