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Encyclopedia > Continental Army
American Revolutionary War
Armed Forces
United States
Continental Army
Commander-in-Chief
Regional departments
→ List of units
Continental Navy
Continental Marines
State forces
→ List of militia units
Pennsylvania Navy
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British Empire
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France
List of French units
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List of battles
Military leadership

The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775, the army was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their struggle against the armed forces of Great Britain. The Continental Army worked in conjunction with local militias and other troops that remained under control of the individual states. General George Washington was the Commander-in-Chief of the army throughout the war. This article is about military actions only. ... Image File history File links Surrender_of_Lord_Cornwallis. ... Washington Crossing the Delaware, by Emanuel Leutze, 1851, Metropolitan Museum After fighting broke out in the American Revolutionary War in April 1775, George Washington was appointed as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. ... The overall Continental Army of the American Revolutionary War was organized into six departments for command and administrative purposes. ... This is a list of units of the Continental Army, the national army of the United States during the American Revolutionary War. ... Continental Navy Jack The Continental Navy was authorized by the Continental Congress on October 13, 1775. ... The Continental Marines were the Marine force of the American Colonies during American Revolutionary War. ... This is a list of American militia units that served on the Patriot side of the American Revolutionary War, listed by state. ... The Pennsylvania Navy (more formally known as the Pennsylvania State Navy) served as the naval force of Pennsylvania during the American Revolution and afterward, until the formation of the United States Navy. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... This is a list of French units in the American Revolutionary War. ... This is a list of military actions in the American Revolutionary War. ... A great number of military leaders played a role in the American Revolutionary War. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... This article is about military actions only. ... The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... The role of militia, also known as civilian military service and duty, in the United States is complex and has transformed over time. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


Most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783 after the Treaty of Paris ended the war. The remaining units possibly formed the nucleus of what was to become the United States Army. Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...

Contents

Creation

When the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army. Previously, each colony had relied upon the militia, made up of part time citizen-soldiers, for local defense. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the years leading up to the war, colonists began to reform their militia in preparation for the potential conflict. Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed creating a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea.[1] Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, British Marines, Royal Artillery Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, John Buttrick, William Heath, Joseph Warren Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Hugh, Earl Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Common (Parker). ... The Intolerable Acts or the Coercive Acts were names given by colonists in the Thirteen Colonies to a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in March of 1774. ... Richard Henry Lee (January 20, 1732–June 19, 1794) was an American who served as the sixth President of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation, holding office from November 30, 1784 to November 22, 1785. ... The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1774. ...


After Lexington and Concord, thousands of militiamen from New England gathered to oppose the British troops who had been bottled up in Boston. On June 14, 1775, the Second Continental Congress decided to proceed with the establishment of a Continental Army for purposes of common defense, adopting the forces already in place outside Boston as the first units of the army. On June 15, the Congress elected, by unanimous vote, George Washington as commander-in-chief. Washington accepted the position without any compensation, except reimbursement of his expenses. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Combatants New England militia, Continental Army Great Britain Commanders Artemas Ward, George Washington Thomas Gage, William Howe Strength 17,000 The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


Four major-generals (Artemas Ward, Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler, and Israel Putnam) and eight brigadier-generals (Seth Pomeroy, Richard Montgomery, David Wooster, William Heath, Joseph Spencer, John Thomas, John Sullivan, and Nathanael Greene) were appointed in the course of a few days. Artemas Ward (November 26, 1727 – October 28, 1800) was an American Major General in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts. ... Charles Lee Charles Lee (February 6, 1732 – October 2, 1782) was a British soldier turned Virginia planter who was a Major General of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. ... Philip Schuyler Philip John Schuyler (November 10, 1733 – November 18, 1804) was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. ... Maj. ... Seth Pomeroy (May 20, 1706 – February 9, 1777) was an American gunsmith and soldier from Northampton, Massachusetts. ... An engraving depicting the death of General Montgomery at the Battle of Quebec. ... David Wooster (1710–1777) was an American military leader from Connecticut. ... Wiliam Heath (1737–1814) was an American farmer, soldier, and political leader from Massachusetts. ... Joseph Spencer (1714–1789) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman from Connecticut. ... There have been several people with this name, see John Thomas for others. ... John Sullivan (b. ... This article is about the American Revolutionary War hero. ...

General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775.
General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775.


As the Continental Congress increasingly adopted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, the role of the Continental Army was the subject of considerable debate. There was a general aversion to maintaining a standing army among the Americans; but, on the other hand, the requirements of the war against the British required the discipline and organization of a modern military. As a result, the army went through several distinct phases, characterized by official dissolution and reorganization of units. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (972x1184, 124 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (972x1184, 124 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Soldiers in the Continental Army were citizens who had volunteered to serve in the army (but were paid), and at various times during the war, standard enlistment periods lasted from one to three years. (Early in the war, the enlistment periods were short, as the Continental Congress feared the possibility of the Continental Army evolving into a permanent army. The army never reached over 17,000 men. Turnover was a constant problem, particularly in the winter of 1776-77, and longer enlistments were approved.) John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ...


Broadly speaking, Continental forces consisted of several successive armies, or "establishments":

  • The Continental Army of 1775, comprising the initial New England Army, organized by Washington into three divisions. Also, Major General Philip Schuyler's ten regiments were sent to invade Canada.
  • The Continental Army of 1776, reorganized after the initial enlistment period of the soldiers in the 1775 army had expired. Washington had submitted recommendations to the Continental Congress almost immediately after he had accepted the position of commander-in-chief, but these took time to consider and implement. Despite attempts to broaden the recruiting base beyond New England, the 1776 army remained skewed toward the Northeast both in terms of its composition and geographical focus.
  • The Continental Army of 1777-80 was a result of several critical reforms and political decisions that came about when it was apparent that the British were sending massive forces to put an end to the American Revolution. The Continental Congress passed the Eighty-eight battalion resolution, ordering each state to contribute forces in proportion to their population, and Washington was given authority to raise an additional 15 battalions. Also, enlistment terms were extended to three years or "the length of the war" to avoid the year-end crises that depleted forces (including the notable near collapse of the army at the end of 1776 which could have ended the war in a Continental, or American, loss by forfeit).
  • The Continental Army of 1781-82 saw the greatest crisis on the American side in the war. Congress was bankrupt, making it very difficult to replenish the soldiers whose three-year terms had expired. Popular support for the war was at its all-time low, and Washington had to put down mutinies both in the Pennsylvania Line and New Jersey Line. Congress voted to cut funding for the Army, but Washington managed nevertheless to secure important strategic victories.
  • The Continental Army of 1783-84, was succeeded by the United States Army, which persists to this day. As peace was closed with the British, most of the regiments were disbanded in an orderly fashion, though several had already been diminished.

In addition to the Continental Army regulars, local militia units, raised and funded by individual colonies/states, participated in battles throughout the war. Sometimes, the militia units operated independently of the Continental Army, but often local militias were called out to support and augment the Continental Army regulars during campaigns. (The militia troops developed a reputation for being prone to premature retreats, a fact that was integrated into the strategy at the Battle of the Cowpens.) This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The Pennsylvania Line was a formation within the Continental Army, comprised of infantry regiments from the state of Pennsylvania. ... The New Jersey Line was a formation within the Continental Army, comprised of infantry regiments from the state of New Jersey. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...


The financial responsibility for providing pay, food, shelter, clothing, arms, and other equipment to specific units was assigned to states as part of the establishment of these units. States differed in how well they lived up these obligations. There were constant funding issues and morale problems as the war continued. This lead to the army offering low pay, often rotten food, hard work, cold, heat, poor clothing and shelter, harsh discipline, and a high chance of becoming a casualty.


Creation

Infantry of the Continental Army
Infantry of the Continental Army

At the time of the Siege of Boston, the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in June 1775, is estimated to have numbered from 14-16,000 men from New England (though the actual number may have been as low as 11,000 because of desertions). Until Washington's arrival, it remained under the command of Artemas Ward, while John Thomas acted as executive officer and Richard Gridley commanded the artillery corps and was chief engineer. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (861x981, 797 KB)TITLE: Infantry: Continental Army, 1779-1783, IV / H.A. Ogden ; lith. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (861x981, 797 KB)TITLE: Infantry: Continental Army, 1779-1783, IV / H.A. Ogden ; lith. ... Combatants New England militia, Continental Army Great Britain Commanders Artemas Ward, George Washington Thomas Gage, William Howe Strength 17,000 The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ... Richard Gridley was an American soldier during the revolution. ...


The British force in Boston was increasing by fresh arrivals. It numbered then about 10,000 men. Major Generals Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne, had arrived late in May and joined General Gage in forming and executing plans for dispersing the rebels. Feeling strong with these veteran officers and soldiers around him—and the presence of several ships-of-war under Admiral Graves—the governor issued a proclamation, declaring martial law, branding the entire Continental Army and supporters as "rebels" and "parricides of the Constitution." Amnesty was offered to those who gave up their allegiance to the Continental Army and Congress in favor of the British authorities, though Samuel Adams and John Hancock were still wanted for high treason. This proclamation only served to strengthen the resolve of the Congress and Army. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Sir William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (August 10, 1729 – July 12, 1814) was an English General who was Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American Revolutionary War, one of the three Howe brothers. ... General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ... General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ... Thomas Gage (1719 – April 2, 1787) was a British general and commander in chief of the North American forces from 1763 to 1775 during the early days of the American Revolution. ... Samuel Graves (*1713 †1787) was a British Admiral who fought for the British in the American Revolution. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samuel Adams (disambiguation). ... John Hancock (January 23 [O.S. January 12] 1737– October 8, 1793) was President of the Second Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation, the first Governor of Massachusetts, and the first person to sign the United States Declaration of Independence. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ...


After the British evacuation of Boston (prompted by the placement of Continental artillery overlooking the city in March 1776), the Continental Army relocated to New York. For the next five years, the main bodies of the Continental and British armies campaigned against one another in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. These campaigns included the notable battles of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown, and Morristown, among many others.


Throughout its existence, the Army was troubled by poor logistics, inadequate training, short-term enlistments, interstate rivalries, and Congress's inability to compel the states to provide food, money or supplies. In the beginning, soldiers enlisted for a year, largely motivated by patriotism; but as the war dragged on, bounties and other incentives became more commonplace. Two major mutinies late in the war drastically diminished the reliability of two of the main units, and there were constant discipline problems.


The army increased its effectiveness and success rate through a series of trials and errors, often at great human cost. General Washington and other distinguished officers were instrumental leaders in preserving unity, learning and adapting, and ensuring discipline throughout the eight years of war. In the winter of 1777-78, with the addition of Baron von Steuben, of Prussian origin, the training and discipline of the Continental Army began to vastly improve. (This was the infamous winter at Valley Forge.) Washington always viewed the Army as a temporary measure and strove to maintain civilian control of the military, as did the Continental Congress, though there were minor disagreements about how this was carried out. Baron von Steuben Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin Steuben, Baron von Steuben (* September 17, 1730; † November 28, 1794) was a German-Prussian General who served with George Washington in the American Revolutionary War and is credited with teaching the Continental Army the essentials of military drill and discipline. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American Revolutionary War winter encampment. ... Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a countrys strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ...


Near the end of the war, the Continental Army was augmented by a French expeditionary force (under General Rochambeau) and a squadron of the French navy (under the Comte de Barras), and in the late summer of 1781 the main body of the army travelled south to Virginia to rendezvous with the French West Indies fleet under Admiral Comte de Grasse. This resulted in the Siege of Yorktown, the decisive Battle of the Chesapeake, and the surrender of the British southern army. This essentially marked the end of the land war in America, although the Continental Army returned to blockade the British northern army in New York until the peace treaty went into effect two years later, and battles took place elsewhere between British forces and those of France and its allies. Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (July 1, 1725 – May 10, 1807) was a French aristocrat, soldier, and a Marshal of France. ... François Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse (1722 - January 1788), French admiral, was born at Bar, in the present départment of the Alpes-Maritimes. ... Belligerents United States Kingdom of France Great Britain German Mercenaries Commanders George Washington Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Strength 19,300 soldiers (10,800 French 8,500 Americans) 24 French warships 375 guns (see below) 7,500 240 guns Casualties and losses... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Comte de Grasse Sir Thomas Graves Strength 24 ships 19 ships Casualties none some ships damaged The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as Battle of the Virginia Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War which took place near the mouth...


Demobilization

A small residual force remained at West Point and some frontier outposts until Congress created the United States Army by their resolution of June 3, 1784. See also Newburgh conspiracy. West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Newburgh Conspiracy was a plot hatched in 1783 near the end of the American Revolutionary War resulting from the fact that many of the officers and men of the Continental Army had not received pay for many years. ...


Planning for the transition to a peacetime force had begun in April 1783 at the request of a congressional committee chaired by Alexander Hamilton. The Commander in Chief discussed the problem with key officers before submitting the Army's official views on 2 May. Significantly, there was a broad consensus of the basic framework among the officers. Washington's proposal called for four components: a small regular army, a uniformly trained and organized militia, a system of arsenals, and a military academy to train the army's artillery and engineer officers. He wanted four infantry regiments, each assigned to a specific sector of the frontier, plus an artillery regiment. His proposed regimental organizations followed Continental Army patterns but had a provision for increased strength in the event of war. Washington expected the militia primarily to provide security for the country at the start of a war until the regular army could expand—the same role it had carried out in 1775 and 1776. Steuben and Duportail submitted their own proposals to Congress for consideration. Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ...


Although Congress declined on 12 May to make a decision on the peace establishment, it did address the need for some troops to remain on duty until the British evacuated New York City and several frontier posts. The delegates told Washington to use men enlisted for fixed terms as temporary garrisons. A detachment of those men from West Point reoccupied New York without incident on 25 November. When Steuben's effort in July to negotiate a transfer of frontier forts with Maj. Gen. Frederick Haldimand collapsed, however, the British maintained control over them, as they would into the 1790's. That failure and the realization that most of the remaining infantrymen's enlistments were due to expire by June 1784 led Washington to order Knox, his choice as the commander of the peacetime army, to discharge all but 500 infantry and 100 artillerymen before winter set in. The former regrouped as Jackson's Continental Regiment under Col. Henry Jackson of Massachusetts. The single artillery company, New Yorkers under John Doughty, came from remnants of the 2d Continental Artillery Regiment. Sir Frederick Haldimand (August 11, 1718 – June 5, 1791) was a British army officer and governor. ...


Congress issued a proclamation on 18 October 1783 which approved Washington's reductions. On 2 November Washington then released his Farewell Order to the Philadelphia newspapers for nationwide distribution to the furloughed men. In the message he thanked the officers and men for their assistance and reminded them that the singular interpositions of Providence in our feeble condition were such, as could scarcely escape the attention of the most unobserving; while the unparalleled perseverance of the Armies of the U[nited] States, through almost every possible suffering and discouragement for the space of eight long years, was little short of a standing miracle.


Washington believed that the blending of persons from every colony into "one patriotic band of Brothers" had been a major accomplishment, and he urged the veterans to continue this devotion in civilian life.


Washington said farewell to his remaining officers on 4 December at Fraunces' Tavern in New York City. On 23 December he appeared in Congress, then sitting at Annapolis, and returned his commission as Commander in Chief: "Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theatre of Action; and bidding an Affectionate farewell to this August body under whose orders I have so long acted, I here offer my Commission, and take my leave of all the employments of public life. Congress ended the War of American Independence on 14 January 1784 by ratifying the definitive peace treaty that had been signed in Paris on 3 September.


Congress had again rejected Washington's concept for a peacetime force in October 1783. When moderate delegates then offered an alternative in April 1784 which scaled the projected army down to 900 men in 1 artillery and 3 infantry battalions, Congress rejected it as well, in part because New York feared that men retained from Massachusetts might take sides in a land dispute between the two states. Another proposal to retain 350 men and raise 700 new recruits also failed. On 2 June Congress ordered the discharge of all remaining men except twenty-five caretakers at Fort Pitt and fifty-five at West Point. The next day it created a peace establishment acceptable to all interests.


The plan required four states to raise 700 men for one year's service. Congress instructed the Secretary at War to form the troops into 8 infantry and 2 artillery companies. Pennsylvania, with a quota of 260 men, had the power to nominate a lieutenant colonel, who would be the senior officer. New York and Connecticut each were to raise 165 men and nominate a major; the remaining 110 men came from New Jersey. Economy was the watchword of this proposal, for each major served as a company commander, and line officers performed all staff duties except those of chaplain, surgeon, and surgeon's mate. Under Josiah Harmer, the First American Regiment slowly organized and achieved permanent status as an infantry regiment of the new Regular Army. The Lineage of the 1st American Regiment is carried on by the 3d United States Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard).


Led by Continental veterans, this small peacetime Regular Army gradually expanded over the next decade. It had inherited the rules, regulations, and traditions of the Continental Army. Steuben's Blue Book remained the official manual for the regulars, as well as for the militia of most states, until Winfield Scott in 1835 adapted the 1791 French Army Regulations for American use. At Fallen Timbers in 1794 Maj. Gen. Anthony Wayne applied the techniques of wilderness operations perfected by Sullivan's 1779 expedition against the Iroquois. The integration of ex-Continentals into the militia, coupled with the passage in 1792 of a national militia bill, improved the military responsiveness of that institution until the veterans began to age. Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 - December 15, 1796), was a United States Army general and statesman. ...


Major battles

Combatants New England militia, Continental Army Great Britain Commanders Artemas Ward, George Washington Thomas Gage, William Howe Strength 17,000 The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 unknown, nearly 20,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,719 total (312 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured... Belligerents Continental Army a Hessian Brigade Commanders George Washington Johann Rall† Strength 2,400 18 guns [1] 1,400 6 guns [2] Casualties and losses 2 dead, On the march 4 wounded 23 dead, 92 wounded, 913 captured The Battle of Trenton was a battle which took place on December... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Hugh Mercer†, John Haslet† Charles Mawhood Strength 4,600 1,200 (Rearguard of main force) Casualties 46 killed c. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 10,600 (8,000 present) 17,000 (6,000 present) Casualties 1,200-1,300 casualties 93 killed 488 wounded 6 missing The Battle of Brandywine was a battle of the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 11,700 8,000 Casualties 152 killed, 521 wounded, 400 captured 71 killed, 450 wounded, 14 missing The Battle of Germantown was a battle in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought on October 4... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... Combatants United States of America Great Britain Commanders George Washington Sir Henry Clinton Strength 11,000 10,000 Casualties 69 killed, 37 died of heat-stroke 160 wounded 95 missing Total: 361 65 killed 59 died of heat-stroke 170 wounded 50 captured 14 missing Total: 358 The Battle of... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain United States Commanders Sir Henry Clinton and Mariot Arbuthnot Benjamin Lincoln Strength 14,000 troops 5,000 troops Casualties 76 killed, 182 wounded 92 killed, 148 wounded, 4,650 captured (see Trivia below) The Siege of Charleston was one of the major battles which took... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Charles Cornwallis Horatio Gates Johann de Kalb† Strength 2,239 3,052 Casualties 68 killed 245 wounded 64 missing 1,000 killed or wounded 1,000 captured 132 missing The Battle of Camden was an important battle in the Southern Theatre of the American Revolutionary... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders Daniel Morgan Banastre Tarleton Strength c. ... Combatants United States Britain Commanders Nathanael Greene Lord Cornwallis Strength 4,400 1,900 Casualties 79 killed 185 wounded 1,046 missing Total: 1,310 93 killed 413 wounded 26 missing Total: 532 The Battle of Guilford Court House was a battle fought on March 15, 1781 inside the present... Belligerents United States Kingdom of France Great Britain German Mercenaries Commanders George Washington Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Strength 19,300 soldiers (10,800 French 8,500 Americans) 24 French warships 375 guns (see below) 7,500 240 guns Casualties and losses...

Notes

  1. ^ Wright, Continental Army, 10–11.

See Also

The overall Continental Army of the American Revolutionary War was organized into six departments for command and administrative purposes. ...

References

  • Lengel, Edward G. General George Washington: A Military Life. New York: Random House, 2005. ISBN 1400060818.
  • Royster, Charles. A Revolutionary People at War: The Continental Army and American Character, 1775–1783. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979. ISBN 0807813850.
  • Wright, Robert K. The Continental Army. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1983. Available, in part, online from the U.S. Army website.

Robert K. Wright, Jr. ...

Further reading

  • Carp, E. Wayne. To Starve the Army at Pleasure: Continental Army Administration and American Political Culture, 1775–1783. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984. ISBN 080781587X.
  • Gillett, Mary C. The Army Medical Department, 1775–1818. Washington: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1981.
  • Martin, James Kirby, and Mark Edward Lender. A Respectable Army: The Military Origins of the Republic, 1763–1789. 2nd ed. Wheeling, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, 2006. ISBN 0882952390.
  • Mayer, Holly A. Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1999. ISBN 1570033390; ISBN 1570031088.
  • Risch, Erna. Supplying Washington's Army. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1981. Available online from the U.S. Army website.

External links

  • RevWar75.com provides "an online cross-referenced index of all surviving orderly books of the Continental Army".

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Continental Army information - Search.com (1165 words)
As the Continental Congress increasingly accepted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, the role of the Continental Army was the subject of considerable debate.
The Continental Army of 1777 - 1780 was a result of several critical reforms and political decisions that came about when it was apparent that the British were sending massive forces to put an end to the American revolution.
The Continental Congress passed the Eighty-eight battalion resolution, ordering each state to contribute forces in proportion to their population, and Washington was given authority to raise additional 15 battalions.
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Continental Army (944 words)
Army personnel are under the general supervision of the secretary of the army and his adviser, the army chief of staff, who is the army's highest ranking officer and a member of the...
Continental Army veterans: from outcasts to icons: despite contemporary popular history, our Revolutionary War veteran-forefathers were not always perceived by the public as heroes.
That Continental Army: The EU is spoiling for a fight -- or at least a military.
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