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Encyclopedia > Contemporary philosophy


The term contemporary philosopher refers not just to figures who are alive, but also those who died within the past three decades, irrespective of when their major philosophy works were written or when their work was most popular. Similarly, "contemporary philosophical movements" may refer to philosophies that have actually been under discussion for several decades. This is a list of decades which have articles with more information about them. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Contemporary philosophy is sometimes divided into analytic philosophy and continental philosophy. There are of course undeniable differences within and between different countries. The editors of this article have chosen to identify the two dominant styles in contemporary philosophy as "analytical philosophy" and "phenomenological/structuralist/post-structuralist philosophy". Analytic philosophy is the dominant philosophical movement in University philosophy departments in English-speaking countries and in Scandinavia, although one of its founders, Gottlob Frege, was German, and many of its leading proponents, such as Ludwig Wittgenstein, Rudolf Carnap, Kurt Gödel, Karl Popper, Hans Reichenbach, Herbert Feigl, Otto Neurath... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ...

Contents

Philosophers of the phenomenological, structuralist and post-structuralist schools

Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation: altuË¡seʁ) (October 16, 1918 - October 23, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. ... Alain Badiou (born 1937, Rabat, Morocco) is a prominent French Left-wing philosopher, formerly chair of Philosophy at the École Normale Supérieure (ENS). ... Roland Barthes Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) (pronounced ) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher, and semiotician. ... Jean Baudrillard (born June 20, 1929) (IPA pronunciation: ) is a cultural theorist, philosopher, political commentator, sociologist and photographer. ... Maurice Blanchot (September 27, 1907-February 20, 2003) was a French philosopher, literary theorist and writer of fiction. ... Pierre Bourdieu (August 1, 1930 – January 23, 2002) was an acclaimed French sociologist whose work employed methods drawn from a wide range of disciplines, from philosophy and literary theory to sociology and anthropology. ... Image:J Butler. ... Cornelius Castoriadis (Greek: Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης) (March 11, 1922-December 26, 1997) was born in Constantinople (Istanbul) and his family moved soon after to Athens. ... Roderick M Chisholm (Seekonk, Massachusetts, 1916 -- Providence, Rhode Island, 1999) was an American philosopher, known for his work on epistemology, metaphysics, free will, and the philosophy of perception. ... Image:Cixous. ... Guy Ernest Debord (December 28, 1931, in Paris – November 30, 1994, in Champot) was a writer, film maker, hypergraphist and founding member of the groups Lettrist International and Situationist International (SI). ... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ; English-speakers pronunciation varies) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ... René Girard is a French philosopher, historian and philologist. ... Anthony Clifford Grayling MA, DPhil (Oxon) FRSA (born 3 April 1949) is a British philosopher and author. ... Jürgen Habermas Jürgen Habermas (born June 18, 1929 in Düsseldorf) is a German philosopher, political scientist and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory, best known for his concept of the public sphere. ... Werner Hamacher (b. ... Sandra Harding (? - ?), is an American philosopher of feminist and postcolonial theory, epistemology, research methodology and philosophy of science. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg Max Horkheimer (February 14, 1895 – July 7, 1973) was a Jewish-German philosopher and sociologist, known especially as the founder and guiding thinker of the Frankfurt School of critical theory. ... Luce Irigaray (born 1930 Belgium) is a French feminist and psychoanalytic and cultural theorist. ... Julia Kristeva (Bulgarian: ) (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... Jacques Lacan Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (born 1940) is a contemporary French philosopher, literary critic, and translator. ... Lakatos – book by Brendan Larvor. ... Henri Lefebvre, born June 16, 1901, died 1991 was a French Marxist sociologist, intellectual and philosopher. ... Claude Lefort was born in 1924 and was politically active by 1942 under the influence of his tutor, the phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty (whose posthumous publications Lefort later edited). ... Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (IPA pronunciation ); born November 28, 1908) is a Jewish-French anthropologist who developed structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture. ... Emmanuel Levinas (January 12, 1906 - December 25, 1995) was a Jewish philosopher originally from Kaunas in Lithuania, who moved to France where he wrote most of his works in French. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Paul de Man (December 6, 1919 – December 21, 1983) was a Belgian-born deconstructionist literary critic and theorist. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a prominent German and later American philosopher and sociologist of Jewish descent, and a member of the Frankfurt School. ... Jean-Luc Marion (b. ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 – May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl, who is often (some think mistakenly) classified as an existentialist thinker because of his close association with Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, and his distinctly Heideggerian conception of Being. ... Jean-Luc Nancy (born 26 July 1940) is a French philosopher. ... Antonio Negri (August 1, 1933- ) is a moral and political philosopher, and a former political inmate from Italy. ... Paul RicÅ“ur, French philosopher Paul RicÅ“ur (February 27, 1913 – May 20, 2005) was a French philosopher best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutic interpretation. ... Richard McKay Rorty (born October 4, 1931 in New York City) is an American philosopher. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Michel Serres (born September 1, 1930) is a French philosopher and author with an unusual career. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American theologian and Christian existentialist philosopher. ... Gianni Vattimo at the National Gay Pride march, Como, 1999 Gianni Vattimo (born January 4, 1936) is an internationally recognized Italian author and politician. ... Paul Virilio (born 1932 in Paris) is a cultural theorist. ... Slavoj Žižek. ...

Philosophers of the analytical school

Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (March 18, 1919 – January 5, 2001) (known as Elizabeth Anscombe, published as G. E. M. Anscombe) was a British analytic philosopher, a theologian and a pupil of Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Ayer redirects here. ... David Malet Armstrong, often D. M. Armstrong, (1926 - ) is an Australian philosopher of mind, and scientific metaphysician. ... John Langshaw Austin (March 28, 1911 - February 8, 1960) was a philosopher of language, who developed much of the current theory of speech acts. ... Sir Isaiah Berlin, OM, (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997) was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. ... Max Black (February 24, 1909, Baku, Russian Empire - August 27, 1988, Ithaca, New York) was a distinguished Anglo-American philosopher, who was a leading influence in analytic philosophy in the first half of the twentieth century. ... Simon Blackburn (born 1944) is a British academic philosopher also known for his efforts to popularise philosophy. ... Charlie Dunbar Broad (known as C. D. Broad) (30 December 1887 - 11 March 1971) was an English philosopher known for his thorough and objective analysis in works such as Scientific Thought (1930) and Examination of McTaggarts Philosophy (1933). ... Mario Augusto Bunge (born September 21, 1919, Buenos Aires) is an Argentinian philosopher and physicist mainly active in Canada. ... David John Chalmers (April 20, 1966– ) is a philosopher in the area of philosophy of mind. ... Dr. Charles Butterworth (born 1938) is a noted philosopher of the Straussian school and currently a professor of political philosophy at the University of Maryland, College Park. ... Avram Noam Chomsky, Ph. ... Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American mathematician and logician who was responsible for some of the foundations of theoretical computer science. ... Paul Churchland (born 1942) is a philosopher working at the University of California, San Diego. ... Patricia Smith Churchland (born July 16, 1943) is a Canadian-American philosopher working at the University of California, San Diego since 1984. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (b. ... Donald Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher and the Willis S. and Marion Slusser Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Curt John Ducasse (July 7, 1881, Angoulême, France - September 3, 1969) was an American philosopher who taught at the University of Washington and Brown University. ... Sir Michael Anthony Eardley Dummett F.B.A., D. Litt, (born 1925) is a leading British philosopher. ... Herbert Feigl (December 14, 1902 - June 1, 1988) was an Austrian philosopher and a member of the Vienna Circle. ... Jerry Alan Fodor (born 1935) is a philosopher at Rutgers University, New Jersey. ... Philippa Ruth Foot (1920-), born in Bosanquet, is a British philosopher, most notable for her works in ethics. ... Harry Gordon Frankfurt (born May 29, 1929) is a professor emeritus of philosophy at Princeton University. ... I do not think I could have written the book on nationalism which I did write, were I not capable of crying, with the help of a little alcohol, over folk songs . ... Eugene T. Gendlin is an American philosopher who has developed ways of thinking about and working with the implicit. ... Edmund L. Gettier III (born 1927 in Baltimore, Maryland) is an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst who owes his substantial reputation to a single three-page paper published in 1963 called Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? Gettier was educated at Cornell University, where... Alvin Ira Goldman (born 1938) is a professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University. ... Nelson Goodman (7 August 1906, Somerville, Maryland – 25 November 1998) was an American philosopher, known for his work on counterfactuals, mereology, the problem of induction, and aesthetics. ... Herbert Paul Grice (1913 - 1988), usually publishing under the name Paul Grice, was a British educated philosopher of language, who spent the last two decades of his career in the U.S. // Life Born and raised in the United Kingdom, Grice was educated first at Clifton College and then at... Susan Haack (born 1945) is a professor of philosophy and law, and is currently on the faculty at the University of Miami in Florida. ... R.M. Hare Richard Mervyn Hare (March 21, 1919 – January 29, 2002) was an English moral philosopher, who held the post of Whites Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from 1966 until 1983. ... Gilbert Harman (born 1938) is a contemporary philosopher teaching at Princeton University who has published widely in Ethics, Epistemology, Metaphysics, and the philosophies of Language and Mind. ... H. L. A. Hart (Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart) (1907-1992) is considered one of the most important legal philosophers of the twentieth century. ... Carl Gustav Hempel (* January 8th, 1905 in Oranienburg, Germany † November 9th, 1997 in Princeton, New Jersey) was a philosopher of science and a student of logical positivism. ... Rosalind Hursthouse is a moral philosopher noted for her work on virtue ethics. ... Jaegwon Kim (1934- ) is an American philosopher who explores the limitations of theories of strict psychophysical identity. ... Chris Marion Korsgaard is a professor at Harvard University. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Cover of a biography of Thomas Kuhn. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kieth Lehrer is the Regents Professor of Philosophy at the University of Arizona with an affiliation with the University of Miami in Florida. ... David Kellogg Lewis (September 28, 1941 – October 14, 2001) is considered to have been one of the leading analytic philosophers of the latter half of the 20th century. ... Ruth Barcan Marcus (born 1921) is the philosopher and logician after whom the Barcan formula is named. ... Colin McGinn (born 1950) is a British philosopher currently working at the University of Miami. ... John Henry McDowell (born 1942) is a contemporary philosopher, formerly a fellow of University College, Oxford and now University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh. ... Sidney Morgenbesser (September 22, 1921 – August 1, 2004) was a Columbia University philosopher. ... Thomas Nagel (born July 4, 1937, in Belgrade, Serbia) is University Professor of Philosophy and Law at New York University and member of the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Nel Noddings (1929– ) is an American feminist, educationalist, and philosopher best known for her work in philosophy of education, educational theory, and ethics of care. ... Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... Martha Nussbaum Martha Nussbaum (born Martha Craven on May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher, with a particular interest in ancient philosophy, political philosophy and ethics. ... Alvin Cornelius Plantinga (born 15 November 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, of Frisian ancestry) is a contemporary American philosopher known for his work in epistemology, metaphysics, and the philosophy of religion. ... George Pólya (December 13, 1887 - September 7, 1985, in Hungarian Pólya György) was an American mathematician of Hungarian origin. ... Hilary Whitehall Putnam (born July 31, 1926) is an American philosopher who has been a central figure in Western philosophy since the 1960s, especially in philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... Richard McKay Rorty (born October 4, 1931 in New York City) is an American philosopher. ... John Rogers Searle (born July 31, 1932) is Mills Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, and is noted for contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and consciousness, on the characteristics of socially constructed versus physical realities, and on practical reason. ... Wilfrid Stalker Sellars (May 20, 1912 - July 2, 1989) was an American philosopher. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... John Jameison Carswell Smart, or Jack Smart, (born 1920, M.A. (Glasgow, 1946), B.Phil (Oxford, 1948)) is a Scottish-Australian philosopher. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Professor Sir Peter Frederick Strawson (November 23, 1919 – 13 February 2006) was an English philosopher. ... Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901, Warsaw Poland – October 26, 1983, Berkeley California) was a logician and mathematician of considerable philosophical importance. ... Charles Margrave Taylor, CC, BA, MA, Ph. ... Judith Jarvis Thomson (born 1929) is an American moral philosopher and metaphysician. ... Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams (September 21, 1929 – June 10, 2003) was an English moral philosopher, noted by The Times as the most brilliant and most important British moral philosopher of his time. ... John Wisdom (1904-1993) was an ordinary language philosopher and philosopher of mind. ... Crispin Wright (born 1942) is a British philosopher, who has written on neo-Fregean philosophy of mathematics, Wittgensteins later philosophy, and on issues related to truth, realism, cognitivism, skepticism, knowledge, and objectivity. ... Georg Henrik von Wright (pronounced, roughly, vrikt) (June 14, 1916 – June 16, 2003) was a Finnish philosopher, who succeeded Ludwig Wittgenstein as professor at the University of Cambridge. ... The philosopher Nicholas Paul Wolterstorff was born January 21, 1932 in Bigelow, Minnesota. ...

Philosophers of other schools

Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born January 12, 1929 in Glasgow, Scotland) is a philosopher primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy but known also for his work in history of philosophy and theology. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, MA, Ph. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a Jewish-American political theorist. ... McLuhan redirects here. ... Sir Stuart Newton Hampshire (October 1, 1914 - June 13, 2004) was an Oxford University philosopher, literary critic and university administrator. ... Lawrence Kohlberg (October 25, 1927 – January 19, 1987) was born in Bronxville, New York. ... Carol Gilligan (1936– ) is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work with and against Lawrence Kohlberg on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics. ...

Disputed as Philosophers

It has been suggested that The Ayn Rand Collective be merged into this article or section. ...

Some philosophical movements

Aristotelianism - DeconstructionExistentialism – Hermeneutics – InfinitismPhenomenology – Post-colonialism – Post-structuralism – PostmodernismStructuralismCognitivismMaterialismObjectivismPragmatismPositivismReductionismVirtue ethics - Philosophical Autonomism Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... In contemporary philosophy and social sciences, the term deconstruction denotes a process by which the texts and languages of (particularly) Western philosophy appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions they suggest about and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that deals with human existence. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Infinitism is a theory in epistemology, the branch of philosophy that treats of the possibility, nature, and means of knowledge. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Andy Warhols iconic Marilyn Monroe Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, because the term implies to many that the modern historical period has passed. ... Structuralism is best known as a theory in the humanities. ... The word cognitivism is used in several ways: In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions. ... Objectivism is the philosophical system developed by Russian-American philosopher and writer Ayn Rand. ... For themes emphasized by Charles Peirce, see Pragmaticism. ... // Positivism is a philosophy developed by Auguste Comte (widely regarded as the first true sociologist) in the middle of the 19th century that stated that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... Descartes held that, unlike humans, animals could be reductively explained as automata – De homines 1622) Reductionism in philosophy is a theory that asserts that the nature of complex things can always be reduced to (explained by) simpler or more fundamental things. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


External links

  • www.the.philosopher.co.uk
  • Contemporary philosophy | Revista Observaciones Filosóficas |In spanish

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