FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Containerization" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Containerization
Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey
Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey
A container freight train in the UK
A container freight train in the UK

Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport cargo transport using standard ISO containers (known as shipping containers or isotainers) that can be loaded and sealed intact onto container ships, railroad cars, planes, and trucks. Download high resolution version (2448x1632, 1628 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2448x1632, 1628 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Port Elizabeth, also known as Port Illiterate is an unincorporated area within Maurice River Township. ... Download high resolution version (1024x774, 233 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x774, 233 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For passenger transport, see Intermodal passenger transport. ... This article is about transported goods. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

A container ship being loaded by a portainer crane in Copenhagen Harbour.
A container ship being loaded by a portainer crane in Copenhagen Harbour.
Twistlocks which capture and constrain containers. Forklifts designed to handle containers have similar devices.
Twistlocks which capture and constrain containers. Forklifts designed to handle containers have similar devices.

The introduction of containers resulted in vast improvements in port handling efficiency, thus lowering costs and helping lower freight charges and, in turn, boosting trade flows. Almost every manufactured product humans consume spends some time in a container. Photo of container ship loading at Copenhagen, with a Portainer crane behind, taken August 2003 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 700px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo of container ship loading at Copenhagen, with a Portainer crane behind, taken August 2003 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 700px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a gantry crane, container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane, STS crane or a dockside crane) is a very large crane used to load and unload container ships, and... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links First_level_of_twistlocks_on_a_containership_deck. ... Image File history File links First_level_of_twistlocks_on_a_containership_deck. ... US airman operates forklift at a truck A forklift is a powered industrial truck used to hoist and transport materials by means of steel forks inserted under the load. ...


Origins

Although having its origins in the late 1780s or earlier, the global standardisation of containers and container handling equipment was one of the important innovations in 20th century logistics. Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


By the 1830s, railroads on several continents were carrying containers that could be transferred to trucks or ships, but these containers were invariably small by today's standards. Originally used for shipping coal on and off barges, 'loose boxes' were used to containerize coal from the late 1780s, on places like the Bridgewater Canal. By the 1840's, iron boxes were in use as well as wooden ones. The early 1900s saw the adoption of closed container boxes designed for movement between road and rail. This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Bridgewater Canal is a navigable canal in the north west of England, connecting Runcorn and Manchester. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


In the United Kingdom, several railway companies were using similar containers by the beginning of the 20th century and in the 1920s the Railway Clearing House standardised the RCH container. Five or ten foot long, wooden and non-stackable, these early standard containers were a great success but the standard remained UK-specific. Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Railway Clearing House (RCH) was set up in 1842 in offices in Seymour Street, London. ...


From 1926 to 1947, in the US, the Chicago North Shore and Milwaukee Railway carried motor carrier vehicles and shippers' vehicles loaded on flatcars between Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Chicago, Illinois. Beginning in 1929, Seatrain Lines carried railroad boxcars on its sea vessels to transport goods between New York and Cuba. In the mid-1930s, the Chicago Great Western Railway and then the New Haven Railroad began "piggy-back" service (transporting highway freight trailers on flatcars) limited to their own railroads. By 1953, the CB&Q, the Chicago and Eastern Illinois and the Southern Pacific railroads had joined the innovation. Most cars were surplus flatcars equipped with new decks. By 1955, an additional 25 railroads had begun some form of piggy-back trailer service. The Chicago North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad, often called the North Shore Line, was an interurban railroad line that operated between Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin until its abandonment in 1963. ... FEC 37066 passing Glen Haven, Wisconsin, on the Mississippi River, is carrying two containers. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... SeaTrain Lines was a shipping company most responsible for the introduction of the standard international shipping container, most commonly 8 foot wide by 8 foot wide by 40 foot long. ... For other uses, see Boxcar (disambiguation). ... The Chicago Great Western Railway (AAR reporting mark CGW) was a Class I railroad that linked Chicago, Minneapolis, Omaha, and Kansas City. ... The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad (AAR reporting mark CBQ) was a railroad that operated in the Midwestern United States. ... The Chicago and Eastern Illinois (AAR reporting mark CEI) was a Class I railroad that linked Chicago to southern Illinois, St. ... The Southern Pacific Railroad (AAR reporting marks SP) was an American railroad. ...


After the U.S. Department of Defense standardised an 8'x8' cross section container in multiples of 10' lengths for military use this was rapidly adopted for shipping purposes.[1] These standards were adopted in the United Kingdom for containers and rapidly displaced the older wooden containers in the 1950s. The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ...


Purpose-built ships

Main article: Container Ship

The first vessels purpose-built to carry containers began operation in Denmark in 1951. Ships began carrying containers between Seattle and Alaska in 1951. The world's first truly intermodal container system used the purpose-built container ship the Clifford J. Rodgers, built in Montreal in 1955 and owned by the White Pass and Yukon Route. Its first trip carried 600 containers between North Vancouver, British Columbia and Skagway, Alaska, on November 26, 1955; in Skagway, the containers were unloaded to purpose-built railroad cars for transport north to the Yukon, in the first intermodal service using trucks, ships and railroad cars. Southbound containers were loaded by shippers in the Yukon, moved by rail, ship and truck, to their consignees, without opening. This first intermodal system operated from November 1955 for many years. Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The White Pass and Yukon Route (WP&Y, WP&YR) (AAR reporting marks WPY) is a narrow gauge railroad linking the port of Skagway, Alaska with Whitehorse, the capital of Canadas Yukon Territory. ... The Capilano Suspension Bridge There are two municipalities in the Greater Vancouver region of British Columbia that use the name North Vancouver. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Broadway Avenue, Skagway, May 2007. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... This article is about the Canadian territory. ... For passenger transport, see Intermodal passenger transport. ...


The U.S. container shipping industry dates to 1956, when trucking entrepreneur Malcom McLean put 58 containers aboard a refitted tanker ship, the Ideal-X, and sailed them from Newark to Houston. What was new in the USA about McLean's innovation was the idea of using large containers that were never opened in transit between shipper and consignee and that were transferable on an intermodal basis, among trucks, ships and railroad cars. McLean had initially favored the construction of "trailerships" - taking trailers from large trucks and stowing them in a ship’s cargo hold. This method of stowage, referred to as roll-on/roll-off, was not adopted because of the large waste in potential cargo space onboard the vessel, known as broken stowage. Instead, he modified his original concept into loading just the containers, not the chassis, onto the ships, hence the designation container ship or "box" ship.[2] See also pantechnicon van and trolley and lift van. Malcom Purcell McLean (born “Malcolm”; but late in life he changed his given name to its historic traditional Scottish spelling) (November 14, 1913 – May 25, 2001), born in Maxton, North Carolina, was an American entrepreneur, often called the father of containerization. In 1956 he developed the metal shipping container, which... Loading a ro-ro passenger car ferry Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ships are designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trailers or railroad cars. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... A Pantechnicon van, nowadays usually shortened to Pantechnicon, was originally a van drawn by horses and used by The Pantechnicon for delivering and collecting furniture which its customers wished to store. ... The trolley was a platform body with four relatively small wheels mounted underneath it, the front two on a turntable undercarriage. ...


Towards standards

During the first twenty years of growth containerization meant using completely different, and incompatible, container sizes and corner fittings from one country to another. There were dozens of incompatible container systems in the U.S. alone. Among the biggest operators, the Matson Navigation Company had a fleet of 24-foot containers while Sea-Land Service, Inc used 35-foot containers. The standard sizes and fitting and reinforcement norms that exist now evolved out of a series of compromises among international shipping companies, European railroads, U.S. railroads, and U.S. trucking companies. Four important ISO recommendations standardised containerisation globally[3] Matson Navigation Company is a private ocean transportation company with roots extending into the late 19th century. ... Sea-Land Service, Inc (sometime cited as Sea-Land Services (pl), also known as Sea-Land Corporation, or sometimes SeaLand, etc) was a pioneering shipping and containerization company founded by American entrepreneur Malcom McLean in 1960, out of the operations of the Pan-Atlantic Steamship Company, which McLean acquired in... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

  • January 1968 - R-668 defined the terminology, dimensions and ratings
  • July 1968 - R-790 defined the identification markings
  • January 1970 - R-1161 made recommendations about corner fittings
  • October 1970 - R-1897 set out the minimum internal dimensions of general purpose freight containers

In the United States, at first, containerization grew despite the unfavourable regulatory structure of the 1960s. But the United States' present fully integrated systems became possible only after the Interstate Commerce Commission's regulatory oversight was cut back (and later abolished in 1995), trucking and rail were deregulated in the 1970s and maritime rates were deregulated in 1984. [4] The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. ...


Today

Containerization has revolutionized cargo shipping. Today, approximately 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide moves by containers stacked on transport ships; 26% of all containers originate from China.[citation needed] As of 2005, some 18 million total containers make over 200 million trips per year. There are ships that can carry over 14,500 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU), for example the "Emma Mærsk", 396 m long, launched August 2006. It has even been predicted that, at some point, container ships will be constrained in size only by the depth of the Straits of Malacca—one of the world's busiest shipping lanes—linking the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. This so-called Malaccamax size constrains a ship to dimensions of 470 m in length and 60 m wide (1542 feet by 197 feet).[2] A mini-bulker taking on cargo in Brest. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emma Mærsk Size comparison of some of the longest ships. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Straits of Malacca. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


However, few initially foresaw the extent of the influence containerization would bring to the shipping industry. In the 1950s, Harvard University economist Benjamin Chinitz predicted that containerization would benefit New York by allowing it to ship industrial goods produced there more cheaply to the Southern United States than other areas, but did not anticipate that containerization might make it cheaper to import such goods from abroad. Most economic studies of containerization merely assumed that shipping companies would begin to replace older forms of transportation with containerization, but did not predict that the process of containerization itself would have some influence on producers and the extent of trading.[2] Harvard redirects here. ... This article is about the state. ... Historic Southern United States. ...

A converted container used as an office at a building site.
A converted container used as an office at a building site.

The widespread use of ISO standard containers has driven modifications in other freight-moving standards, gradually forcing removable truck bodies or swap bodies into the standard sizes and shapes (though without the strength needed to be stacked), and changing completely the worldwide use of freight pallets that fit into ISO containers or into commercial vehicles. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 656 KB) I took this photo myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 656 KB) I took this photo myself. ... Construction on the North Bytown Bridge in Ottawa, Canada. ... A Swap body is a standard freight container which is usually built too lightly to be stacked, or to be lifted from the top, unlike the more widespread shipping containers. ... A wooden pallet A plastic pallet with nine legs, which can be lifted from all four sides A Pallet can also be a small, hard, or temporary bed (a term heavily used in the southern United States to describe a makeshift bed consisting of a blanket and a pillow on...


Improved cargo security is also an important benefit of containerization. The cargo is not visible to the casual viewer and thus is less likely to be stolen and the doors of the containers are generally sealed so that tampering is more evident. This has reduced the "falling off the truck" syndrome that long plagued the shipping industry.


Use of the same basic sizes of containers across the globe has lessened the problems caused by incompatible rail gauge sizes in different countries. The majority of the rail networks in the world operate on a 1,435 mm (4 ft 8½ in) gauge track known as standard gauge but many countries (such as Russia, Finland, and Spain) use broader gauges while many other countries in Africa and South America use narrower gauges on their networks. The use of container trains in all these countries makes trans-shipment between different gauge trains easier. The dominant rail gauge in each country shown Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... For other uses, see Gauge. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Narrow-gauge railways are railroads (railways) with track spaced at less than the standard gauge of 4 ft 8 in (1. ...


Some of the largest global companies containerizing shipments today are Patrick Global Shipping, Bowen Exports, and Theiler & Sons Goods, LLC.[citation needed]


ISO standard

Dimensions and payloads

There are five common standard lengths, 20-ft (6.1 m), 40-ft (12.2 m), 45-ft (13.7 m), 48-ft (14.6 m), and 53-ft (16.2 m). United States domestic standard containers are generally 48-ft and 53-ft (rail and truck). Container capacity is often expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU, or sometimes teu). An equivalent unit is a measure of containerized cargo capacity equal to one standard 20 ft (length) × 8 ft (width) container. As this is an approximate measure, the height of the box is not considered, for instance the 9 ft 6 in (2.9 m) High cube and the 4-ft 3-in (1.3 m) half height 20-ft containers are also called one TEU. Similarly, the 45-ft (13.7 m) containers are also commonly designated as two TEU, although they are 45 and not 40 feet long. Two TEU are equivalent to one forty-foot equivalent unit (FEU). A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


The use of Imperial measurements to describe container size (TEU, FEU) reflects the fact that US Department of Defense played a major part in the development of containers. The overwhelming need to have a standard size for containers, in order that they fit all ships, cranes, and trucks, and the length of time that the current container sizes have been in use, makes changing to an even metric size impractical. U.S. customary units, also known in the United States as English units[1] (but see English unit) or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the USA, in some cases alongside units from SI (the International System of Units — the modern metric system). ...


The maximum gross mass for a 20-ft dry cargo container is 24,000kg, and for a 40-ft (including the 2.87 m (9 ft 6 in) high cube container), it is 30,480 kg. Allowing for the tare mass of the container, the maximum payload mass is therefore reduced to approximately 21,600 kg for 20-ft, and 26,500 kg for 40-ft containers.[5] Tare weight is the weight of an empty vehicle or container. ...


Since November 2007 48-ft and 53-ft containers are used also for international ocean shipments. At the moment (April 2008) the only ocean company who offer such containers is APL[6]. However, APL containers have slightly different sizes and weights than standard 48-ft and 53-ft containers (that are used in the US by rail and truck services). American President Lines Ltd. ...


Standard containers

The 40-ft container is the most popular container worldwide.[citation needed] Longer container types have become more common, especially in North America. Shorter containers (e.g. 10-ft containers) are rare.


The following table shows the weights and dimensions of the three most common types of containers worldwide. The weights and dimensions quoted below are averages, different manufacture series of the same type of container may vary slightly in actual size and weight.

20′ container 40′ container 45′ high-cube container
imperial metric imperial metric imperial metric
external
dimensions
length 19' 10½" 6.058 m 40′ 0″ 12.192 m 45′ 0″ 13.716 m
width 8′ 0″ 2.438 m 8′ 0″ 2.438 m 8′ 0″ 2.438 m
height 8′ 6″ 2.591 m 8′ 6″ 2.591 m 9′ 6″ 2.896 m
interior
dimensions
length 18′ 10 516 5.758 m 39′ 5 4564 12.032 m 44′ 4″ 13.556 m
width 7′ 8 1932 2.352 m 7′ 8 1932 2.352 m 7′ 8 1932 2.352 m
height 7′ 9 5764 2.385 m 7′ 9 5764 2.385 m 8′ 9 1516 2.698 m
door aperture width 7′ 8 ⅛″ 2.343 m 7′ 8 ⅛″ 2.343 m 7′ 8 ⅛″ 2.343 m
height 7′ 5 ¾″ 2.280 m 7′ 5 ¾″ 2.280 m 8′ 5 4964 2.585 m
volume 1,169 ft³ 33.1 m³ 2,385 ft³ 67.5 m³ 3,040 ft³ 86.1 m³
maximum
gross mass
52,910 lb 24,000 kg 67,200 lb 30,480 kg 67,200 lb 30,480 kg
empty weight 4,850 lb 2,200 kg 8,380 lb 3,800 kg 10,580 lb 4,800 kg
net load 48,060 lb 21,600 kg 58,820 lb 26,500 kg 56,620 lb 25,680 kg

20-ft, "heavy tested" containers are available for heavy goods (e.g. heavy machinery). These containers allow a maximum weight of 67,200 lb (30,480 kg), an empty weight of 5,290 lb (2,400 kg), and a net load of 61,910 lb (28,080 kg). This article is about post-1824 Imperial units, please see also English unit, U.S. customary unit or Avoirdupois. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ...


Types

Various container types are available for different needs:[7]

  • General purpose dry van for boxes, cartons, cases, sacks, bales, pallets, drums in standard, high or half height
  • High cube palletwide containers for europallet compatibility
  • Temperature controlled from −25 °C to +25 °C reefer
  • Open top bulktainers for bulk minerals, heavy machinery
  • Open side for loading oversize pallet
  • Flushfolding flat-rack containers for heavy and bulky semi-finished goods, out of gauge cargo
  • Platform or bolster for barrels and drums, crates, cable drums, out of gauge cargo, machinery, and processed timber
  • Ventilated containers for organic products requiring ventilation
  • Tank containers for bulk liquids and dangerous goods
  • Rolling floor for difficult to handle cargo
  • Gas bottle
  • Generator
  • Collapsible ISO
  • Swapbody

A wooden pallet A plastic pallet with nine legs, which can be lifted from all four sides A Pallet can also be a small, hard, or temporary bed (a term heavily used in the southern United States to describe a makeshift bed consisting of a blanket and a pillow on... Containers loaded on a container ship with the refrigeration units visible A reefer is a refrigerated container used in intermodal freight transport for transportation of temperature sensitive cargo. ... A dangerous good is any solid, liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment. ...

Numbering

Main article: ISO 6346

Each container is allocated a reporting mark (ownership code) up to four characters long ending in the letter U, followed by a number up to 9 digits long. ISO 6346 is an international standard for assigning unique codes to freight containers, commonly known as BIC codes. ... Reporting marks on two CP Rail covered hoppers passing Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin, June 20, 2004. ...

Containers on the Port of Singapore
Containers on the Port of Singapore

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 147 pixelsFull resolution (10000 × 1842 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 147 pixelsFull resolution (10000 × 1842 pixel, file size: 2. ... Keppel Container Terminal in Singapore The Port of Singapore refers to the collective facilities and terminals that conduct maritime trade handling functions in Singapores harbours and which handle Singapores shipping. ...

Air freight containers

A number of LD-designation Unit Load Device containers.
A number of LD-designation Unit Load Device containers.
Main article: Unit Load Device

While major airlines use containers that are custom designed for their aircraft and associated ground handling equipment the IATA has created a set of standard container sizes, the LD-designation sizes are shown below: ULD Type AKH Unit Load Devices, or ULDs, are pallets and containers used to load luggage, freight, and mail on wide-body aircraft and specific narrow-body aircraft. ... ULD Type AKH Unit Load Devices, or ULDs, are pallets and containers used to load luggage, freight, and mail on wide-body aircraft and specific narrow-body aircraft. ... “IATA” redirects here. ...

Designation Width (in) Height (in) Depth (in) Base (In) Max load (lb) Shape
LD-1 92.0 64.0 60.4 61.5 3500 Type A
LD-2 61.5 64.0 47.0 61.5 2700 Type A
LD-3 79.0 64.0 60.4 61.5 3500 Type A
LD-4 96.0 64.0 60.4 n/a 5400 Rectangular
LD-5 125.0 64.0 60.4 n/a 7000 Rectangular
LD-6 160.0 64.0 60.4 125.0 7000 Type B
LD-7 125.0 64.0 80.0 n/a 13300 Rect. or Contoured
LD-8 125.0 64.0 60.4 96.0 5400 Type B
LD-9 125.0 64.0 80.0 n/a 13300 Rect. or Contoured
LD-10 125.0 64.0 60.4 n/a 7000 Contoured
LD-11 125.0 64.0 60.4 n/a 7000 Rectangular
LD-29 186.0 64.0 88.0 125.0 13300 Type B

LD-1, -2, -3, -4, and -8 are those most widely used, together with the rectangular M3 containers.


Containerization issues

Increased Efficiency

Although there have been few direct correlations made between containers and job losses, there are a number of texts associating job losses at least in part with containerization. A 1998 study of post-containerization employment at United States ports found that container cargo could be moved nearly twenty times faster than pre-container break bulk.[8] The new system of shipping also allowed for freight consolidating jobs to move from the waterfront to far inland somewhere, which also decreased the number of waterfront jobs.


On the other hand, containerisation has reduced waste and cargo costs and increased trade.[citation needed]


Hazards

Containers have been used to smuggle contraband. The vast majority of containers are never subjected to scrutiny due to the large number of containers in use. In recent years there have been increased concerns that containers might be used to transport terrorists or terrorist materials into a country undetected. The U.S. government has advanced the Container Security Initiative (CSI), intended to ensure that high-risk cargo is examined or scanned, preferably at the port of departure. Contraband consists of items of which possession may be illegal, depending on the variety and the country or the age or sex of the possessor. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Container Security Initiative is the most topical AFF ever. ...


Empty containers

Containers are intended to be used constantly, being loaded with a new cargo for a new destination soon after being emptied of the previous cargo. This is not always possible, and in some cases the cost of transporting an empty container to a place where it can be used is considered to be higher than the worth of the used container. This can result in large areas in ports and warehouses being occupied by empty containers left abandoned. However, empty containers may also be recycled in the form of shipping container architecture, or the steel content salvaged. Shipping Container Architecture is the novel idea of using steel shipping containers as the basis for housing and other functional buildings for people, either as temporary housing or permanent, and either as a main building or as a cabin or workshop. ...


Loss at sea

Containers occasionally fall from the ships that carry them, usually during storms; it is estimated that over 10,000 containers are lost at sea each year.[9] For instance, on November 30, 2006, a container washed ashore on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, along with thousands of bags of its cargo of tortilla chips. Containers lost at sea do not necessarily sink, but seldom float very high out of the water, making them a shipping hazard that is difficult to detect. Freight from lost containers has provided oceanographers with unexpected opportunities to track global ocean currents, notably a cargo of Friendly Floatees. Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Tortilla chips A tortilla chip is a snack food made from corn tortillas, which are cut into wedges and then fried (alternately they may be discs pressed out of corn masa then fried or baked). ... Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology and marine science is the study of the earths oceans and their interlinked ecosystems and chemical and physical processes. ... Ocean currents (1911) Ocean currents (1943) An ocean current is any more or less continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... The 2006 range of Friendly Floatees. ...


In 2007 the International Chamber of Shipping and the World Shipping Council began work on a code of practice for container storage, including crew training on parametric rolling, safer stacking and marking of containers and security for above-deck cargo in heavy swell.[10]


Double-stack containerization

Part of a United States double-stack container train loaded with 53 ft (16.2 m) containers.
Part of a United States double-stack container train loaded with 53 ft (16.2 m) containers.
A railroad car with a 20' tank container and a conventional 20' container.
A railroad car with a 20' tank container and a conventional 20' container.

Most flatcars cannot carry more than one standard 40 foot container, but if the rail line has been built with sufficient vertical clearance, a double-stack car can accept a container and still leave enough clearance for another container on top. This usually precludes operation of double-stacked wagons on lines with overhead electric wiring. However, the Betuweroute, which was planned with overhead wiring from the start, has been built with tunnels that do accommodate double-stacked wagons so as to keep the option to economically rebuild the route for double stacking in the future. The overhead wiring would then have to be changed to allow double stacking.[11] Lower than standard size containers are run double stacked under overhead wire in China.[12] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 280 KB)DTTX 724681, a portion of a Pacer Stacktrain (Concord, CA) 5-unit container car (a specialized type of gondola) seen passing through Rochelle Railroad Park, Rochelle, Illinois, on May 29, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 280 KB)DTTX 724681, a portion of a Pacer Stacktrain (Concord, CA) 5-unit container car (a specialized type of gondola) seen passing through Rochelle Railroad Park, Rochelle, Illinois, on May 29, 2005. ... Image File history File links Railroad_car_with_container_loads. ... Image File history File links Railroad_car_with_container_loads. ... FEC 37066 passing Glen Haven, Wisconsin, on the Mississippi River, is carrying two containers. ... The Betuweroute is a new freight railway being constructed from Rotterdam to Germany. ...

  • Flag of the United States/ Flag of Canada Double stacking has been used in North America since American President Lines introduced this "double stack" principle under the name of "Stacktrain" rail service in 1984. It saved shippers money and now accounts for almost 70 percent of intermodal freight transport shipments in the United States, in part due to the generous vertical clearances used by US railroads.
  • Flag of Australia Double stacking is also used in Australia between Adelaide, Parkes, Perth and Darwin.
  • Flag of India Double stacking is proposed in India for selective freight only lines.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For passenger transport, see Intermodal passenger transport. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Parkes can refer to: Parkes, New South Wales, a town. ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Port Darwin redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ...

Other uses for containers

Shipping container architecture is the use of containers as the basis for housing and other functional buildings for people, either as temporary housing or permanent, and either as a main building or as a cabin or workshop. Containers can also be used as sheds or storage areas in industry and commerce. Shipping Container Architecture is the novel idea of using steel shipping containers as the basis for housing and other functional buildings for people, either as temporary housing or permanent, and either as a main building or as a cabin or workshop. ...


Companies

Biggest ISO container companies

Top 10 container shipping companies in order of TEU capacity, first January 2006
Company TEU capacity[13] Market Share Number of ships
A.P. Moller-Maersk Group 1,665,272 18.2% 549
Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. 1,250,000 11.7% 376
CMA CGM 507,954 5.6% 256
Evergreen Marine Corporation 477,911 5.2% 153
Hapag-Lloyd 412,344 4.5% 140
China Shipping Container Lines 346,493 3.8% 111
American President Lines 331,437 3.6% 99
Hanjin-Senator 328,794 3.6% 145
COSCO 322,326 3.5% 118
NYK Line 302,213 3.3% 105

The A.P. Moller-Maersk Group (Danish: A.P. Møller-Mærsk Gruppen) is an international business consortium involved in a variety of business sectors, primarily transportation. ... Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. (MSC) is currently the second-largest container shipping line in the world. ... CMA CGM S.A. is a French container transportation and shipping company, founded by M. Jacques R. Saadé. It is the largest container shipping company in France and the fifth largest container company in the world. ... Evergreen Marine Corporation (or Evergreen Group) is a Taipei, Taiwan based containerized marine shipping company, mainly serving the east coast of Asia and the west coast of North America, with over 100 container ships. ... Hapag-Lloyd is a German transportation company comprising a cargo container shipping line and a cruise line. ... China Shipping Container Lines (CSCL),(SEHK: 2866) a division of China Shipping Group (China Shipping), is a containerized marine shipping company, based in Shanghai China. ... American President Lines Ltd. ... Hanjin-Senator is achieved by combining the container fleets of Hanjin and Senator Lines, making Hanjin-Senator the seventh largest container shipping company in the world. ... China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (abbreviated as COSCO) is one of the largest liner shipping companies serving companies all over the world. ... The Japan-based Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha, Nippon Yusen Kaisha (日本郵船), or NYK Line, is one of the largest shipping companies in the world. ...

Other container systems

  • Haus-zu-Haus (Germany)
  • RACE (container) (Australia)
  • Hellenic Container Transport Ltd (Greece)

This article is about the shipping container, for alternate meanings, see RACE Railways of Australia Container Express or RACE is a slightly wider version of the standard ISO shipping container able to take 2 Australia Standard Pallets side by side. ...

International

Before the International Standard Container appeared, various countries had their own containers. These containers were generally small, and not able to be stacked one upon another. Clearly the idea of containerisation is not new, though the implementation of the ISO container was much better done.


Australia

  • Less than Car Load (LCL) [14]

Germany

  • Von Haus zu Haus (from House to House)

United Kingdom

  • a small container

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Breaking bulk: Shipping a nautical term for the taking out of a portion of the cargo of a ship or the beginning of the unloading process from the ships holds. ... A mini-bulker taking on cargo in Brest. ... Sidelifters are a road going truck or semi-trailer that is used to hoist and transport ISO standard containers over generally longer distances. ... ISO 6346 is an international standard for assigning unique codes to freight containers, commonly known as BIC codes. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are loaded or unloaded from ships to land vehicles, for further transport. ... Class 47, no. ... For passenger transport, see Intermodal passenger transport. ... Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a gantry crane, container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane, STS crane or a dockside crane) is a very large crane used to load and unload container ships, and... Skaugran Oslo Loading a Ro Ro passenger car ferry The Cetus Leader A Canadian RORO Ferry A PCC ships starboard side showing side ramp. ... 18 wheeler redirects here. ... Shipping Container Architecture is the novel idea of using steel shipping containers as the basis for housing and other functional buildings for people, either as temporary housing or permanent, and either as a main building or as a cabin or workshop. ... A shipping line is a business that operates ships that it itself either owns or operates for the benefit of the owner. ... A modern tank car, owned by the Union Tank Car Company, passes westbound through Rochelle Railroad Park, Rochelle, Illinois on May 29, 2005. ... ULD Type AKH Unit Load Devices, or ULDs, are pallets and containers used to load luggage, freight, and mail on wide-body aircraft and specific narrow-body aircraft. ... A wooden pallet A plastic pallet with nine legs, which can be lifted from all four sides A Pallet can also be a small, hard, or temporary bed (a term heavily used in the southern United States to describe a makeshift bed consisting of a blanket and a pillow on...

References

  1. ^ U.S. Army Transportation Museum. History & Development of the Container. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  2. ^ a b c Marc Levinson (2006). The Box, How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. Princeton Univ. Press. ISBN ISBN 0-691-12324-1. 
  3. ^ Rushotn, A., Oxley, J., Croucher, P. (2004) The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management Kogan Page: London
  4. ^ Postrel, Virginia. "The Box that Changed the World", Dynamist.com, 2006-03-23. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. 
  5. ^ Shipping containers. Emase. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Selecting a Container. CMA CGM Group year =2006. Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
  8. ^ Herod, Andrew (1998). "Discourse on the Docks: Containerization and Inter-Union Work Disputes in US Ports, 1955-85". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 23 (2): 177-191. United Kingdom: The Royal Geographical Society. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. 
  9. ^ Podsada, Janice. (2001-06-19) 'Lost Sea Cargo: Beach Bounty or Junk?', National Geographic News.[2] Retrieved 2007-04-17
  10. ^ "Banana box slip a worry", Lloyd's List Daily Commercial News, Informa Australia, 2008-02-07. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. 
  11. ^ Betuweroute:Frequently Asked Questions. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Government of the Netherlands (2007). Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
  12. ^ Das, Manumi. "Spotlight on double-stack container movement", The Hindu Business Line, The Hindu Group, 2007-10-15. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. 
  13. ^ Liner market shares. BRS report for Alphaliner (January 2006).
  14. ^ Gunn, John (1989). Along Parallel Lines: A History of the Railways of New South Wales. Melbourne University Press, 387. ISBN 0522843875. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Look up containerization, isotainer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Economy
  • Brian J. Cudahy (April 2006). Box Boats. Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-8232-2568-2.  — How Container Ships Changed the World
  • Frank Broeze (2002). The Globalisation of the Oceans. International Maritime Economic History Association. ISBN 0-9730073-3-8.  — Containerisation from the 1950s to the Present
  • Stewart Taggart (October 1999). The 20-Ton Packet. Wired Magazine.
  • Port Industry Statistics. American Association of Port Authorities.
  • Marc Levinson (2006). The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12324-1. 
Technique
  • ASTM D 5728 Standard Practice for Securement of Cargo in Intermodal and Unimodal Surface Transport
  • Transport Information Service : containers. German Insurance Association. — types, inspection, climate, stowage, securing, capacity
  • Container Handbook. German Insurance Association (2006).
  • Emergency Response Guidebook (PDF). Transport Canada, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the Secretariat of Communications and Transport of Mexico (2004). — a guidebook for first responders during the initial phase of a dangerous goods/hazardous materials incident
  • Container Dimensions and Capacity. Export 911.
In Fiction
  • William Gibson (August 2007). Spook Country. Putnam Publishing Group. ISBN 0-399-15430-2.  — Novel set in U.S., wherein mystery surrounding a containerized shipment serves as the MacGuffin
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger is a book by Marc Levinson charting the historic rise of the shipping container and how it changed the economic landscape on a major scale. ... ASTM International is an international voluntary standards organization that develops and produces technical standards for materials, products, systems and services. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... This article is about the plot device. ... railroads redirects here. ... An autorack, also known as an auto carrier, is a specialized piece of railroad rolling stock used to transport unladen automobiles. ... For other uses, see Boxcar (disambiguation). ... A steel coil car owned by Norfolk Southern Coil cars (also referred to as steel coil cars or coil steel cars) are a specialized type of rolling stock designed for the transport of coils of sheet metal, particularly steel. ... DME 49328, a covered hopper owned and operated by the Dakota, Minnesota and Eastern Railroad. ... A string of refrigerator cars owned by Pacific Fruit Express is mechanically-supplied with fresh ice at an Oxnard, California produce packing plant in the Spring of 1964. ... In railroad terminology a Roadrailer or RoadRailer is a highway trailer, or semi-trailer, that is specially-equipped for use in railroad intermodal service. ... Missouri Pacific Lines all-wood stock car #52967, photographed at Pueblo, Colorado in March, 1937. ... A modern tank car, owned by the Union Tank Car Company, passes westbound through Rochelle Railroad Park, Rochelle, Illinois on May 29, 2005. ... FEC 37066 passing Glen Haven, Wisconsin, on the Mississippi River, is carrying two containers. ... A railroad gondola seen at Rochelle, Illinois. ... 2-bay hopper cars of the Reading Railroad. ... A Schnabel car is a specialized type of railroad freight car. ... Look up Caboose in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Maintenance of way (often abbreviated as M of Way, MOW or MW) refers to the maintenance of railroad rights of way. ... A scale test car is a type of railroad car in maintenance of way service. ... This primitive clearance car of the D&RGW consists of a simple wooden outline. ... A railroad crane owned by the German firm Magdeburger Hafen GmbH. A railroad crane is a piece of rail transport maintenance of way equipment. ... Cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... Main article: Merchant ship A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship used to transport unpackaged bulk cargo such as cereals, coal, ore, and cement. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... The reefer is a type of ship typically used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled transportation, mostly fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foodstuffs. ... Loading a ro-ro passenger car ferry Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ships are designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trailers or railroad cars. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 309 pixel Image in higher resolution (2394 × 924 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Barge Ferry Tugboat... Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq. ... A tanker is usually a vehicle carrying large amounts of liquid fuel. ... A chemical tanker is a type of tanker designed to transport chemicals in bulk. ... An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas. ... Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. ... A Floating Storage and Offloading unit (FSO) is, as its name suggests, a floating storage device, usually for oil. ... A passenger ship is a ship whose primary function is to carry passengers. ... A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... Pride of Bilbao, a cruise ferry operated by P&O Ferries. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... A diving support vessel is a ship that is used as a floating base for professional diving projects. ... A516 Donau, an Elbe class tender of the German Navy. ... A tugboat shown turning a large RORO cargo ship. ... Platform supply vessel (often abbreviated as PSV) is a ship specially designed to supply offshore oil platforms. ... A cable layer is a deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications, electricity, and such. ... Balder, Holstein, and Thialf USS Kearsarge as A crane vessel is a ship that is specialized in lifting heavy loads. ... A drillship is a maritime vessel that has been fitted with drilling apparatus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A fishing vessel is any ship used to catch fish on seas, lakes or rivers. ... For other uses, see Icebreaker (disambiguation). ... MV Mighty Servant 2 carries USS from Dubai to Newport, R.I., in 1988. ... Polish Navy survey ship ORP Heweliusz and fleet tanker ORP Bałtyk. ... // A research vessel (R/V) is a ship primarily constructed to carry out scientific research at sea. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... Hopper Barge is a kind of non-mechanical (cannot move around itself) ship or vessel in the category of Barge, which can carry the dumping materials (like rocks, sand, soil and rubbish) to fill up the sea, river or lake for land by the method of reclamation. ... See also Hopper barge. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The term Seawaymax refers to vessels which are the maximum size that can fit through the canal locks of the St Lawrence Seaway. ... Handymax is a naval architecture term for a Bulk carrier between 30,001 and 50,000 DWT. Length 150-200 m (492-656 feet). ... Handysize refers to a dry bulk vessel or product tanker with deadweight of 15,000–50,000 tons. ... An Aframax ship is an oil tanker with capacity between 80,000 dwt and 120,000 dwt. ... Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Suez Canal fully loaded, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. ... Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Straits of Malacca. ... A supertanker is a tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids, especially crude oil. ... A supertanker is a tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids, especially crude oil. ...

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m