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Encyclopedia > Container ship
Container ship in Istanbul
Container ship in Istanbul

Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. They form a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport. Image File history File linksMetadata Resim_057. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Resim_057. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey. ... An intermodal train carrying both shipping containers and highway semi-trailers in piggyback service, on flatcars, passes through the Cajon Pass in February, 1995. ...

Contents

History

The earliest container ships were converted tankers, built up from surplus tanker T-2's after World War II. The first container ship was the Ideal-X, a converted T-2 tanker, owned by Malcom McLean, which carried 58 metal containers between Newark, New Jersey and Houston, Texas on its first voyage, in April 1956. Now container ships are all purpose-built and as a class are second only to crude oil tankers as the biggest cargo ships on the oceans. A tanker is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Malcom Purcell McLean (born “Malcolm”; but late in life he changed his given name to its historic traditional Scottish spelling) (1913-May 25, 2001), born in Maxton, North Carolina, often called “the father of containerization, in 1956 developed the metal shipping container, which replaced the traditional break bulk method of... Nickname: The Brick City Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]    - City 67. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Incorporated June 5, 1837 Government  - Mayor Bill White Area  - City  601. ... Oil tankers are ships of varying sizes designed for the bulk carriage of crude oil and various refined spirits. ...


Construction

Container ship "CMA CGM Balzac" in the port of Zeebrugge Belgium.
Container ship "CMA CGM Balzac" in the port of Zeebrugge Belgium.

Container ships are designed in such a manner that no space is wasted. Their capacity is measured in TEUs (Twenty-foot equivalent units). This is the number of 20-foot containers that a vessel can carry. The majority of containers used today are 40 feet in length. Above a certain size, container ships do not carry their own loading gear. Hence loading and unloading can only be done at ports with the necessary cranes. However, smaller ships with capacities up to 2,900 TEUs are often equipped with their own cranes. Download high resolution version (2048x915, 100 KB)Containership CMA CGM Balzac in the port of Zeebrugge Belgium. ... Download high resolution version (2048x915, 100 KB)Containership CMA CGM Balzac in the port of Zeebrugge Belgium. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993, under the Delors Commission. ...


Informally known as "box ships," they carry the majority of the world's dry cargo, meaning manufactured goods. Cargoes like metal ores or coal or wheat are carried in bulk carriers. There are large main line vessels that ply the deep sea routes, then many small "feeder" ships that supply the large ships at centralized hub ports. Most container ships are propelled by diesel engines, and have crews of between 20 and 40 people. They generally have a large accommodation block at the stern, directly above the engine room. Container ships now carry up to 15,000 containers on a voyage. Bulk carrier Berge Athene, a 225,000 DWT vessel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Aft of the Soleil Royal, by Jean Bérain the Elder. ... In a ship, this is where the Main Engine(s), Generators, Compressors, Pumps, Fuel Purifiers and other major machinery are located. ...


Shipyards

Large container ships (over 7,000 TEUs) have been built in the following shipyards:

// Odense Steel Shipyard (Danish: Odense Staalskibsværft) located in Odense, Denmark was constructed in 1918-1919 by the A.P. Møller-Mærsk Group. ... Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. ... Samsung Heavy Industries Ningbo Co. ... This article is about the chaebol Daewoo Group. ... Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. ... Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd (MHI) (三菱重工業, Mitsubishi Jūkōgyō) TYO: 7011 is a Japanese company. ...

Risks

Container ship "Rita" being loaded at Copenhagen; note crew standing on deck, and stacks of containers on shore.
Container ship "Rita" being loaded at Copenhagen; note crew standing on deck, and stacks of containers on shore.

As of the new M/V Emma Mærsk they can carry up to 12,000 containers, the total value of cargo per vessel can reach $300 million. The ceaseless transit of these containers (at any given time, between 5 million and 6 million units) entails a great deal of risk. Photo of container ship loading at Copenhagen, with a Portainer crane behind, taken August 2003 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 700px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo of container ship loading at Copenhagen, with a Portainer crane behind, taken August 2003 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 700px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Emma Mærsk Emma Mærsk is a container ship owned by the A.P. Moller-Maersk Group. ... Containers in the port of Kotka (Finland) on the Baltic Sea. ...


Some of the risks are linked to the loading of containers. Each ship carries many containers, and complex organization is required to not lose or misroute containers. Outside of container manifests, there is no way to know the contents of each container. Containers are usually loaded by a portainer. There must be as little vibration of the loaded container as possible. Thus the operator has to be well-qualified and experienced to operate the crane efficiently. Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a gantry crane, container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane, STS crane or a dockside crane) is a very large crane used to load and unload container ships, and...


Maneuvers in the port managed by the control tower may be dangerous. In open sea, storms can cause the loss of containers. The great value of merchandise on these vessels makes them a target for hijackers. Well-organized piracy remains a threat in places such as Indonesia. The control tower at Schiphol airport. ... Categories: Stub ... For the 1967 film, see Robbery (film). ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ...


Also, containers are often used to smuggle contraband. Contraband consists of items of which possession may be illegal, depending on the variety and the country or the age or sex of the possessor. ...


Specificities

Cargo too big to carry in containers can be handled using flat racks, open top containers and platforms. There are also container ships called roll-on/roll-off (RORO), which utilize shore-based ramp systems for loading and unloading. ROROs are usually associated with shorter trade routes, as they are unable to carry the volume of crane-based container vessels. However, due to their flexibility and high speed, ROROs are frequently used in today's container markets. Moreover due to the growth of the containers transit, companies must manage container ship risks. Roll-on/roll-off is a method of transport (as a ferry, train, or airplane) that vehicles roll onto at the beginning and roll off of at the destination. ... Tower crane An old crane with incline of pivoted boom controlled by means of chains, sprockets and gears. ...


Future

Economies of scale have dictated an upward trend in sizes of container ships in order to reduce costs. One limit on ship size is the "Suezmax" standard, or the largest theoretical ship capable of passing through the Suez Canal, which measures 14,000 TEUs. Such a vessel would displace 137,000 DWT, be 400 meters long, more than 50 meters wide, have a draft of nearly 15 metres, and use more than 85 MW to achieve 25.5 knots, specifications met by the Emma Mærsk. Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Suez Canal fully loaded, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ... Emma Mærsk Emma Mærsk is a container ship owned by the A.P. Moller-Maersk Group. ...


Beyond Suezmax lies the "Malaccamax" (for Straits of Malacca) ship of 18,000 TEUs, displacing 300,000 DWT, 470 meters long, 60 meters wide, 16 meters of draft, and using more than 100 MW for 25.5 knots. This is most likely the limit before a major restructuring of world container trade routes.[1] The biggest constraint of this design, the absence of a capable single engine, has been overcome by the MAN B&W K108ME-C. Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Straits of Malacca. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... The MAN B&W K108ME-C is a low speed two stroke Diesel Engine Designed by the danish constructor MAN B&W Diesel. ...


The ultimate problem was the absence of a manufacturer capable of producing the propeller needed for transmitting this power, which would be about 10 metres in diameter, and weigh 130 tonnes. One has since been built for the Emma Mærsk. Other constraints, such as time in port and flexibility of service routes are similar to the constraints that eventually limited the growth in size of supertankers. A supertanker is an unofficial nickname that applies to a certain class of tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids; in practice this typically refers to crude oil. ...


Largest ships

Ten Biggest Container Ship Classes, listed by TEU capacity
Built Name Sisterships Length o.a. Beam Maxium TEU GT Owners Flag
2006 Emma Mærsk 4 397.7 m 56.4 m 14,500 151,687 Maersk Line Denmark
2005 Gudrun Mærsk 5 367.3 m 42.8 m 10,150 97,933 Maersk Line Denmark
2006 Xin Los Angeles 6 336.7 m 45.6 m 9,600 [2] 107,200 CSCL Hong Kong
2006 Cosco Guangzhou 4 350 m 42.8 m 9,450[3] 99,833 Cosco Greece
2006 CMA CGM Medea 3 350 m 42.8 m 9,415[4] 99,500 CMA CGM France
2003 Axel Mærsk 5 352.6 m 42.8 m 9,310 93,496 Maersk Line Denmark
2006 NYK Vega 2 338.2 m 45.6 m 9,200 97,825 Nippon Yusen Kaisha Panama
2005 MSC Pamela 5 336.7 m 45.6 m 9,178 90,500 MSC Liberia
2006 MSC Madeleine 1 348.5 m 42.8 m 9,100 107,551 MSC Liberia
2006 Hannover Bridge 2 336 m 45.8 m 9,040 89,000 K Line Japan

Notes The size of a container ship is defined throughout the world in terms of TEU capacity. ... Emma Mærsk Emma Mærsk is a container ship owned by the A.P. Moller-Maersk Group. ... Maersk Line is the trade name for the container-shipping operations of the Danish company A.P. Moller-Maersk. ... Maersk Line is the trade name for the container-shipping operations of the Danish company A.P. Moller-Maersk. ... China Shipping Container Lines (CSCL),(SEHK: 2866) a division of China Shipping Group (China Shipping), is a containerized marine shipping company, based in Shanghai China. ... China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (abbreviated as COSCO) is one of the largest liner shipping companies serving companies all over the world. ... CMA CGM S.A. is a French container transportation and shipping company, founded by M. Jacques R. Saadé. It is the largest container shipping company in France and the fifth largest container company in the world. ... Maersk Line is the trade name for the container-shipping operations of the Danish company A.P. Moller-Maersk. ... The Japan-based Nippon Yusen Kaisha (日本郵船), or NYK Line, is one of the largest shipping companies in the world. ... MSC Pamela at the port of Felixstowe England on the 15th August 2005 MSC Pamela was built by Samsung Heavy Industries and launched in 2005 and is currently the largest container ship in the world with a capacity of 9,200 TEU -- which works out at about 300 containers per... Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. (MSC) is currently the second-largest container shipping line in the world. ... Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. (MSC) is currently the second-largest container shipping line in the world. ... This article refers to a model railway company. ...

World's busiest container ports of call

For more details on this topic, see List of world's busiest container ports.
Ten Busiest Container Ports
Rank Port Country TEUs(000s)[5] +/- from 2004 % change from 2004
1 Singapore Singapore 23,200 1,900 8.19
2 Hong Kong People's Republic of China 22,430 500 2.28
3 Shanghai People's Republic of China 18,090 3,536 24.30
4 Shenzhen People's Republic of China 16,200 2,540 19.00
5 Busan South Korea 11,840 349 2.95
6 Kaohsiung Taiwan (Republic of China) 9,471 424 6.54
7 Rotterdam Netherlands 9,300 1,000 12.05
8 Hamburg Germany 8,086 1,084 13.40
9 Dubai United Arab Emirates 7,619 1,190 15.63
10 Los Angeles United States of America 7,485 164 2.19

This is a list of the worlds busiest container seaports. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shenzhen is a sub-provincial city of Guangdong province in southern China, located at the border with the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan, is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ... Kaohsiung City (Traditional Chinese:高雄市, TongYong PinYin: GaoSyóng, Hanyu Pinyin: Gāoxióng, POJ: Ko-hiông; coordinates 22°38N, 120°16E) is the second largest city on Taiwan. ... The Republic of China is commonly known as Taiwan or Chinese Taipei, and it is not to be confused with the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Waalhaven by night Europe Container Terminals The port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe. ... Landungsbrücken (“Jetties”), in St. ... Coordinates: Emirate Dubai Government  - Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area [1]  - Metro 4,114 km² (1,588. ... General Information Founded December 9, 1907 Coordinates  - Latitude  - Longitude 33º4239 N 118º1459 W Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 7500 acres 4200 acres 3300 acres Available Berths 270 Vessel Arrivals 2,813 (FY 2004) Annual container volume 7. ...

See also

Nautical Portal
  • The Container Ships Category


Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


References

  1. ^ Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels, MAN B&W, 19 January 2005 (accessed 16 November 2005)
  2. ^ Lloyd's Register (6 July 2006). World's largest container ship delivered to Lloyd's Register class. Press release.
  3. ^ Kyunghee Park (9 march 2006). Around Asia's markets: Glut dims prospects for cargo shippers. Bloomberg News.
  4. ^ CMA CGM (02 Oct 2006). CMA CGM MEDEA, one of the world’s largest container ships. Press release.
  5. ^ Hamburg Port Authority Rankings 2005

A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (76th in leap years). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Container ship
  • http://www.containership-info.net.tc - containership-info and vessel data base
  • ship-photos.de: Categorized ship photos.

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COMMENTARY     

Shipping to trinidad
27th June 2010
Thanks for the effort you took to expand upon this topic so thoroughly. I look forward to future posts.
There are various sea vessels involved in shipping to trinidad . It may include box boats or container ships, bulk carriers, tankers, ferries, cable layers, dredgers and barges.

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