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Encyclopedia > Consumer protection

Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. For example, a government may require businesses to disclose detailed information about products—particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food. Consumer protection is linked to the idea of consumer rights (that consumers have various rights as consumers), and to the formation of consumer organizations which help consumers make better choices in the marketplace. Consumers refers to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and services generated within the economy. ... Consumer organizations are organizations that seek to protect people from corporate abuse. ...

Contents

Consumer law

Consumer protection law or consumer law is considered an area of public law that regulates private law relationships between individual consumers and the businesses that sell those goods and services. Consumer protection covers a wide range of topics including but not necessarily limited to product liability, privacy rights, unfair business practices, fraud, misrepresentation, and other consumer/business interactions. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Products liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause. ... Privacy is a modern construct. ... Unfair business practices encompass fraud, misrepresentation, and oppressive or unconscionable acts or practices by business, often against consumers and are prohibited by law in many countries. ... In contract law, a misrepresentation is a false statement of fact made by one party to another party and has the effect of inducing that party into the contract. ...


Such laws deal with credit repair, debt repair, product safety, service contracts, bill collector regulation, pricing, utility turnoffs, consolidation, personal loans that may lead to bankruptcy and much more. A loan is a type of debt. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ...


In specific countries

United States

Consumer protection laws often mandate the posting of notices, such as this one which appears in all automotive repair shops in California
Consumer protection laws often mandate the posting of notices, such as this one which appears in all automotive repair shops in California

In the United States there are a variety of laws at both the federal or state levels that regulate consumer affairs. Among them are the federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, Truth in Lending Act, Fair Credit Billing Act, and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Federal consumer protection laws are mainly enforced by the Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Department of Justice. Image File history File links Cdcacarrepairnotice. ... Image File history File links Cdcacarrepairnotice. ... A mechanic working on the rear end of a car. ... The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (or FDCPA), 15 U.S.C. Â§ 1692 et seq. ... The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) is an American federal law (codified at 15 U.S.C. Â§ 1681 et seq. ... The Truth in Lending Act (TILA) of 1968 is a United States federal law designed to protect consumers in credit transactions by requiring clear disclosure of key terms of the lending arrangement and all costs. ... See WikiSource:Fair_Credit_Billing_Act for the text of the FCBA act, which provides consumers with many rights. ... The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, also known as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act, Pub. ... | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ...


At the state level, many states have a Department of Consumer Affairs devoted to regulating certain industries and protecting consumers who regularly use goods and services from those industries.


For example, in the U.S. state of California, the California Department of Consumer Affairs regulates about 2.3 million professionals in over 230 different professions through its 40 regulatory entities. In addition, California encourages its consumers to act as private attorneys general through the liberal provisions of its Consumers Legal Remedies Act, Cal. Civil Code § 1750 et seq. California has the nation’s strongest consumer protection laws due in part to the rigorous advocacy and lobbying by groups such as Utility Consumers' Action Network[1], Consumer Federation of California and Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... One of DCAs ubiquitous signs. ... A private attorney general is a private party in the United States who brings a lawsuit that is considered to be in the public interest, i. ... The Consumer Federation of California (CFC) was founded in 1960 as a non-profit consumer advocacy organization. ... Privacy Rights Clearinghouse (PRC) is an American 501(c)(3) non-profit organization devoted to upholding the right to privacy and protect consumers against identity theft and other privacy crimes. ...


European Union

The European Union has been very active in the field of consumer protection, producing a considerable volume of Directives which require member states to regulate consumer protection to a particular standard (which may or may not allow a higher standard of regulation). A very important innovation has been the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive. Also Directives on Unfair Contract Terms (93/13/EC) and Electronic Commerce (2000/13/EC). There exists a European Commissioner for Consumer Protection, a post currently held by the Bulgarian Meglena Kuneva. A directive is a collective legislative act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... Directive 2005/29/EC, [1] the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive, is a major reform of the law concerning unfair business practices in the European Union. ... A directive is a collective legislative act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result. ... The Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999, SI 1999/2083, incorporates[1] Directive 93/13/EC[2] into law of the United Kingdom. ... The Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002, SI 2000/2013, incorporates Directive 2000/31/EC into the law of the United Kingdom. ... The Commissioner for Consumer Protection is the member of the European Commission responsible for Consumer protection. ... Meglena Kuneva Meglena Kuneva (Bulgarian: ) is a Bulgarian and European politician. ...


Germany

The Federal Republic of Germany is a member state of the European Union and is bound by the consumer protection directives of the European Union. Thus a large part of German consumer protection law has been enacted pursuant to European Directives (e.g. the directives on door-to-door sales, consumer credits, distance selling, package tours, product liability etc.). In 2002, a large part of this legislation was integrated into the German Civil Code ("Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch"). Publication in the Reich Law Gazette on August 24, 1896 The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the civil code of Germany. ...


A minister of the federal cabinet is responsible for consumer rights and protection (Verbraucherschutzminister). In the current cabinet of Angela Merkel, this is Horst Seehofer.   (IPA: ) (b. ... Horst Lorenz Seehofer (born July 4, 1949 in Ingolstadt) is a German politician (CSU). ...


When issuing public warnings about products and services, the issuing authority has to take into account that this affects the supplier's constitutionally protected economic liberty (article 12 Basic Law, see Bundesverwaltungsgericht (Federal Administrative Court)Case 3 C 34.84, 71 BVerwGE 183. This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ... The Federal Administrative Court (Bundesverwaltungsgericht) is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany. ...


United Kingdom

The United Kingdom is a member state of the European Union and so is bound by the consumer protection directives of the European Union. Domestic (UK) laws originated within the ambit of contract and tort but, with the influence of EU law, it is emerging as an independant area of law. In many circumstances, where domestic law is in question, the matter judicially treated as tort, contract, restitution or even criminal law. A directive is a collective legislative act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Not to be confused with torte, an iced cake. ... The European Union is unique among international organizations in having a complex and highly developed system of internal law which has direct effect within the legal systems of its member states. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with torte, an iced cake. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Restitution is the name given to a form of legal relief in which the plaintiff recovers something from the defendant that belongs, or should belong, to the plaintiff. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ...


Consumer Protection issues are dealt with when complaints are made to the Director-General of Fair Trade. The Office of Fair Trading[2] will then investigate, impose injunction or take the matter to litigation. The Office of Fair Trading[3] also acts as the UK's official consumer and competition watchdog, with a remit to make markets work well for consumers, and at a local, municipal level by Trading Standards departments.[4]. The Office of Fair Trading or OFT is a UK statutory body established by the Fair Trading Act 1973, which enforces both consumer protection and competition law, acting as the UKs economic regulator. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in order to recover a right, obtain damages for an injury, obtain an injunction to prevent an injury, or obtain a declaratory judgment to prevent future legal disputes. ... The Office of Fair Trading or OFT is a UK statutory body established by the Fair Trading Act 1973, which enforces both consumer protection and competition law, acting as the UKs economic regulator. ... The Trading Standards Institute is the UK government-appointed body responsible for protecting consumers rights and enforcing related laws. ...


Other Commonwealth countries

In Australia the corresponding agency is the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission or the individual State Consumer Affairs agencies. In New Zealand, the corresponding agency is the Ministry of Consumer Affairs [5] and the New Zealand Commerce Commission [6]. The ACCC Logo The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) is an independent Australian commonwealth government authority established in 1995 from the amalgamation of the Australian Trade Practices Commission (TPC) and the Prices Surveillance Authority, to protect consumer rights, business rights and obligations, perform industry regulation and price monitoring and...


Consumer advocacy groups

Main article: Consumer organization

Consumer organizations are organizations that seek to protect people from corporate abuse. ...

Laws

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with antitrust. ...

United Kingdom

The Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 is a British Act of Parliament which regulates contracts by restricting the operation and legality of some contract terms. ... The Sale of Goods Act 1979 is a British Act of Parliament (1979, ch 54) which regulates contracts in which goods are sold and bought. ... The Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999, SI 1999/2083, incorporates[1] Directive 93/13/EC[2] into law of the United Kingdom. ... The Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000, SI 2000/2334, incorporates[1] Directive 97/7/EC into law of the United Kingdom. ... The Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002, SI 2000/2013, incorporates Directive 2000/31/EC into the law of the United Kingdom. ...

United States

The Digital Media Consumers Rights Act (DMCRA) is a proposed law in the United States that directly challenges portions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, and would intensify Federal Trade Commission efforts to mandate proper labeling for copy-protected CDs to ensure consumer protection from deceptive labeling practices. ...

Australia

The Trade Practices Act 1974 is an act of the Parliament of Australia. ...

See also

People

Florence Kelley (September 12, 1859 - February 17, 1932) was a reformer from Philadelphia. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ... Michael J Vernon AM c1980 Michael Mike Vernon A.M. (2 April 1932 – 6 November 1993) was a prominent Australian consumer activist. ... Curtis Arnold, a nationally recognized consumer educator and advocate, is the founder of U.S. Citizens for Fair Credit Card Terms, Inc. ...

Consumer Issues

This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ... In law, a class action is an equitable procedural device used in litigation for determining the rights of and remedies, if any, for large numbers of people whose cases involve common questions of law and fact. ... A competition regulator is a government agency, typically a statutory authority, which regulates competition laws, and may sometimes also regulate consumer protection laws. ... An extended warranty, sometimes called a service agreement or a maintenance agreement, is a prolonged warranty offered to consumers. ... International Fairtrade Certification Mark Fairtrade labelling (usually simply Fairtrade or Fair Trade Certified in the United States) is a product certification system designed to allow consumers to identify products (especially agricultural products such as coffee) which meet agreed standards. ... Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. ... Mandatory labelling of consumer products enables moral purchasing and avoidance of health problems like allergies. ... A product recall is a request to return to the maker a batch or an entire production run of a product, usually due to the discovery of safety issues. ... In economics, a market is transparent if much is known by many about: what products and/or services are available at what price and where. ... Antitrust is also the name for a movie, see Antitrust (movie) Antitrust or competition laws legislate against trade practices that undermine competitiveness or are considered to be unfair. ...

External links

  • Consumer Complaint Form, U.S. Federal Trade Commission
  • Consumer Complaint Form Missouri Attorney General
  • Consumer Education and Research Centre (CERC)(India)
  • Consumer protection information (U.S.)
  • List of Consumer Rights as stated by the Government of India
  • Israeli Consumer protection Laws
  • New Zealand Consumer Rights
  • Consumers International, the global voice for consumers

  Results from FactBites:
 
Consumer protection - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (545 words)
Consumer protection is government regulation to protect the interests of consumers, for example by requiring businesses to disclose detailed information about products, particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food.
Consumer protection is linked to the idea of consumer rights (that consumers have various rights as consumers), and to consumer organizations which help consumers make better choices in the marketplace.
Consumer protection law or consumer law is considered an area of public law that regulates private law relationships between individual consumers and the businesses that sell them goods and services.
consumer protection - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about consumer protection (315 words)
There are many private consumer associations, and among the most active and effective of crusaders for greater protection has been Ralph Nader.
In Britain, an early organization for consumer protection was the British Standards Institution, set up in 1901, which certifies with a ‘Kitemark’ goods reaching certain standards.
A number of organizations are also concerned with consumers' interests, including the Consumers' Association, Citizens' Advice Bureau, local-authority trading standards departments, and regulatory bodies such as Oftel and Ofwat.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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