FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Construction" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Construction
In large construction projects such as skyscrapers, crane machines are essential.
In large construction projects such as skyscrapers, crane machines are essential.

In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure on a site or sites. Although this may not be thought of as a single activity, in fact construction is a feat of multitasking. Normally the job is managed by the construction manager and supervised by the project manager, design engineer or project architect. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure Construction may also refer to: Offshore construction, the installation of structures in marine environments Social construction (or social construct), an entity that exists purely because society has agreed upon it Social constructionism (or social constructivism), a sociological theory of knowledge Constructivist... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x2453, 820 KB) Construction of a sky scraper, Melbourne File links The following pages link to this file: Skyscraper Construction Crane (machine) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x2453, 820 KB) Construction of a sky scraper, Melbourne File links The following pages link to this file: Skyscraper Construction Crane (machine) ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ... This article is about building architecture. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... Look up activity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Multitasking may refer to any of the following: Computer multitasking - the apparent simultaneous performance of two or more tasks by a computers central processing unit. ... he is the best in the world, some call him the junior jose, special 1 version 2 ... A project manager is the person who has the overall responsibility for the successful planning and execution of any project. ... Design engineer is a general term that covers multiple engineering disciplines: Electrical, mechanical and civil engineering are the basic three. ... A Project Architect is a term used to define a specific role in an Architects office. ...


For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. Those involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, site safety, availability of materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays, preparing tender documents, etc. A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a product or service[1]. // The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from projicere, to throw something forwards which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in... For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... Environmental impact analysis is conducted to determine the likely human environmental health impact, risk to ecological health, and changes to natures services that a proposed or ongoing project may bring, or is bringing. ... For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... A site-safety sign at a highway overpass construction site describing the mandatory safety procedures and equipment. ... Construction delays are slow downs in traffic (sometimes slowing to a complete standstill) required for a construction project to complete some stage of the job. ... For the locomotive car, see Tender locomotive. ...

Contents

Types of construction projects

In general, there are three types of construction:

  1. Building construction
  2. Heavy/highway construction
  3. Industrial construction

Each type of construction project requires a unique team to plan, design, construct, and maintain the project.


Building construction

Building construction for several apartment blocks. The blue material is insulation cladding, which will be covered later.
Building construction for several apartment blocks. The blue material is insulation cladding, which will be covered later.
A large unfinished building.
A large unfinished building.

Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property. The vast majority of building construction projects are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. Often, the owner of the property acts as laborer, paymaster, and design team for the entire project. However, all building construction projects include some elements in common - design, financial, and legal considerations. Many projects of varying sizes reach undesirable end results, such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/or litigatios reason, those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome. Download high resolution version (1066x768, 405 KB)A building site for a row of riverside appartment blocks in Cambridge. ... Download high resolution version (1066x768, 405 KB)A building site for a row of riverside appartment blocks in Cambridge. ... Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and processes used to reduce heat transfer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 797 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 602 pixel, file size: 261 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by June Ruivivar, December 2004 http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 797 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 602 pixel, file size: 261 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by June Ruivivar, December 2004 http://www. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Building construction is procured privately or publicly utilizing various delivery methodologies, including hard bid, negotiated price, traditional, management contracting, construction management-at-risk, design & build and design-build bridging.


Procurement

Procurement describes the merging of activities undertaken by the client to obtain a building. There are many different methods of construction procurement; however the three most common types of procurement are:

  1. Traditional (Design-bid-build)
  2. Design and Build
  3. Management Contracting

Traditional
Main article: Design-bid-build

This is the most common method of construction procurement and is well established and recognised. In this arrangement, the architect or engineer acts as the project coordinator. His or her role is to design the works, prepare the specifications and produce construction drawings, administer the contract, tender the works, and manage the works from inception to completion. There are direct contractual links between the architect's client and the main contractor. Any subcontractor will have a direct contractual relationship with the main contractor. Design-Build-Bid(D-B-B) is a project delivery method in which the agency or owner holds separate contracts with separate entities for the design and construction of a project. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tender may mean: In finance: A process by which one can seek prices and terms for a particular project (such as a construction job) to be carried out under a contract. ...


=

Main article: Design-build

This approach has become more common in recent years and includes an entire completed package, including fixtures, fittings and equipment where necessary, to produce a completed fully functional building. In some cases, the Design and Build (D & B) package can also include to find the site, arranging funding and applying for all necessary statutory consents. Design-Build(D-B) is a project delivery method in which the agency or owner holds a single contract with a single entity for both the design and construction of a project. ...


The client/ owner will produce a list of ‘clients requirements’ for a project, for which the D & B contractor will translate into a set of ‘contactors proposals’. The latter will then be altered and adapted until the client is satisfied that the D & B contractor knows exactly what the client wants from his or her completed building.


D & B is usually used for less complicated projects such as office or industrial buildings, although its use on large, complicated projects has become more common in recent years. The potential advantage D & B offers over other methods of construction procurement is that it can lead to greater certainty for costs and schedule.


In this arrangement, the client typically has direct contractual relationship with the D & B contractor only.


Management procurement systems

In this arrangement the client plays an active role in the procurement system by entering into separate contracts with the designer (architect or engineer), the construction manager, and individual trade contractors. The client takes on the contractual role, while the construction or project manager provides the active role of managing the separate trade contracts, and ensuring that they all work smoothly and effectively together. Construction Management refers either to the study and practice of the managerial and technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science, construction management, and construction technology), or to a business model where one party to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Construction Management refers either to the study and practice of the managerial and technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science, construction management, and construction technology), or to a business model where one party to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction...


Management procurement systems are often used to speed up the procurement processes, allow the client greater flexibility in design variation throughout the contract, the ability to appoint individual work contractors, separate contractual responsibility on each individual throughout the contract, and to provide greater client control.


Residential construction

More and more families are looking into building their own homes, or contracting to have them built. Construction practices, technologies, and resources conform to state and local building codes.


Heavy/Highway construction

Heavy/highway construction is the process adding infrastructure to our built environment. Owners of these projects are usually government agencies, either at the national or local level. As in building construction, heavy/highway construction has design, financial, and legal considerations, however these projects are not usually undertaken for-profit, but to service the public interest. However, heavy/highway construction projects are also undertaken by large private corporations, including, among others, the golf courses, harbors, power companies, railroads, and mines, who undertake the construction of access roads, dams, railroads, general site grading, and massive earthwork projects. As in building construction, the owner will assemble a team to create an overall plan to ensure that the goals of the project are met.


Authority having jurisdiction

In construction, the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) is the governmental agency or subagency which regulates the construction process. In most cases, this is the municipality in which the building is located. However, construction performed for supra-municipal authorities are usually regulated directly by the owning authority, which becomes the AHJ. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...


During the planning of a building, the zoning and planning boards of the AHJ will review the overall compliance of the proposed building with the municipal General Plan and zoning regulations. Once the proposed building has been approved, detailed civil, architectural, and structural plans must be submitted to the municipal building department (and sometimes the public works department) to determine compliance with the building code and sometimes for fit with existing infrastructure. Often, the municipal fire department will review the plans for compliance with fire-safety ordinances and regulations. A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ... For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ...

Construction on a building in Kansas City
Construction on a building in Kansas City

Before the foundation can be dug, contractors are typically required to notify utility companies, either directly or through a company such as Dig Safe to ensure that underground utility lines can be marked. This lessens the likelihood of damage to the existing electrical, water, sewage, phone, and cable facilities, which could cause outages and potentially hazardous situations. During the construction of a building, the municipal building inspector inspects the building periodically to ensure that the construction adheres to the approved plans and the local building code. Once construction is complete and a final inspection has been passed, an occupancy permit may be issued. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Kansas City is a city in Clay, Cass, Jackson, and Platte counties in Missouri. ... Dig Safe Logo Dig Safe System is a non-profit company that contacts utility companies in New England on behalf of contractors and homeowners. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... is a defined and legal term in building construction and building codes. ...


An operating building must remain in compliance with the fire code. The fire code is enforced by the local fire department. Fire safety is a component of Building Safety. ...


Any changes made to a building including its use, expansion, its structural integrity, and fire protection items, require acceptance by the AHJ. Anything affecting basic safety functions, no matter how small they may appear, may require the owner to apply for a building permit, to ensure proper review of the contemplated changes against the building code. Fire protection is the prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with fires. ...


Routes into construction careers

There are several routes to the different careers within the construction industry. Craft industries offer jobs where employees train while they work through apprenticeships and other training schemes. Another way, where many construction staff have found success, is through recruitment agencies. A career is a course of successive situations that make up some activity. ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... If youre looking for the TV show, see The Apprentice. ... Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ...


Technical occupations in the UK require GCSE qualifications or vocational equivalents, either initially or through on the job apprenticeship training. One example is that of Quantity Surveying. Quantity Surveyors are effectively cost managers within the construction industry and may be: (1) employed by Chartered Surveyor practices (referred to often as "PQS" derived from the term Private Quantity Surveyor) who normally represent the client's interest and liaise with the Architect on the client's team, preparing cost plans, preparing tender documentation, giving cost advice on variations, preparing monthly valuation payments to the contractor, agreeing the final account with the contractor, generally looking after the client's interests (although the role can be referred to within some standard forms of contract as being a neutral role to value 'the' costs of the project), in practice it tends to be looking after the client's interests primarily; or (2) employed by Main Contractors, in which role they manage the contractor's costs, place subcontract orders, make payments to subcontractors, claim monthly valuations from the client's surveyor (Private QS or "PQS"), cost manage variations, prepare internal cost reports to senior management and directors, generally managing the project commercially and protect the contractor's interests contractually. Contractual aspects such as delays and extensions of time issues are also within the remit of the Quantity Surveyor (QS); or (3) employed by Subcontractors, in which role they carry out a similar function to Main Contractor's QS's. The main difference is that they are normally submitting monthly valuation claims for payment to the Main Contractor, whereas the Manin Contractor claims from the client's Surveyor (usually a Chartered Surveyor practice or Private QS "PQS"). Large subcontractors may also employ sub-subcontractors, thereby making the QS role similar in the cost management role, including placing sub-contract orders (to sub-subcontractors), valuing and claiming variations, preparing cost reports to senior management, etc; or (4) employed by Local Authorities (local Councils, etc), whereby the role is broadly similar to that of private practice surveyors in cost managing project from the funding client's perspective (in this case the Local Authority council within which they are employed), dealing usually with main contractors; or (5) employed by Developers; whereby the role may be a mixture of the role of a client's surveyor (the funding client being the developer in this case) mixed with that of a main contractor in possibly employing package sub-contractors directly Other information: The most recognised body for surveyors in construction is the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (the 'RICS'). It is more common for a private practice surveyor or local authority employed surveyor to be a member of the RICS, though RICS qualified surveyors do work within main contractors and sub-contractors (the writer of this Quantity Surveyor segment qualified RICS within private practice working on the client's side, then migrated over to work for a large sub-contractor. Such cross-overs are quite common between client's side and contracting). Quantity Surveying offers a great diversity of roles and in career path, working on a variety of projects and within different areas and facets of the construction industry. The qualification of "Chartered Quantity Surveyor" has been superseded as the RICS rules have replaced this with simply "Chartered Surveyor" (except those existing Chartered QS's who registered to keep the Chartered QS title by a date now passed), and Chartered Quantity Surveyor practices have now largely adopted the title of "Construction Cost Consultants" and having the right to call themselves simply "Chartered Surveyors" - though still often referred to in the UK construction industry as "PQS's". It is also possible for Construction Cost Consultant practices to be occasionally employed by local authorities, contractors or subcontractors, on a particular construction project although not if they are already employed as surveyors for the same construction project. A technical is a fighting vehicle. ... GCSE is an acronym that can refer to: General Certificate of Secondary Education global common subexpression elimination - an optimisation technique used by some compilers This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Vocational education prepares learners for certain careers or professions, which are traditionally non-academic and directly related to a trade, occupation or vocation in which the learner participates. ... Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ...


As well as the role of Quantity Surveyor, other professions within the UK construction industry are for example: Architect, Engineer, Project Manager, Planner, Safety Officer. These roles may be in 'Building' (buildings such as Offices, Shopping Centres, Housing); or 'Civil Engineering' (structures such as Bridges, Dams, Motorways/Roads/Highways, Harbours/Ferry Terminals). While projects such as construction of new Power Stations or Naval Bases may comprise a combination of both 'building' and 'civil engineering'.


Graduate roles in the construction industry are filled by people with at least a foundation degree in subjects such as civil engineering, building and construction management. Graduates often receive specialised positions and gain qualifications such as chartered status. The Foundation Degree is a vocational qualification introduced by the UK government in September 2001. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Construction Management refers either to the study and practice of the managerial and technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science, construction management, and construction technology), or to a business model where one party to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction... Alternate use, see charter airline or bare-boat charter. ...


Industrial construction

Industrial construction, though a relatively small part of the entire construction industry, is a very important component. Owners of these projects are usually large, for-profit, industrial corporations. These corporations can be found in such industries as medicine, petroleum, chemical, power generation, manufacturing, etc. Processes in these industries require highly specialized expertise in planning, design, and construction. As in building and heavy/highway construction, this type of construction requires a team of individuals to ensure a successful project.


Design team

A construction crew
A construction crew

In the modern industrialized world, construction usually involves the translation of paper or computer based designs into reality. A formal design team may be assembled to plan the physical proceedings, and to integrate those proceedings with the other parts. The design usually consists of drawings and specifications, usually prepared by a design team including architects, interior designers, surveyors, civil engineers, cost engineers (or quantity surveyors), mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, structural engineers, and fire protection engineers.[1] The design team is most commonly employed by (i.e. in contract with) the property owner. Under this system, once the design is completed by the design team, a number of construction companies or construction management companies may then be asked to make a bid for the work, either based directly on the design, or on the basis of drawings and a bill of quantities provided by a quantity surveyor. Following evaluation of bids, the owner will typically award a contract to the lowest responsible bidder. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 419 KB) Construction Crew File links The following pages link to this file: Construction ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 419 KB) Construction Crew File links The following pages link to this file: Construction ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the machine. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... Specification may refer to several different concepts: Specification (standards) refers to specific standards Specificatio - a legal concept Specification (regression) refers to the practice of translating theory into a regression model Category: ... for building and structual design see; Architect Architects are a metal band from Brighton in southern England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Surveying is concerned with the application of mathematics and physics in obtaining accurate measurements for the determination of the position of points on the Earths surface. ... This is a list of civil engineers, people who were trained in or practiced civil engineering. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. ... structural engineer is an engineering profession who practices structural engineering. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In a formal traditional construction in United Kingdom, a bill of quantities is used as a form of cost planning and mapping to monitor and control the construction cost during the execution or post-contract period of construction. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The modern trend in design is toward integration of previously separated specialties, especially among large firms. In the past, architects, interior designers, engineers, developers, construction managers, and general contractors were more likely to be entirely separate companies, even in the larger firms. Presently, a firm that is nominally an "architecture" or "construction management" firm may have experts from all related fields as employees, or to have an associated company that provides each necessary skill. Thus, each such firm may offer itself as "one-stop shopping" for a construction project, from beginning to end. This is designated as a "design Build" contract where the contractor is given a performance specification, and must undertake the project from design to construction, while adhering to the performance specifications.

Construction of a pre-fab house
Construction of a pre-fab house

Several project structures can assist the owner in this integration, including design-build, partnering, and construction management. In general, each of these project structures allows the owner to integrate the services of architects, interior designers, engineers, and constructors throughout design and construction. In response, many companies are growing beyond traditional offerings of design or construction services alone, and are placing more emphasis on establishing relationships with other necessary participants through the design-build process. Image File history File links Prefabricated_house_construction. ... Image File history File links Prefabricated_house_construction. ...


The increasing complexity of construction projects creates the need for design professionals trained in all phases of the project's life-cycle and develop an appreciation of the building as an advanced technological system requiring close integration of many sub-systems and their individual components, including sustainability. Building engineering is an emerging discipline that attempts to meet this new challenge. // Building engineering: a discipline for the modern era Building engineering, commonly known in the US as architectural engineering, is an emerging engineering discipline that concerns with the planning, design, construction, operation, renovation, and maintenance of buildings, as well as with their impacts on the surrounding environment. ...


Financial advisors

Many construction projects suffer from preventable financial problems. Underbids ask for too little money to complete the project. Cash flow problems exist when the present amount of funding cannot cover the current costs for labor and materials, and because they are a matter of having sufficient funds at a specific time, can arise even when the overall total is enough. Fraud is a problem in many fields, but is notoriously prevalent in the construction field. Financial planning for the project is intended to ensure that a solid plan, with adequate safeguards and contingency plans, is in place before the project is started, and is required to ensure that the plan is properly executed over the life of the project. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Mortgage bankers, accountants, and cost engineers are likely participants in creating an overall plan for the financial management of the building construction project. The presence of the mortgage banker is highly likely even in relatively small projects, since the owner's equity in the property is the most obvious source of funding for a building project. Accountants act to study the expected monetary flow over the life of the project, and to monitor the payouts throughout the process. Cost engineers apply expertise to relate the work and materials involved to a proper valuation. Cost overruns with government projects have occurred when the contractor was able to identify change orders or changes in the project resulting in large increases in cost, which are not subject to competition by other firm as they have already been eliminated from consideration after the initial bid.[2] A mortgage loan is a loan secured by real property through the use of a mortgage (a legal instrument). ... Accountancy (British English) or accounting (American English) is the process of maintaining, auditing, and processing financial information for business purposes. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Accountancy (British English) or accounting (American English) is the process of maintaining, auditing, and processing financial information for business purposes. ... Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ...


Large projects can involve highly complex financial plans. As portions of a project are completed, they may be sold, supplanting one lender or owner for another, while the logistical requirements of having the right trades and materials available for each stage of the building construction project carries forward. In many English speaking countries, but not the United States, projects typically use quantity surveyors.


Legal considerations

The construction of Federation Tower in Moscow, Russia, the tallest building in Europe. Turner construction is the general contractor for the project.
The construction of Federation Tower in Moscow, Russia, the tallest building in Europe. Turner construction is the general contractor for the project.

A construction project must fit into the legal framework governing the property. These include governmental regulations on the use of property, and obligations that are created in the process of construction. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (908x1600, 279 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Construction Federation Tower ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (908x1600, 279 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Construction Federation Tower ... Federation Tower rendering The Federation Tower is a skyscraper complex currently under construction in Moscow, Russia and is designed to be both the tallest building in Europe as well as Europes first supertall building. ... Turner Construction Company is one of the largest construction management companies in the United States. ...


The project must adhere to zoning and building code requirements. Constructing a project that fails to adhere to codes will not benefit the owner. Some legal requirements come from malum in se considerations, or the desire to prevent things that are indisputably bad - bridge collapses or explosions. Other legal requirements come from malum prohibitum considerations, or things that are a matter of custom or expectation, such as isolating businesses to a business district and residences to a residential district. An attorney may seek changes or exemptions in the law governing the land where the building will be built, either by arguing that a rule is inapplicable (the bridge design won't collapse), or that the custom is no longer needed (acceptance of live-work spaces has grown in the community). Malum in se (plural mala in se) is a Latin phrase meaning wrong in itself. ... Malum prohibitum (plural mala prohibita, literal translation: wrong [as or because] prohibited) is a Latin phrase used in law to refer to conduct that constitutes a crime only by virtue of statute, as opposed to conduct evil in and of itself, or malum in se. ...


A construction project is a complex net of contracts and other legal obligations, each of which must be carefully considered. A contract is the exchange of a set of obligations between two or more parties, but it is not so simple a matter as trying to get the other side to agree to as much as possible in exchange for as little as possible. The time element in construction means that a delay costs money, and in cases of bottlenecks, the delay can be extremely expensive. Thus, the contracts must be designed to ensure that each side is capable of performing the obligations set out. Contracts that set out clear expectations and clear paths to accomplishing those expectations are far more likely to result in the project flowing smoothly, whereas poorly drafted contracts lead to confusion and collapse.


Legal advisors in the beginning of a construction project seek to identify ambiguities and other potential sources of trouble in the contract structure, and to present options for preventing problems. Throughout the process of the project, they work to avoid and resolve conflicts that arise. In each case, the lawyer facilitates an exchange of obligations that matches the reality of the project.


Interaction of expertise

Design, finance, and legal aspects overlap and interrelate. The design must be not only structurally sound and appropriate for the use and location, but must also be financially possible to build, and legal to use. The financial structure must accommodate the need for building the design provided, and must pay amounts that are legally owed. The legal structure must integrate the design into the surrounding legal framework, and enforces the financial consequences of the construction process.


History

Main article: History of construction

The first buildings were huts and shelters, constructed by hand or with simple tools. As cities grew during the bronze age, a class of professional craftsmen like bricklayers and carpenters appeared. Occasionally, slaves were used for construction work. In the middle ages, these were organized into guilds. In the 19th century, steam-powered machinery appeared, and later diesel- and electric powered vehicles such as cranes, excavators and bulldozers. Man has constructed buildings and other structures since prehistory. ... A typical jungle hut in Brazilian Amazonia, made of straw and supported by stilts. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Craftsman is an artisan who practices a handicraft or trade; a style of architecture and furniture arising from the Arts and Crafts movement; a military rank within the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, equivalent to a private; and a brand of tools. ... A bricklayer or mason is a tradesman who lays bricks to construct brickwork. ... For other uses, see Carpenter (disambiguation). ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ... Crane or Cranes may refer to any of the following: A crane is a piece of industrial machinery used for hoisting and handling materials, working on tall buildings, excavation with a clam bucket or dragline, pile driving, or loading and unloading cargo/containers onto and off of ships/rail cars. ... A tracked excavator by Daewoo. ... A Caterpillar D10N bulldozer at work A bulldozer is a very powerful crawler (caterpillar tracked tractor) equipped with a blade. ...

See also: History of architecture

The History of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various countries and dates. ...

See also

The churches of Kizhi, Russia are among a handful of World Heritage Sites built entirely of wood, without metal joints.
The churches of Kizhi, Russia are among a handful of World Heritage Sites built entirely of wood, without metal joints.

Image File history File links Wooden_Miracle_Kizhi. ... Image File history File links Wooden_Miracle_Kizhi. ... Wooden miracle in Kizhi. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This article is about building architecture. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... Construction bidding is the process of submitting a proposal to carry out a described residential or commercial construction project for an agreed price. ... A site-safety sign at a highway overpass construction site describing the mandatory safety procedures and equipment. ... Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... Deconstruction of a Building. ... A Abated Acoustics Air conditioning Architectural engineer Architecture Autonomous buildings B Balloon framing Braced wall line (shear walls) Brick Bricklayer brickwork Buckminster Fuller Building code building construction foundations building power systems Building transportation systems C carpentry Chimney cladding Civil engineering Climate control Clerk of the Works Composting toilet Computer-aided... Brickwork Carpentry Cement Mason Cladding Drainage Electrician Elevator Mechanic Firestopping Fireproofing Framing Glazing Heavy Equipment Operator (see: Engineering vehicles) Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning Iron worker Insulation Joinery Masonry Painting and Decorating Plastering Plumbing Roofing Rural building Sealer Steel fixer Stonemason Window installer Common arrangement of work sections (CAWS) Category... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...

References

  1. ^ Holm, Ivar (2006). Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial design: How attitudes, orientations, and underlying assumptions shape the built environment. Oslo School of Architecture and Design. ISBN 8254701741.
  2. ^ http://www.nctimes.com/articles/2007/05/27/news/top_stories/22_07_545_26_07.txt

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Construction
Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Construction at:

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Axiom of constructibility (419 words)
It asserts that V equals L where V is the universe of sets and L is the constructible universe.
The constructible sets are all those formed by certain simple operations on pre-existing sets together with an operation of collecting together all sets formed thus far.
The axiom of constructibility implies the generalized continuum hypothesis and also the axiom of choice.
Axiom of constructibility - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (259 words)
The axiom of constructibility or V=L is a possible axiom for set theory in mathematics.
For example, the axiom of constructibility implies the generalized continuum hypothesis (and also the axiom of choice), the negation of Suslin's hypothesis, and the existence of a simple (Δ
Among set theorists of a realist bent, who believe that the axiom of constructibility is either true or false, most believe that it is false.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m