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Encyclopedia > Constructed language

A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. There are many possible reasons to create a constructed language: to ease human communication (see international auxiliary language and code); to bring fiction or an associated constructed world to life; linguistic experimentation; celebration of one's aesthetic tastes in language; and language games. Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For the topic in theoretical computer science, see Formal grammar Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Communication is a process that allows beings - in particular humans - to exchange information by several methods. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same type. ... An illustration from Lewis Carrolls Alices Adventures in Wonderland, depicting the fictional protagonist, Alice, playing a fantastical game of croquet. ... A rendered conworld, as would be seen from space by an observer. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... An artistic language (artlang) is a constructed language designed for aesthetic pleasure. ... A language game (also called secret language) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear. ...


The synonym planned language is sometimes used to refer to international auxiliary languages, and by those who may disagree with the more common term "artificial". For example, few speakers of the auxiliary language Interlingua consider it artificial, since it has no invented content, unlike Esperanto and to some extent Ido. Some speakers of Esperanto and Ido also avoid the term "artificial language" because they deny that there is something "unnatural" about the use of their language in human communication. An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Interlingua is an international auxiliary language (IAL) published in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). ...   is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ...


Calling languages "planned" also helps to resolve a difficulty with the term "constructed language": it is often used loosely to include a few auxiliary languages that are not seen as constructed. Interlingua, for example, has a naturally occurring vocabulary and grammar that have been catalogued and standardized by a linguistic research body. While standardization might be considered planning of a sort, it is difficult to characterize as constructed a language whose content has developed naturally. The International Auxiliary Language Association that existed from 1924 to 1954 was a notable proponent of international auxiliary languages. ...


Similarly, Latino sine Flexione (LsF) is a simplification of Latin from which the flexions (inflections) have been removed. As with Interlingua, it is difficult to explain how LsF might be viewed as constructed. Both LsF and Interlingua are considered major auxiliary languages, although only Interlingua is widely spoken today. Latino sine flexione (Latin without inflections) is an auxiliary language invented by the mathematician Giuseppe Peano in 1903. ... This article is about inflection in linguistics. ...


Outside the Esperanto community, the term language planning refers to prescriptive measures taken regarding a natural language. In this regard, even "natural languages" may be artificial in some respects. In the case of prescriptive grammars, where wholly artificial rules exist, the line is difficult to draw. For example, the rule in the English language that prohibits a split infinitive is artificial. "Glossopoeia," coined by J. R. R. Tolkien, is also used to refer to language construction. Participants at Esperanto international youth conference The language Esperanto is often used to access an international culture. ... Language planning refers to deliberate efforts to influence the behaviour of others with respect to the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of language. ... In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules of the language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A split infinitive is a grammatical construction in the English language where a word or phrase, usually an adverb or adverbial phrase, occurs between the marker to and the bare infinitive (uninflected) form of a verb. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ...

Contents

Overview

Constructed languages are often divided into a priori languages, in which much of the grammar and vocabulary is created from scratch (using the author's imagination or automatic computational means), and a posteriori languages, where the grammar and vocabulary are derived from one or more natural languages. In the art of language construction, there are two ways to build a usable vocabulary. ... A Posteriori is the title of the musical project Enigmas sixth studio album, released in September 2006. ...


In turn, a posteriori languages are divided into schematic languages, in which a natural or partly natural vocabulary is altered to fit pre-established rules, and naturalistic languages, in which a natural vocabulary retains its normal sound and appearance. While Esperanto is generally considered schematic, Interlingua is viewed as naturalistic. Ido is presented variously as a schematic language or as a compromise between the two types.


Fictional and experimental languages can also be naturalistic in the sense that they are meant to sound natural and, if derived a posteriori, they try to follow natural rules of phonological, lexical and grammatical change. In contrast with Interlingua, these languages are not usually intended for easy learning or communication. Thus, a naturalistic fictional language tends to be more difficult and complex, not less. While Interlingua has a simple grammar, syntax, and orthography, some naturalistic fictional languages try to mimic such behaviours of natural languages as irregular verbs and nouns, complicated phonological rules, and the like. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For the topic in theoretical computer science, see Formal grammar Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ...


In terms of purpose, most constructed languages can broadly be divided as:

  • Engineered languages (engelangs /ˈendʒlæŋz/), further subdivided into philosophical languages, logical languages (loglangs) and experimental languages; devised for the purpose of experimentation in logic, philosophy or linguistics
  • Auxiliary languages (auxlangs) — devised for international communication (also IALs, for International Auxiliary Language)
  • Artistic languages (artlangs) — devised to create aesthetic pleasure or humorous effect

But the boundaries between these categories are by no means clear, and a language devised for more than one purpose could easily fall into more than one, or even all, of the above categories. A logical language created for aesthetic reasons would also be classifiable as an artistic language, which might be created by someone with philosophical motives intending for said conlang to be used as an auxiliary language. There are no rules, either inherent in the process of language construction or externally imposed, that would limit a constructed language to fitting only one of the above categories. It has been suggested that Vorlin be merged into this article or section. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... An artistic language (artlang) is a constructed language designed for aesthetic pleasure. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ...


A constructed language can have native speakers if children learn it at an early age from parents who have learned the language. Esperanto is said to have a considerable number of native speakers, variously placed between 200 and 2000 by advocates of the language as a communication medium. Interlingua and Ido have native speakers as well, although their numbers are currently unknown. A member of the Klingon Language Institute, d'Armond Speers, attempted to raise his son as a native (bilingual with English) Klingon speaker.[1] Evan Robertson, the creator of Mosro [1], successfully taught the language to his four youngest children. Native Esperanto speakers (in Esperanto denaskuloj) come to be in families in which Esperanto (and usually other languages) is spoken. ... First language (native language, mother tongue) is the language a person learns first. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Klingon language (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is the constructed language spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe. ...


But as soon as a constructed language has a number of native speakers, it begins to evolve, and so loses its constructed status over time. For example Modern Hebrew was modeled on Biblical Hebrew rather than engineered from scratch, and has undergone considerable changes since the state of Israel was founded in 1948 (Hetzron 1990:693). “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


Proponents of particular constructed languages often have many reasons for using them. Among these, the famous but disputed Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is sometimes cited; this claims that the language one speaks influences the way in which one thinks. Thus, a "better" language should allow the speaker to reach some elevated level of intelligence, or to encompass more diverse points of view. A constructed language could also by this hypothesis be used to restrict thought, as in George Orwell's Newspeak, or to simplify thought, as in Toki Pona[2]. In contrast, some linguists such as Stephen Pinker argue that ideas exist in the mind in a language-independent format, such that children spontaneously re-invent slang and even grammar with each generation. (See The Language Instinct.) If this argument is true, an attempt to control the range of human thought through language is doomed to failure, as concepts like "freedom" will reappear in new words if the old ones vanish. In linguistics, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... Steven Pinker (born September 18, 1954, in Montreal, Canada) is a psychologist at Harvard University and a writer of popular science books. ... The Language Instinct is a book by Steven Pinker, published in 1995, in which he argues the case for the belief that humans are born with an innate capacity for language. ...


The ISO 639-2 standard reserves the language code "art" to denote artificial languages. However, some constructed languages have their own ISO 639 language codes (e.g. "eo" and "epo" for Esperanto, or "ia" and "ina" for Interlingua and "qny" for Quenya). ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639 is one of several international standards that lists short codes for language names. ... Interlingua is an international auxiliary language (IAL) published in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). ... Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves (the Quendi) the ones who speak. The first-found-children-of-Iluvatar, in the fantasy works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


In the CONLANG Mailing List, a community of conlangers has developed, which has its own customs, such as translation relays (Higley 2000). A conlanger is person who invents conlangs (constructed languages). ...


History

Grammatical speculation is documented from Classical Antiquity, with Plato's Cratylus. However the suggested mechanisms of grammar were designed to explain existing languages (Latin, Greek, Sanskrit), rather than constructing new grammars. Roughly contemporary to Plato, in his descriptive grammar of Sanskrit, Pāṇini constructed a set of rules for explaining language, so that the text of his grammar may be considered a mixture of natural and constructed language. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Cratylus (Κρατυλος) is the name of a dialogue by Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. In the dialogue, Socrates is asked by two men, Cratylus and Hermogenes, to advise them whether names are conventional or natural, that is, whether language is a system of arbitrary signs or whether words have an... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ...


The earliest non-natural languages were not so much considered "constructed" as "super-natural" or mystical. The Lingua Ignota, recorded in the 12th century by St. Hildegard of Bingen is an example of this; apparently it is a form of private mystical cant (see also language of angels). Kabbalistic grammatical speculation was directed at recovering the original language spoken by Adam and Eve in Paradise, lost in the confusion of tongues. The first Christian project for an ideal language is outlined in Dante Alighieri's De vulgari eloquentia, where he searches for the ideal Italian vernacular suited for literature. Ramon Llull's Ars magna was a project of a perfect language with which the infidels could be convinced of the truth of the Christian faith. It was basically an application of combinatorics on a given set of concepts. During the Renaissance, Lullian and Kabbalistic ideas were carried ad absurdum in a magical context, resulting in cryptographic applications. The Voynich manuscript may be an example of this. Hildegards 23 litterae ignotae Lingua Ignota (unknown language) is a language described by the German abbess, visionary, artist, composer, physician, and mystic St Hildegard of Bingen in the 12th century, apparently for mystical purposes. ... Illumination from the Liber Scivias showing Hildegard receiving a vision and dictating to her scribe Hildegard of Bingen (German: Hildegard von Bingen; Latin: Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 – 17 September 1179), also known as Blessed Hildegard and Saint Hildegard, was a German magistra and later, abbess[1]. Hildegard of Bingen was an... Cant is an example of a cryptolect, a characteristic or secret language used only by members of a group, often used to conceal the meaning from those outside the group. ... The language of the gods, or, in monotheism, language of God or language of angels, is the concept of a mystical or divine proto-language, superior to, and predating human speech. ... The tree of life Kabbalah (קבלה Reception, Standard Hebrew Qabbala, Tiberian Hebrew Qabbālāh; also written variously as Cabala, Cabalah, Cabbala, Cabbalah, Kabala, Kabalah, Kabbala, Qabala, Qabalah) is a religious philosophical system claiming an insight into divine nature. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Paradise, Jan Bruegel Paradise is an English word from Persian roots that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. ... A dramatic sight on the topic related to the confusion of tongues, as it may have occurred during the attempt to build Babel, by Gustave Doré. The confusion of tongues (confusio linguarum) is the initial fragmentation of human languages described in the Bible after the collapse of the Tower of... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... De vulgari eloquentia (On Vernacular Speech) is the title of an important essay by Dante Alighieri, written in Latin and initially meant to consist in four books, but aborted after the second. ... Ramon Llull. ... Combinatorics is a branch of pure mathematics concerning the study of discrete (and usually finite) objects. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... In psychology and cognitive science, magical thinking is non-scientific causal reasoning (e. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... The Voynich manuscript is written in an unknown script. ...


Renaissance interest in Ancient Egypt, notably the discovery of the Hieroglyphica of Horapollo, and first encounters with the Chinese script directed efforts towards a perfect language of written characters. Johannes Trithemius, in his works Steganographia and Polygraphia, attempted to show how all languages can be reduced to one. In the 17th century, interest in magical languages was continued by the Rosicrucians and Alchemists (like John Dee). Jakob Boehme in 1623 spoke of a "natural language" (Natursprache) of the senses. Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Horapollo (from Horus Apollo, Ὡραπόλλων) is supposed author of a treatise on Egyptian hieroglyphs, extant in a Greek translation by one Philippus, titled Hieroglyphica, dating to about the 5th century. ... Horapollo (from Horus Apollo, Ὡραπόλλων) is supposed author of a treatise on Egyptian hieroglyphs, extant in a Greek translation by one Philippus, titled Hieroglyphica, dating to about the 5th century. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Polygraphia (1518) — the first printed book on cryptography. ... In psychology and cognitive science, magical thinking is non-scientific causal reasoning (e. ... The Temple of the Rosy Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618 The Rosicrucians are a legendary and secretive order dating from the 15th or 17th century, generally associated with the symbol of the Rose Cross, which is also used in certain rituals of the Freemasons. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... For the American college basketball coach, see John Dee (basketball coach). ... Idealized portrait of Böhmes from Theosophia Revelata (1730) Jakob Böhme (1575–1624) was a Christian mystic born in central Germany, near Görlitz. ...


Musical languages from the Renaissance were tied up with mysticism, magic and alchemy, sometimes also referred to as the language of the birds. The Solresol project of 1817 re-invented the concept in a more pragmatic context. This article needs cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... A language of the birds, a mystical, perfect or divine language, or a mythical or magical language used by birds to communicate with the initiated , is postulated in mythology, medieval literature and occultism. ... Solresol is an artificial language, devised by a Frenchman, Jean François Sudre, beginning in 1817. ...


The 17th century also saw the rise of projects for "philosophical" or "a priori" languages. It was pioneered by Francis Lodwick's A Common Writing (1647) and The Groundwork or Foundation laid (or So Intended) for the Framing of a New Perfect Language and a Universal Common Writing (1652), Sir Thomas Urquhart (Logopandecteision, 1652) George Dalgarno (Ars signorum, 1661) and John Wilkins (Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language, 1668) producing systems of hierarchical classification that were intended to result in both spoken and written expression. Gottfried Leibniz with lingua generalis in 1678 pursued a similar end, aiming at a lexicon of characters upon which the user might perform calculations that would yield true propositions automatically, as a side-effect developing binary calculus. These projects were not only occupied with reducing or modelling grammar, but also with the arrangement of all human knowledge into "characters" or hierarchies, an idea that with the Enlightenment would ultimately lead to the Encyclopédie. Francis Lodwick (or Lodowick) (1619–1694) was a pioneer of a priori languages. ... Thomas Urquhart in a 1641 engraving by George Glover Sir Thomas Urquhart (or Urchard, 1611 - c. ... George Dalgarno (1626-1687) was a Scottish intellectual interested in linguistic problems. ... John Wilkins. ... “Leibniz” redirects here. ... The binary or base-two numeral system is a system for representing numbers in which a radix of two is used; that is, each digit in a binary numeral may have either of two different values. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Leibniz and the encyclopedists realized that it is impossible to organize human knowledge unequivocally in a tree diagram, and consequently to construct an a priori language based on such a classification of concepts. Under the entry Charactère, D'Alembert critically reviewed the projects of philosophical languages of the preceding century. After the Encyclopédie, projects for a priori languages moved more and more to the lunatic fringe. Individual authors, typically unaware of the history of the idea, continued to propose taxonomic philosophical languages until the early 20th century (e.g. Ro), but most recent engineered languages have had more modest goals; some are limited to a specific field, like mathematical formalism or calculus (e.g. Lincos and programming languages), others are designed for eliminating syntactical ambiguity (e.g., Loglan and Lojban) or maximizing conciseness (e.g., Ithkuil, Ygyde). Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de la Tour Jean Le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Ro is an a priori constructed language created by Rev. ... It has been suggested that Vorlin be merged into this article or section. ... Lincos (an abbreviation of the Latin phrase lingua cosmica) is an artificial language first described in 1960 by Dr. Hans Freudenthal and described in his book LINCOS: Design of a Language for Cosmic Intercourse. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Loglan is a constructed language originally designed for linguistic research, particularly for investigating the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. ... Lojban (IPA ) is a constructed human language based on predicate logic. ... Example of Ithkuil script Ithkuil (IÅ£kuîl) is an extremely complicated constructed human language created by American linguist John Quijada from 1978 till 2004. ...


Already in the Encyclopédie attention began to focus on a posteriori auxiliary languages. Joachim Faiguet in the article on Langue already wrote a short proposition of a "laconic" or regularized grammar of French. During the 19th century, a bewildering variety of such International Auxiliary Languages (IALs) were proposed, so that Louis Couturat and Leopold Leau in Histoire de la langue universelle (1903) reviewed 38 projects. Louis Couturat (January 17, 1868 - August 3, 1914) was a French logician, mathematician, philosopher, and linguist. ... Léopold Leau was a respected French mathematician. ...


The first of these that made any international impact was Volapük, proposed in 1879 by Johann Martin Schleyer; within a decade, 283 Volapükist clubs were counted all over the globe. However, this language by its very success lost its unity, and within a few years, fell into obscurity, making way for Esperanto, proposed in 1887 by Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof, the most successful IAL to date. Ido, made public in 1907, was a reform of Esperanto. Finally, Interlingua emerged in 1951, when the International Auxiliary Language Association published its Interlingua-English Dictionary and an accompanying grammar. Volapük is a constructed language, created in 1879–1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany. ... Johann Martin Schleyer Johann Martin Schleyer (July 18, 1831 - August 16, 1912), German Catholic priest who invented the constructed language Volapük. ... Ludvic Lazarus (Ludwik Lejzer, Ludwik Łazarz) Zamenhof (December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was a Polish eye doctor, philologist, and the virtual inventor of Esperanto, the most widely spoken and successful constructed languages designed for international communication among speakers of all languages. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... Interlingua is an international auxiliary language (IAL) published in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). ... The International Auxiliary Language Association that existed from 1924 to 1954 was a notable proponent of international auxiliary languages. ... The Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED), developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) and published by Storm Publishers in 1951, is the first Interlingua dictionary. ...


Loglan (1955) and its descendants constitute a pragmatic return to the aims of the a priori languages, tempered by the requirement of usability of an auxiliary language. Thus far, these modern a priori languages have garnered only small groups of speakers. Loglan is a constructed language originally designed for linguistic research, particularly for investigating the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. ...


Artistic languages, constructed for literary enjoyment or aesthetic reasons without any claim of usefulness, begin to appear in Early Modern literature (in Pantagruel, and in Utopian contexts), but they only seem to gain notability as serious projects from the 20th century. A Princess of Mars by Edgar Rice Burroughs was possibly the first fiction of the 20th century to feature a constructed language. Tolkien was the first to develop a family of related fictional languages and was the first academic to publicly discuss artistic languages, admitting to A Secret Vice of his in 1930 at an Esperanto congress. (Orwell's Newspeak should be considered a parody of an IAL rather than an artistic language proper.) Gargantua and Pantagruel is a connected series of five novels written in the 16th century by François Rabelais. ... Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ... A Princess of Mars is an Edgar Rice Burroughs science fiction novel, the first of his famous Barsoom series. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he also produced works in many genres. ... A Secret Vice is the title of a lecture held by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1930 at an Esperanto congress. ...


By the turn of the 21st century, it had become common for science-fiction and fantasy works set in other worlds to feature constructed languages, or more commonly, an extremely limited but defined vocabulary which suggests the existence of a complete language, and constructed languages are a regular part of the genre, including Star Wars, Star Trek, Stargate SG-1, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, or the Myst series of computer adventure games. The most famous of these examples is the Klingon language from Star Trek, which has a bone-fide vocabulary and a full set of functional grammar rules. Star Wars is an epic space opera saga and a fictional universe initially developed by George Lucas during the 1970s and expanded since that time. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series and media franchise. ... Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ... Milo trying to convince scholars of Atlantis existence. ... Myst (or MYST) is a graphic adventure computer game designed and directed by the brothers Robyn and Rand Miller. ... The Klingon language (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is the constructed language spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe. ...


Collaborative constructed languages

While most constructed languages have been created by a single person, a few are the results of group collaborations; examples are Interlingua, which was developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association, and Lojban, which was developed by a breakaway group of Loglanists. The International Auxiliary Language Association that existed from 1924 to 1954 was a notable proponent of international auxiliary languages. ...


Group collaboration has apparently become more common in recent years, as constructed language designers have started using Internet tools to coordinate design efforts. NGL/Tokcir [3] was an early Internet collaborative engineered language whose designers used a mailing list to discuss and vote on grammatical and lexical design issues. More recently, The Demos IAL Project is developing an international auxiliary language with similar collaborative methods. A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ...


Several artistic languages were developed on different constructed language wikis, usually involving discussion and voting on phonology, grammatical rules and so forth. An interesting variation is the corpus approach, exemplified by Madjal and more recently Kalusa, where contributors simply read the corpus of existing sentences and add their own sentences, perhaps reinforcing existing trends or adding new words and structures. The Kalusa engine adds the ability for visitors to rate sentences as acceptable or unacceptable. There is no explicit statement of grammatical rules or explicit definition of words in this corpus approach; the meaning of words is inferred from their use in various sentences of the corpus, perhaps in different ways by different readers and contributors, and the grammatical rules can be inferred from the structures of the sentences that have been rated highest by the contributors and other visitors. An artistic language (artlang) is a constructed language designed for aesthetic pleasure. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Constructed languages Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... This list of constructed languages is in alphabetical order, and divided into auxiliary, engineered, and artistic languages, and their respective subgenres. ... The idea of a universal language is at least as old as the Biblical story of Babel. ... A conlanger is person who invents conlangs (constructed languages). ... This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages. ... Langmaker is a wiki maintained by Jeffrey Henning and a staff of volunteers that serves largely, but not exclusively, as a database of over 1000 constructed languages, also known as model languages or conlangs. ... The Language Construction Kit is a collection of HTML documents written by Mark Rosenfelder and hosted at Zompist. ... A language game (also called secret language) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear. ... An artificial or constructed script (also conscript or neography) is a new writing system specifically created by an individual or group, rather than having evolved as part of a language or culture like a natural script. ... Essays on Language Design is a series of essays by Rick Morneau on how to create a realistic fictional language, whether for writers, for role-playing, or for personal enjoyment. ... Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language—the source text—and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language—the target text, also called the translation. ... Knowledge representation is an issue that arises in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. ... Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ... In logic and linguistics, a metalanguage is a language used to make statements about other languages (object languages). ... Language planning refers to deliberate efforts to influence the behaviour of others with respect to the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of language. ... Linguistic protectionism is any state policy introduced to protect a given language from the expansion of a stronger language (usually a language with a much greater number of speakers), or against mixing (or deliberate compatibility) with a different dialect or a closely related language. ... This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages. ... The aim of spelling reform is to make spelling easier for learners and users by removing its difficulties. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... The Duden () is a German dictionary, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880. ... The German spelling reform of 1996 (Rechtschreibreform) is based on an international agreement signed in Vienna in July 1996 by the governments of the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein and Switzerland, a quadrilingual country. ... The origin of language (glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history. ... A pidgin is a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups who do not share a common language, in situations such as trade. ... Poto and Cabengo were a pair of identical twin girls (real names Grace and Virginia Kennedy, respectively), who used a secret language up to the age of about 8. ... June and Jennifer Gibbons (born April 11, 1963) were twins born to a military family from Barbados, whose story is a curious case involving psychology and language. ... Tongues redirects here. ... A language of the birds, a mystical, perfect or divine language, or a mythical or magical language used by birds to communicate with the initiated , is postulated in mythology, medieval literature and occultism. ...

References

  • Eco, Umberto (1995). The search for the perfect language. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0631174656
  • Hetrzon, Robert (1990). "Hebrew". In Bernard Comrie (ed.), The World's Major Languages. New York: Oxford UP. ISBN 0-19-506511-5
  • Libert, Alan (2000). A Priori Artificial Languages. Munich: Lincom Europa. ISBN 3-89586-667-9
  1. ^ Gavin Edwards: Babble On Revisited, Wired Magazine, Issue 7.08, August 1999

Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Scholarship
Communities
  • The CONLANG Mailing List — Whence the term "conlang".
  • LiveJournal Conlangs community
  • Zompist Bulletin Board — a highly active online forum devoted to conlangs (and conworlds in general)
  • Conlanger Bulletin Board — A multilingual forum primarily for conlangers
  • #ConLang — The IRC channel #ConLang on EFNet
How to
Directories
Wikis
  • Conlang Wikia — "Conlang Free City"
  • ConlangWiki — a wiki devoted to the topics of ConLangs and ConCultures.
  • FrathWiki
  • KneeQuickie — wiki for conlanging, linguistics, and the ZBB community.
  • IAL Wiki — a wiki for the Auxlang community
  • Unilang.org — a database of language- and linguistic-related information
  • Sigsumeidsi — The Sigsumeidsi Constructed Language (under GFDL).

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The Language Creation Conference (LCC) is a conference about conlanging. ... The Österreichische Nationalbibliothek is the Austrian National Library. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1880 words)
There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but it is often said that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy.
One should be careful about the underlying classification principle for groups of languages which have apparently a geographical name: besides areal linguistic units, the taxa of the genetic classification (language families) are often given names which themselves or parts of which refer to geographical areas.
The usage of this language is mainly either to define which form of magic is wished to be used, or as the main language used by the magical elves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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