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Encyclopedia > Constitutional status of Cornwall
The flag of Cornwall (Kernow)
The flag of Cornwall (Kernow)

The constitutional status of Cornwall, in the southwest of United Kingdom is the subject of ongoing debate. Image File history File links Flag_of_Cornwall. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cornwall. ...


The Parliament and Government of the United Kingdom, as well as local authorities and official agencies and some people in Cornwall, consider Cornwall to be an administrative and ceremonial county of England. Opinion within Cornwall itself is divided. Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The agencies responsible for the government of the United Kingdom consist of a number of ministerial departments (usually headed by a Secretary of State) and non-ministerial departments headed by senior civil servants. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... The traditional counties as usually portrayed. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Cornish nationalists and others consider that Cornwall is legally entitled to greater autonomy. They consider that the United Kingdom is not a homogeneous nation-state, but is instead composed of several Home Nations. Cornish nationalists who assert that Cornwall is, or ought to be, separate from England, do not necessarily mean to advocate separation from the United Kingdom, but merely Cornwall's recognition as a fifth 'home nation'. They also cite laws and constitutional peculiarities related to the Duchy of Cornwall that seem to them to indicate that the territory of Cornwall is not simply an English county. Cornish nationalism is a movement which seeks greater autonomy for the area of Cornwall which advocates assert is not a county of England as is generally regarded, but a separate nation which has never been formally incorporated into England. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Home Nations (often written as the common noun home nations) is a term used to refer to the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — collectively but as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Early relationship between Cornwall and England

Roman Britannia showing those areas under Roman occupation, and the position of Dumnonia
Roman Britannia showing those areas under Roman occupation, and the position of Dumnonia
Boundaries of Cornwall and the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Boundaries of Cornwall and the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
The British Isles c802
The British Isles c802

Download high resolution version (880x1394, 179 KB)Map of Roman Britain from Atlas of European History, Earle W Dowe, London, G Bell & Sons, 1910 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (880x1394, 179 KB)Map of Roman Britain from Atlas of European History, Earle W Dowe, London, G Bell & Sons, 1910 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Dumnonia was a Brythonic kingdom of sub-Roman Britain, located in the south-west peninsula of modern England and covering Cornwall, Devon, most of Somerset and possibly part of Dorset. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 417 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (685 × 985 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Name: Saxon England according to the Saxon Chronicle Cartographer: Unknown Publication date: 1830 Medium: Copper engraved map with recent hand colour Size: 31x22. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 417 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (685 × 985 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Name: Saxon England according to the Saxon Chronicle Cartographer: Unknown Publication date: 1830 Medium: Copper engraved map with recent hand colour Size: 31x22. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1076x1127, 273 KB) Summary Map of the isle Great Britain in the year 802. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1076x1127, 273 KB) Summary Map of the isle Great Britain in the year 802. ...

Pre-Norman conquest

In the earliest known times, Cornwall was part of the kingdom of Dumnonia, and was known as "West Wales" [2][3], to distinguish it from "North Wales" (modern day Wales). The Anglo-Saxon word Walh, which is retained in the last syllable of "Cornwall" meant a "foreigner" [4], or person who did not speak the English tongue, and "Corn", refers to the peninsula on which Cornwall lies. Dumnonia was a Brythonic kingdom of sub-Roman Britain, located in the south-west peninsula of modern England and covering Cornwall, Devon, most of Somerset and possibly part of Dorset. ... This article is about the country. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


Cornwall was first invaded by the Saxon kingdom of Wessex in the 8th or 9th century. By 825, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the "Defnas" (men of Devon) and the "Wealas" (literally foreigners or strangers) fighting each other at the Battle of Galford. References in later manuscripts record charters supposedly issued by Egbert of Wessex (802-39) granting lands in Cornwall at Kilkhampton, Ros, Maker, Pawton, Caellwic and Lawhitton to Sherborne Abbey and to the Bishop of Sherborne, but the charters themselves do not survive and therefore cannot be properly verified.[1] All of the identifiable locations except Pawton are in the far east of Cornwall, so if genuine these references may show the incremental imposition of West Saxon control over its eastern fringes. Such control had certainly been established in places by the later ninth century, as indicated by the will of King Alfred the Great (871-99).[2]. Apart from the reference to Egbert's grant at Pawton there is no indication that English rule extended deep into Cornwall at this stage and the absence of any burhs west of Lydford in the Burghal Hidage suggests that it did not. For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... Events Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... Kilkhampton is a small village and civil parish in North Cornwall. ... Maker is a small village between Cawsand and Rame Head, situated on the Rame Peninsula, in South East Cornwall, England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The extension of English control over the rest of Cornwall seems to have taken place during the tenth century. In 936 the English King Athelstan fixed the boundary between the English and the Cornish as the east bank of the river Tamar; until that time the two peoples had lived together in Exeter as equals.[3]. [4]. Surviving charters issued by the Kings of England Edmund I (939-46), Edgar (959-75), Edward the Martyr (975-8), Aethelred II (978-1016), Edmund II (1016), Cnut (1016-35) and Edward the Confessor (1042-66) record grants of land in Cornwall made by these kings. In contrast to the easterly concentration of the estates held or granted by English kings in the ninth century, the tenth and eleventh-century grants were distributed across the whole of Cornwall. As is usual with charters of this period, the authenticity of some of these documents is open to question, but that of others (eg. Edgar's grant of estates at Tywarnhale and Bosowsa to his thegn Eanulf in 960, Edward the Confessor's grant of estates at Traboe, Trevallack, Grugwith and Trethewey to Bishop Ealdred in 1059) is not in any doubt. Some of these grants include exemptions from obligations to the crown which would otherwise accompany land ownership, while retaining others, including those regarding military service. The attachment of these obligations to the King of England to ownership of land in Cornwall demonstrates that the region was under his direct rule and implies that the legal and administrative relationship between the king and his subjects was the same there as elsewhere in his kingdom.[5][6] Athelstan (c. ... Edmund I (or Eadmund, 921 – May 26, 946), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, or the Just, was King of England from 939 until his death. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ... King Edward the Martyr or Eadweard II (c. ... Ethelred II (c. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Canute II, or Canute the Great, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as Cnut (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store, Danish: Knud den Store) (c. ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Traboe [pronounced tray-bow]is a hamlet within the Lizard Peninsula, Cornwall. ...


In 1051, with the exile of Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his sons and the forfeiture of their earldoms, a man named Odda was appointed earl over a portion of the lands thus vacated: this comprised Dorset, Somerset, Devon and "Wealas".[7] This would seem to denote "West Wales" rather than "North Wales", since modern Wales was governed at this time by Welsh kings rather than English earls, and since Cornwall, unlike Wales, would have formed a continuous bloc with the other territories mentioned. It therefore appears that by this time Cornwall had been incorporated into the English administrative structure as part of Godwin's earldom of Wessex. Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ...


Norman conquest and after

Cornwall was included in the survey, initiated by the first Norman king of England, which became known as the Domesday Book, where it is included as a county of England. A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ...


Henry of Huntingdon, writing in the twelfth century, included Cornwall in his list of counties of England in his History of the English. The Mappa Mundi of 1290 (now in Hereford Cathedral) also shows Cornwall.[5]. The Hereford Mappa Mundi is a T and O map dating to ca. ... The current Hereford Cathedral, located at Hereford in England, United Kingdom, dates from 1079. ...


Henry VIII listed England and Cornwall separately, in the list of his realms given in his Coronation address. Other monarchs did not. Henry VIII's coronation oath refers only to "plebi Anglorum," the people of England (Thomas Rymer, Foedera). The regnal titles of the kings of England typically included claims to France and Ireland but never mention Cornwall which suggests that it was already considered politically and administratively part of England [8] Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


The Italian scholar Polydore Vergil in his 'Anglica Historia', published in 1535 wrote that: Polydore Vergil or Virgil (c. ...

"the whole Countrie of Britain ...is divided into iiii partes; whereof the one is inhabited of Englishmen, the other of Scottes, the third of Wallshemen, [and] the fowerthe of Cornishe people, which all differ emonge them selves, either in tongue, ...in manners, or ells in lawes and ordinaunces." This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ...

Writing in 1616, Arthur Hopton stated:

"England is ...divided into 3 great Provinces, or Countries ...every of them speaking a several and different language, as English, Welsh and Cornish."

During the Tudor period many travellers were clear that the Cornish were commonly regarded as a separate cultural group, from which some modern observers conclude that they were a separate ethnic group. For example Lodovico Falier, an Italian diplomat at the Court of Henry VIII said, "The language of the English, Welsh and Cornish men is so different that they do not understand each other." He went on to give the alleged 'national characteristics' of the three peoples, saying for example "the Cornishman is poor, rough and boorish".


Gaspard de Coligny Chatillon – the French Ambassador in London who wrote saying that England was not a united whole as it "contains Wales and Cornwall, natural enemies of the rest of England, and speaking a different language."


It seems these views remained the same through the 16th century, after the death of Henry's daughter, Elizabeth I, in 1603, the Venetian ambassador wrote that the late queen had ruled over five different 'peoples': "English, Welsh, Cornish, Scottish ...and Irish".


Wales was effectively annexed to the Kingdom of England in the 16th century, but references to 'England' in law were not presumed to include Wales (or indeed Berwick-upon-Tweed) until the Wales and Berwick Act 1746. Certainly by this time the use of "England and Cornwall" had ceased. The reason that this distinction was abandoned is not clear as there is no, later, recorded annexation of Cornwall or act of union with England. Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 was an act of Parliament explicitly expressing that all future laws applying to England would likewise also be applicable to Wales and Berwick unless the body of the law explicitly stated otherwise. ...


Extracted from a commission of the first Duke of Cornwall:

"25 Edw. III to "John Dabernoun, our Steward and Sheriff of Cornwall greeting. On account of certain escheats we command you that you inquire by all the means in your power how much land and rents, goods and chattels, whom and in whom, and of what value they which those persons of Cornwall and England have, whose names we send in a schedule enclosed......"

Many maps of the isles prior to the 17th century showed Cornwall (Cornubia / Cornwallia) as a nation on a par with Wales: example include the maps of Gerardus Mercator (1564),[6] Sebastian Munster (1515),[7][8] Abraham Ortelius,[9] and Girolamo Ruscelli.[10] Maps that depict Cornwall as a county of the Kingdom of England and Wales include a 1579 map authorised by Queen Elizabeth I.[11] This article is about the country. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ... Portrait of Sebastian Münster by Christoph Amberger, c. ... Abraham Ortelius. ... Girolamo Ruscelli (ca. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ...


The Orbilius map of 1595 displays Cornwall but his hardly means it is a separate political and administrative entity as the same map also displays Kent. Maps of Britian which display Cornwall usually in their legends do not refer to Cornwall, eg Lily 1548. This suggests that caution is needed in interpreting the status of places on maps.


Some would point to the lack of any formal union between England and Cornwall as evidence that Cornwall was already recognized as de facto a part of England.


In 1769 The Antiquarian, William Borlase wrote that,

"Of this time we are to understand what Edward I. says (Sheringham. p. 129.) that Britain, Wales, and Cornwall, were the portion of Belinus, elder son of Dunwallo, and that that part of the Island, afterwards called England, was divided in three shares, viz. Britain, which reached from the Tweed, Westward, as far as the river Ex; Wales inclosed by the rivers Severn, and Dee; and Cornwall from the river Ex to the Land's-End". Belinus the Great was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... There are other rivers with this name: see Tweed River The River Tweed at Abbotsford, near Melrose The River Tweed at Coldstream The River Tweed (156 kilometres or 97 miles long) flows primarily through the Borders region of Scotland. ... The River Exe rises on Exmoor in Devon, near the north (Bristol Channel) coast of the county, but flows more or less directly due south and reaches the sea at a substantial ria on the south (English Channel) coast. ... “Severn” redirects here. ... For other Rivers Dee in the UK, see River Dee. ... Lands End shown within Cornwall Lands End, the most westerly point in England The wreck of the RMS Mülheim at Lands End, 2003 This article is about the location at the western tip of Cornwall. ...

The 18th century writer, Richard Gough, noted this Cornish paradox by writing "Cornwall seems to be another Kingdom", in his Brittania (4 vols; London, 1806). Richard Gough (October 21, 1735 - February 20, 1809) was an English antiquarian, born in London. ...


During the eighteenth century, Samuel Johnson created a Cornish declaration of independence that he used in his essay Taxation no Tyranny [9] (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ...

"We are the acknowledged descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Britain, of men, who, before the time of history, took possession of the island desolate and waste, and, therefore, open to the first occupants. Of this descent, our language is a sufficient proof, which, not quite a century ago, was different from yours."

Cornish "shires"

Hundreds of Cornwall in the early 19th century, (formerly known as Cornish Shires)
Hundreds of Cornwall in the early 19th century, (formerly known as Cornish Shires)

Image File history File links Kernow_Hundreds. ... Image File history File links Kernow_Hundreds. ... Hundreds of Cornwall in the early 19th century, (formerly known as Cornish Shires). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Status quo: the County of Cornwall

Current constitution status

Regardless of the question of whether Cornwall constitutes one of the historic counties of England, an administrative county of Cornwall was set up by the Local Government Act 1888, which came into effect on April 1, 1889. This was replaced by a non-metropolitan county of Cornwall in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, which includes it under the heading of "England". The Duke of Cornwall is still granted many unique statutory "privileges, exemptions, powers, rights and authority" in the Cornwall (Tamar Bridge) Act 1998, s.41, and other Acts. In addition the Treasury Solicitors agency for Bona Vicantia Division considers The Duchy of Cornwall to comprise the County of Cornwall[10]. The historic counties of England are ancient subdivisions of England. ... The division into counties is one of the larger divisions of England. ... The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A shire county or non-metropolitan county in England, is a county level entity which is not a metropolitan county. ... The Local Government Act 1972 (1972 c. ...


The argument for English county status

The English parliament in front of Edward I c.1300. Wales was represented in the parliament from 1536 to 1707.
The English parliament in front of Edward I c.1300. Wales was represented in the parliament from 1536 to 1707.
Supporters of English status coinsider Cornwall part of South West England (in red)

Some people reject all claims that Cornwall is, or ought to be, distinct from England [citation needed]. While recognising that there are local peculiarisms, they point out that Yorkshire, Kent, and Cheshire (for example) also have local customs and identities that do not seem to undermine their essential Englishness. The legal claims concerning the Duchy, they argue, are without merit except as relics of mediaeval feudalism, and they contend that Stannary law applied not to Cornwall as a 'nation', but merely to the guild of tin miners. Rather, they argue that Cornwall has been not only in English possession, but part of England itself, either since Athelstan conquered it in 936, since the administrative centralisation of the Tudor dynasty, or since the creation of Cornwall County Council in 1888. Finally, they agree with representatives of the Duchy itself that the Duchy is, in essence, a real estate company that serves to raise income for the Prince of Wales. They compare the situation of the Duchy of Cornwall with that of the Duchy of Lancaster, which has similar rights in Lancashire, which is indisputably part of England. The proponents of such perspectives include not only Unionists, but most branches and agencies of government. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (437x668, 354 KB) Summary Image source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (437x668, 354 KB) Summary Image source: http://www. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Image File history File links EnglandSouthWest. ... Image File history File links EnglandSouthWest. ... South West England is one of the regions of England. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Cheshire (or, archaically, the County of Chester)[1] is a county in North West England. ... Athelstan (c. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... Motto: Onan hag oll (Cornish: One and all) Cornwall, England Geography Status Ceremonial and (smaller) Non-metropolitan county Region South West England Area - Total - Admin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...


Below are some indications that Cornwall for more than the last thousand years has been governed as an integral part of England and in a way indistinguishable from other parts of England:

  • It has been argued that Cornwall was absorbed into England rather than conquered. [11]
  • Several English charters dating from before 1066 show the king of England exercising effective power in Cornwall as in any other part of England. For example, in 960 King Eadgar gave land in "Tiwaernhel" to one of his thanes (Sawyer charters, #684).
  • From the mid-ninth century the Cornish Church acknowledged the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and in the 10th century the English king Athelstan created a diocese of Cornwall centred on St Germans. In 1050, King Eadward subsumed the diocese of Cornwall under that of Exeter (Sawyer 1021).
  • In 1051, Cornwall appears among the territories granted as an earldom to Earl Odda after the forfeiture of the earldoms of Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his sons, suggesting that Cornwall had by then been integrated into the normal English system of local government as part of the earldom of Wessex.
  • The records of the medieval eyres, the court sessions of the king’s itinerant judges. Maitland FW (1888) Select pleas of the crown prints examples from Cornwall. The eyre records show Cornwall and England with common judicial arrangements from the police duties of tithings at the lowest level of administration to the highest itinerant courts.
  • The Patent Rolls which inter alia record the King and his council governing Cornwall after the creation of the Dukedom in 1337. Examples are the King granting licences to trade to people in Cornwall in 1364, the Duke of Cornwall complaining in 1371 to the King's Council about offences by some local men in Cornwall, and in 1380 the King's Council ordering the Sheriff of Cornwall to arrest and imprison an offender.
  • Cornwall sent members to the Parliament of England from the late thirteenth century when that parliament originated.
  • Medieval taxes such as the Papal 1291 taxation and the 1377 poll tax.
  • The subsidies/taxes and musters of the Tudor period.
  • The grants of fairs and markets in Cornwall by the king; for example, Penzance in 1406.

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Athelstan redirects here. ... St Germans priory. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The Patent Rolls (Calendarium Rotulorum Patentium, Rotuli litterarum patentium) are primary sources for English history, a record of the King of Englands correspondence, starting in 1202. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, especially in a monarchy. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ...

The argument for non-English status

A line drawing of the Domesday Book. Notably, large swathes of northern England, Winchester and London do not appear in it, but Cornwall does
A line drawing of the Domesday Book. Notably, large swathes of northern England, Winchester and London do not appear in it, but Cornwall does

It is generally considered that Cornwall came under the dominion of the English Crown in the time of Athelstan's rule, i.e. 924-939, if the English crown as such can be said to have actually existed at that time. In the absence of any specific documentation to record this event, supporters of Cornwall's "English status" presume that it was made a part of England as a result. However, within a mere five years of Athelstan's death, King Edmund issued a charter, in AD 944, styling himself "King of the English and ruler of this province of the Britons". Thus we can see that the "province" was a territorial possession, which has long had a special relationship to the British Crown, and its preceding institutions. The word province has been interpreted as referring to a church diocese rather than a political entity. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (633x609, 83 KB) I doctored the wiki Image:Cnut 1014 1035. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (633x609, 83 KB) I doctored the wiki Image:Cnut 1014 1035. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1804x972, 296 KB) The Domesday Book from Andrews, William: “Historic Byways and Highways of Old England” (1900)[1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Domesday Book User... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1804x972, 296 KB) The Domesday Book from Andrews, William: “Historic Byways and Highways of Old England” (1900)[1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Domesday Book User... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Athelstan redirects here. ... Edmund I (or Eadmund, 921 – May 26, 946), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, or the Just, was King of England from 939 until his death. ...


When the Domesday Survey was initiated, by William, in 1086, men were sent to "each shire" in his new Kingdom. This has to be seen within the context of matters of land, property and taxation. A shire, coming under the jurisdiction of the sheriff, is known alternatively as sheriffdom, shrievalty, or vicecomitatus and equates to the modern meaning of the word county. A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... William I of England (c. ... A shire is an administrative area of Great Britain and Australia. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sherrifdom is a judicial district in Scotland. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ...


Whether it was held by the Crown or granted to family or favourites, the Earldom (or County) of Cornwall (Comitatus Cornubiǽ) included all territorial revenues, rights and property which were held "as of the Honor" . When held by the Crown, it was held not jure coronǽ but jure Comitatus - or jure Ducatus, when augmented to a Duchy - as of the Honor in manu Regis existente, and did not merge into the Crown.


When Earl Edmund died, circa AD 1300, the Earldom of Cornwall passed to King Edward I - his next heir and cousin - and not as some helpless escheat. In 1337, Edward III augmented the Earldom to a Duchy. Commonly perceived to have been created by a charter dated the 17th of March 1337, although that charter refers to something that has already taken place, it can be shown that there was an Act of Parliament at a date prior to the 16th March 1337. This Act of Parliament is recited during the time that Henry V annexed substituted manors (see Rolls of Parliament 9 Henry V) to the Duchy following that King's disannexing the Manor of Isleworth from the Duchy and re-granting to St Savior's Abbey two years previously. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... The Rolls of Parliament were the official records of the English Parliament. ...

“That at the Parliament held at Westminster the Monday next after the Feast of St. Matthias the Apostle in the 11th year of the reign of King Edw. III., amongst other things it was agreed that the eldest sons of the Kings of England, scilicet those who should be next heirs to the Realm of England, should be Dukes of Cornwall, and that the County of Cornwall should always remain as a Duchy to the eldest sons of the Kings of England, who should be next heirs to the said Realm without being given elsewhere."

A following charter, of 17th March 1337, enumerated what comprised the Duchy of Cornwall. The principal items enumerated were the vicecomitatus and the customary right to make and appoint the sheriff. This formally represented that entity which is today referred to as "the county" and conclusively shows that this properly exists within the Duchy of Cornwall. Also indicative is the observation by John Norden within his "Topographical and Historical Survey of Cornwall" (1650, a narrative addressed to the King), namely:

"Before Cornwall was made a Dukedome, and vnited vnder the Principallitye of Wales, which was in the time of kinge Edw. the 3..."

When the first Duke of Cornwall came of age in 1351, one of his first official acts was to carry out his own form of Domesday survey (Commission 25 Edward III). This has already been referred to above and confirms that Cornwall was not in England, when the Duke refers to his tenants and property as being in Cornwall and England. This implies Cornwall was at that time a distinct non-English territory, a province of the Britons, with people and rights. To dismiss this as a relic of mediaeval feudalism, as stated above, may be construed [citation needed] as seriously misrepresenting the rights of Cornwall and its people to be seen as one of the constituent British nations. The flag of Cornwall (Kernow) The constitutional status of Cornwall, in the southwest of United Kingdom is the subject of ongoing debate. ... The flag of Cornwall (Kernow) The constitutional status of Cornwall, in the southwest of United Kingdom is the subject of ongoing debate. ...


Moves for recognition of legal autonomy

The Duchy of Cornwall

Main article: Duchy of Cornwall
The banner of the Duchy of Cornwall.
The banner of the Duchy of Cornwall.
The arms of the Duchy of Cornwall.

The Earldom of Cornwall was made a Duchy in 1337, the Duke obtaining greater rights over Cornwall than the Earls had previously exercised. These increased powers over Cornwall included the right to appoint Sheriffs, bona vacantia, treasure trove, a separate exchequer, and such forth. Most of these rights are still exercised by the Duchy. The Kilbrandon Report (1969–1971) into the British constitution recommends that, when referring to Cornwall, official sources should cite the Duchy not the County. This was suggested in recognition of its constitutional position. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Duke_of_Cornwall. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Duke_of_Cornwall. ... Image File history File links Duchy_of_Cornwall-coa. ... Image File history File links Duchy_of_Cornwall-coa. ... The High Sheriff is, or was, a law enforcement position in Anglosphere countries. ... Bona vacantia (Latin for vacant goods) is a common law doctrine in the United Kingdom under which ownerless property passes by law to the Crown. ... A treasure-trove is gold, silver, gems, money, jewellery, etc found hidden under ground or in cellar or attics, etc. ... The Royal Commission on the Constitution, also referred to as the Kilbrandon Commission (initially the Crowther Commission) or Kilbrandon Report, was a long-running royal commission set up by Harold Wilsons Labour government to examine the structures of the constitution of the United Kingdom and the British Islands and... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...


In 1780 Edmund Burke sought to curtail further the power of the Crown by removing the various principalities which existed. Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ...

the five several distinct principalities besides the supreme …. If you travel beyond Mount Edgcumbe, you find him [the king] in his incognito, and he is duke of Cornwall …. Thus every one of these principalities has the apparatus of a kingdom …. Cornwall is the best of them….

Many Cornish people, including Cornish Solidarity and the group claiming to be the Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament, argue that Cornwall has a de jure status apart as a sovereign Duchy extraterritorial to England. A commonly cited basis for this argument is a case of arbitration between the Crown and the Duchy of Cornwall (1856 - 1857) in which the Officers of the Duchy successfully argued that the Duchy enjoyed many of the rights and prerogatives of a County palatine and that although the duke was not granted Royal Jurisdiction, was considered to be quasi-sovereign within his Duchy of Cornwall. The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... Cornish Solidarity (Unvereth Kernewek in Cornish) is a cross party organisation that is fighting for Cornish Rights including the recognition of the ethnic Cornish as a national minority and for more Cornish autonomy in the form of a Cornish Assembly. ... The Cornish Stannary Parliament is a human rights pressure group which claims to be a revived Cornish Stannary Parliament. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A County palatine is an area ruled by an count palatine (or earl palatine); with special authority and autonomy from the rest of the kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The arbitration, as instructed by the Crown, was based on legal argument and documentation, led to the Cornwall Submarine Mines Act of 1858. The Officers of the Duchy, based on its researches, made this submission:

  1. That Cornwall, like Wales, was at the time of the Conquest, and was subsequently treated in many respects as distinct from England.
  2. That it was held by the Earls of Cornwall with the rights and prerogative of a County Palatine, as far as regarded the Seignory or territorial dominion.
  3. That the Dukes of Cornwall have from the creation of the Duchy enjoyed the rights and prerogatives of a County Palatine, as far as regarded seignory or territorial dominion, and that to a great extent by Earls.
  4. That when the Earldom was augmented into a Duchy, the circumstances attending to its creation, as well as the language of the Duchy Charter, not only support and confirm natural presumption, that the new and higher title was to be accompanied with at least as great dignity, power, and prerogative as the Earls enjoyed, but also afforded evidence that the Duchy was to be invested with still more extensive rights and privileges.
  5. The Duchy Charters have always been construed and treated, not merely by the Courts of Judicature, but also by the Legislature of the Country, as having vested in the Dukes of Cornwall the whole territorial interest and dominion of the Crown in and over the entire County of Cornwall.

However, the term 'county palatine' appears not to have been used historically of Cornwall, and the duchy did not have as much autonomy as the County Palatine of Durham, which was ruled by the Prince-Bishop of Durham. However, whilst not specifically called a county palatine, the Officers of the Duchy made the observation (Duchy Preliminary Statement - Cornish Foreshore Dispute 1856): A County palatine is an area ruled by an count palatine (or earl palatine); with special authority and autonomy from the rest of the kingdom. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ...

"The Dukes also had their own escheators in Cornwall, and it is deserving of notice that in the saving clause of the Act of Escheators, 1 Henry VIII., c. 8, s. 5 (as is the case in numerous other acts of Parliament), the Duchy of Cornwall is classed with counties undoubtedly palatinate."

It should be noted that the Duke's lesser title was that of Earl of Chester, which Earldom was, in fact, classed as a county palatine. A further area for analysis to clarify this apparent anomalous palatine status for Cornwall, would be to consider the effect of Cornwall being extra-territorial to England. Therefore a foreign Dominion territory of the Crown that does not merge into the Crown in the absence of a Duke, or formerly, an Earl.


Cornish activists point out the use of the Duchy name, and its expansion to provide an income for the Heir Apparent, does not affect the ancient rights of Cornwall (which may on occasion be ignored in the interests of the Duchy). [citation needed]


The Stannaries and their revival

Detailed article: Stannary Courts and Parliaments and Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament The Stannary Parliaments and Stannary Courts were legislative and legal institutions in Cornwall and in Devon in the Dartmoor area. ... The Cornish Stannary Parliament is a human rights pressure group which claims to be a revived Cornish Stannary Parliament. ...


Since 1974, a group has claimed to be a revived Cornish Stannary Parliament and have the ancient right of Cornish tin-miners' assemblies to veto legislation from Westminster. In 1977 the Plaid Cymru MP Dafydd Wigley in Parliament asked the Attorney General for England and Wales if he would provide the date upon which enactments of the Charter of Pardon of 1508 were rescinded. The reply, received on 14 May 1977 and now held at the National Library of Wales, stated that a Stannator's right to veto Westminster legislation had never been formally withdrawn.[12][13] The Stannary Parliaments and Stannary Courts were legislative and legal institutions in Cornwall and in Devon in the Dartmoor area. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... Dafydd Wigley The Right Honourable Dafydd Wigley (born April 1, 1943) is a Welsh politician. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The front of the building The National Library of Wales (Welsh: Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru) is the national legal deposit library of Wales, located in Aberystwyth. ...


Moves for a change of constitutional status

The Modern Celtic nations as recognised by the Celtic League and the Celtic Congress. Key - Blue: Scotland, Green: Ireland, Red: Isle of Man, Yellow: Wales, Brown: Cornwall, Magenta: Brittany
The Modern Celtic nations as recognised by the Celtic League and the Celtic Congress. Key - Blue: Scotland, Green: Ireland, Red: Isle of Man, Yellow: Wales, Brown: Cornwall, Magenta: Brittany

Image File history File links Celtic_Nations. ... Image File history File links Celtic_Nations. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... The Celtic League is a political and cultural organisation in the modern Celtic nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... The International Celtic Congress is a cultural organisation that seeks to promote the Celtic languagues of the nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...

Campaigns for fuller regional autonomy

In contrast to the arguments that Cornwall is already de jure autonomous, thanks to the Duchy and Stannary parliament, various ongoing political movements are seeking to change Cornwall's constitutional status. Mebyon Kernow, for example, has for many years sought for Cornwall the position of a first-order (NUTS 1) EU region, which would put Cornwall on the same statistical level as Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Regions of England. Mebyon Kernow (Cornish for Sons of Cornwall, often abbrieviated MK) is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... This article is on the political entity. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ...


In the same vein, the Cornish Constitutional Convention — composed of many political groups in Cornwall (including Mebyon Kernow) — gathered about 50,000 signatures in 2000 on a petition to create a Cornish Assembly resembling the National Assembly for Wales. The petition was undertaken in the context of an ongoing debate on whether to devolve power to the English regions, of which Cornwall is currently part of the South West. Cornwall Council's Feb 2003 MORI poll showed 55% in favour of an elected, fully-devolved regional assembly for Cornwall and 13% against. (Previous result :46% in favour in 2002).[14] The campaign has the support of all five Cornish Lib Dem MPs, Mebyon Kernow, and Cornwall Council. Lord Whitty, as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions, in the House of Lords, recognised that Cornwall has a "special case" for devolution.[15] and on a visit to Cornwall deputy Prime Minister John Prescott said "Cornwall has the strongest regional identity in the UK." Flag of Cornwall // Overview In July 2000 Mebyon Kernow launched the Declaration for a Cornish Assembly campaign which some three months later led to the creation of The Cornish Constitutional Convention with the objective of establishing a devolved Assembly for Cornwall. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... South West England is one of the regions of England. ... Mori (森) is a Japanese family name. ... Mebyon Kernow (Cornish for Sons of Cornwall, often abbrieviated MK) is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... John Lawrence Larry Whitty, Lord Whitty of Camberwell (born 15 June 1943) is a British Labour Party politician. ... The Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions was a UK Cabinet position created in 1997, with responsibility for the Department for Environment, Transport and the Regions. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Cornish cultural, civic and ethnic nationalism

For further information on these topics, see Cornish people, Culture of Cornwall, Cornwall, Cornish nationalism, Cornish language, etc. The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... Cornwall, in the United Kingdom, though administratively part of England, has many cultural differences from the culture of England. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Cornish nationalism is a movement which seeks greater autonomy for the area of Cornwall which advocates assert is not a county of England as is generally regarded, but a separate nation which has never been formally incorporated into England. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ...


Some Cornish people will, in addition to making the legal or constitutional arguments mentioned above, stress that the Cornish are a distinct ethnic group, that people in Cornwall typically refer to 'England' as beginning east of the Tamar, and that there is a Cornish language. For the first time in a UK Census, those wishing to describe their ethnicity as Cornish were given their own code number (06) on the 2001 UK Census form, alongside those for people wishing to describe themselves as English, Welsh, Irish or Scottish. About 34,000 people in Cornwall and 3,500 people in the rest of the UK wrote on their census forms in 2001 that they considered their ethnic group to be Cornish. This represented nearly 7% of the population of Cornwall [16] Although happy with this development, campaigners expressed reservations about the lack of publicity surrounding the issue, the lack of a clear tick-box for the Cornish option on the census and the need to deny being British in order to write "Cornish" in the field provided. There have been calls for the tick box option to be extended to the Cornish[17] for the 2011 Census,[18] as a Welsh and English tick box option was recently agreed by the government.[19] The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... The Tamar is a river in south western England, that forms most of the border between Devon (to the east) and Cornwall (to the west). ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ...


Truro loving cup event

In 2007 there was some controversy when the mayor of Truro, Peter Lang, accepted an invitation for a visit from the "St George's Day Loving Cup" event, organised by Celebrate St George's Day. The event was described as "A Tour of English Cities" to celebrate St George's day in each "English" city. Cornish nationalist organisations, including the Cornish Stannary Parliament and the Celtic League, complained that this was an insult to the Cornish people as they said that Truro was not an "English" city, but a Cornish city. They stressed that the event was not visiting any other Celtic cities in Wales or Scotland so therefore it was unacceptable that the event should be held in Cornwall."[20][21] Truro (pronounced ; Cornish: Truru) is a city in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ... The Stannary Parliaments and Stannary Courts were legislative and legal institutions in Cornwall and in Devon in the Dartmoor area. ... The Celtic League can refer to either: A league of professional Rugby Union clubs involving teams from Ireland, Scotland and Wales. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European people. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ...


About forty protesters attended the rally against the loving cup on its arrival in Truro.


See also

This is a list of topics related to Cornwall, UK. The Cornwall category contains a more comprehensive selection of Cornish articles. ...

External links

  • The Cornish Stannary Parliament
  • Maps of Cornwall on the BBC
  • What makes Cornwall unique? an article from Cornish World, many interesting legal facts
  • Celtic Frontier or County Boundary? Competing discourses of a late nineteenth century British border
  • The Cornish Stannary Parliament
  • Mebyon Kernow
  • The Cornish Assembly - Senedh Kernow
  • The Simpsons & Cornwall episode
  • Tyr Gwyr Gweryn - A radical look at factors affecting perceptions of Cornwall
  • The Cornwall Tapes
  • Celtic League
  • The Federal Union of European Nationalities
  • This is not Cornwall
  • The Cornish National Minority
  • Map of Cornwall (Kernow)
  • The Cornish: A Neglected Nation?
  • 44% Claim to be Cornish by Morgan Stanley survey

References

  1. ^ Della Hooke, Pre-Conquest Charter Bounds of Devon and Cornwall, Boydell, Woodbridge 1994, pp. 16-7
  2. ^ Simon Keynes and Michael Lapidge (tr.), Alfred the Great - Asser's Life of King Alfred and other contemporary sources, London, Penguin, 1983, pp. 61, 175-6, 193-4; cf. ibid, p. 89.
  3. ^ William of Malmesbury - Gesta regum Anglorum about 1120
  4. ^ Professor Philip Payton - Cornwall 1996 p82
  5. ^ English Historical Documents, vol. 2 (c500-1042), ed. Dorothy Whitelock, 2nd edition, Methuen, London 1979, pp. 566-7, 597-9 (nos. 115, 131)
  6. ^ Della Hooke, Pre-Conquest Charter Bounds of Devon and Cornwall, Boydell, Woodbridge 1994, pp. 16-69
  7. ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, tr. Michael Swanton (2nd ed.), London, Phoenix Press, 2000, p. 177
  8. ^ www.worldststesmen.org/United_Kingdom.html
  9. ^ TAXATION NO TYRANNY by Samuel Johnson, From The Works of Samuel Johnson published by Pafraets & Company, Troy, New York (1913). Retrieved 15 July 2006.
  10. ^ Bona Vacantia - See Jusrisdiction
  11. ^ Hastings, Adrian (1997) The construction of nationhood: ethnicity, religion, and nationalism (Cambridge)
  12. ^ 1977 - The Stannators right to veto Westminster legislation is confirmed by Parliament
  13. ^ Dafydd Wigley's question (on behalf of Mebyon Kernow) is contained in Hansard vol 931 No. 97 p.115 3rd May 1977 (parliamentary question no. 125). The written reply on 14th May 1977 from the Lord Chancellor ref. 3039/39 was deposited at the National Library of Wales by Dafydd Wigley.
  14. ^ Give Cornwall what it wants. [1]
  15. ^ House of Lords debates, Wednesday, 21 March 2001, "Devolution: England" transcript of speech
  16. ^ Cornish ethnicity data from the 2001 Census
  17. ^ Cornish demand 2011 Census tick box option
  18. ^ FIGHT GOES ON TO INCLUDE CORNISH ETHNICITY AND LANGUAGE IN CENSUS OPTIONS
  19. ^ Mebyon Kernow support the campaign for a Cornish tick-box on 2011 census
  20. ^ Celtic League - St George celebrations inappropriate in Kernow
  21. ^ Kernow Protest as Truro labelled "English" city

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cornwall: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (4946 words)
Cornwall (Cornish: Kernow) is a county in South West England on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar.
Cornwall is one of the six historic "Celtic nations" and some people question the present constitutional status of Cornwall, choosing to refer to it as a Duchy which is separate from England.
The remainder of the centre and south of Cornwall is comprised mainly of Devonian sandstone and slate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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