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Encyclopedia > Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a constitution and is the sole source of political power. (The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy even though it does not have an actual written constitution.) The process of government and law within a constitutional monarchy is usually very different from that in an absolute monarchy. Anarchist redirects here. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Corporatocracy (sometimes corporocracy) is a neologism coined by proponents of the Global Justice Movement to describe a government bowing to pressure from corporate entities. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ... Kritarchy is a form of government ruled by judges and is based on natural rights. ... A Krytocracy is a government ruled by judges. ... In civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism or small government, is the view that the size, role and influence of government in a free society should be minimal — only large enough to protect the liberty and property of each individual. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people, or the intimidation of constitutional authorities. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cybernetic revolt. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Classical republic. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional republic is a state where the head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the governments power over citizens. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... A Capitalist Republic is the name for a Federal Republic with a Capitalist or Private Capital economic system that has a major outcome on elections or selections of major political leaders. ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... This article pertains to technocracy as a bureaucratic structure. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Theonomy The word theonomy derives from the Greek words “theos” God, and “nomos” law. ... Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either: a state where only property owners may participate in government; or a government where rulers are selected and perpetuated based on the degree of honour they hold relative to others in their society, peers and the ruling class. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ...


Most constitutional monarchies take on a parliamentary form, like the United Kingdom, Canada or Japan, where the monarch may be regarded as the head of state but the prime minister, whose power derives directly or indirectly from elections, is head of government. The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ...


Although current constitutional monarchies are mostly representative democracies (called constitutional democratic monarchies[citation needed]), this has not always historically been the case. There have been monarchies which have coexisted with constitutions which were fascist (or quasi-fascist), as was the case in Italy, Japan and Spain, or with military dictatorships, as was recently the case in Thailand. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ...

Contents

Differences between constitutional and absolute monarchies

Constitutional monarchy in the European tradition

An independent development of constitutional monarchy occurred on the continent of Europe in the years following the French revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte is considered the first monarch to proclaim himself the embodiment of a nation, rather than a divinely appointed ruler, and this view of monarchy became the basis of continental constitutional monarchies. G.W.F. Hegel, in his Philosophy of Right (1820) gave it a philosophical justification that accorded well with evolving political theory and with Protestant Christian views of natural law. Hegel's forecast of a constitutional monarch with very limited powers, whose function is to embody the national character and to provide constitutional continuity in times of emergency, has been borne out by the development of constitutional monarchies in Europe and Japan. The largely ceremonial office of president, in some modern parliamentary democracies in Europe, Israel and other nations, can be viewed as a form of elected or appointed version of Hegel's constitutional monarch, and his forecast of the form of government suitable to the modern world may be seen as prophetic. The Russian and French Presidents, with their stronger powers, may also be seen as justified in Hegelian terms as wielding the powers suitable to the embodiment of the national will. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Modern constitutional monarchy

As originally conceived, a constitutional monarch was quite a powerful figure, head of the executive branch even though his or her power was limited by the constitution and the elected parliament. Some of the framers of the US Constitution may have conceived of the president as a being an elected constitutional monarch, as the term was understood in their time, following Montesquieu's somewhat dated account of the separation of powers in the United Kingdom [1]; although the term "president" at that time implied someone with the powers of the chairman of a committee of equals, like the rotating "president" of the congress under the Articles of Confederation. The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ...


An evolution in political thinking would, however, eventually spawn such phenomena as universal suffrage and political parties. By the mid 20th century, the political culture in Europe had shifted to the point where most constitutional monarchs had been reduced to the status of figureheads, with no effective power at all. Instead, it was the democratically elected parliaments, and their leader, the prime minister who had become those who exercised power. In many cases even the monarchs themselves, while still at the very top of the political and social hierarchy, were given the status of "servants of the people" to reflect the new, egalitarian view. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... In politics, a figurehead, by metaphor with the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship, is a person who holds an important title or office yet executes little actual power. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


In present terms, the difference between a parliamentary democracy that is a constitutional monarchy, and one that is a republic, is considered more a difference of detail than of substance, particularly in the common case in which the head of state serves the traditional role of embodying and representing the nation. This is reflected, for example, in all but the most die-hard Spanish Republicans accepting their country's returning to constitutional monarchy after the death of Francisco Franco. A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... “Franco” redirects here. ...


Constitutional monarchies today

Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in red. Other constitutional monarchies (shown in violet) have monarchs who continue to exercise political influence, albeit within certain legal restrictions. Constitutional monarchies in beige (currently only one nation, Thailand) are constitutional monarchies in which the constitution has been suspended.
Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in red. Other constitutional monarchies (shown in violet) have monarchs who continue to exercise political influence, albeit within certain legal restrictions. Constitutional monarchies in beige (currently only one nation, Thailand) are constitutional monarchies in which the constitution has been suspended.

Today constitutional monarchies are mostly associated with Western European countries such as the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Denmark, Spain, Luxembourg, Monaco, Liechtenstein and Sweden. In such cases it is the prime minister who holds the day-to-day powers of governance, while the King or Queen retains only minor to no powers. Different nations grant different powers to their monarchs. In the Netherlands, Denmark and in Belgium, for example, the Monarch formally appoints a representative to preside over the creation of a coalition government following a parliamentary election, while in Norway the King chairs special meetings of the cabinet. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 52 KB) Summary kol Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Constitutional monarchy User:The Tom/maps Categories: ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 52 KB) Summary kol Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Constitutional monarchy User:The Tom/maps Categories: ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Central Europe and Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... This article is about the governmental body. ...


The most significant family of constitutional monarchies in the world today are the sixteen realms, all independent parliamentary democracies in a personal union relationship under Elizabeth II. Unlike some of their continental European counterparts, the Monarch and her Governors-General in the Commonwealth Realms hold significant "reserve" or "prerogative" powers, to be wielded in times of extreme emergency or constitutional crises usually to uphold parliamentary government. The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...


In both the United Kingdom and elsewhere, a common debate centers around when it is appropriate for a monarch to use his or her political powers. When a monarch does act, political controversy can often ensue, partially because the neutrality of the crown is seen to be compromised in favor of a partisan goal. While political scientists may champion the idea of an "interventionist monarch" as a check against possible illegal action by politicians, the monarchs themselves are often driven by a more pragmatic sense of self-preservation, in which avoiding political controversy can be seen as an important way to retain public legitimacy and popularity. Look up Partisan (political) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In politics, a partisan is a person who supports a cause, party, or goal fervently, usually to the exclusion of all others. ... See also: Political Science Notable political scientists Kenneth Arrow - Nobel Memorial Prize winning economist who published influential paper on his widely cited Arrows Impossibility Theorem Robert Axelrod Duncan Black - Responsible for unearthing the work of many early political scientists, including Charles Dodgson Jean-Charles de Borda - 18th century mathematician...


There also exists today several federal constitutional monarchies. In these countries, each subdivision has a distinct government and head of government, but all subdivisions share a monarch who is head of state of the federation as a united whole. A federal constitutional monarchy is a federation of states with the executive under the authority of a constitutional monarch. ...


List of current constitutional monarchies

State Last constitution established Type of monarchy Monarch selected by
Flag of Andorra Andorra 1993 Co-Principality Selection of Bishop of La Seu d'Urgell and election of French President
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 1981 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Australia Australia 1977 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of the Bahamas The Bahamas 1973 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Bahrain Bahrain 2002 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Barbados Barbados 1966 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Belgium Belgium 1831 Kingdom; popular monarchy[2] Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Belize Belize 1981 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia 1993 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Canada Canada 1982 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Denmark Denmark 1953 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Grenada Grenada 1974 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica 1962 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Japan Japan 1946 Empire Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Jordan Jordan 1952 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Kuwait Kuwait 1962 Emirate Hereditary succession directed approval of al-Sabah family and majority of National Assembly
Flag of Lesotho Lesotho 1993 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed approval of College of Chiefs
Flag of Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 1862 Principality Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 1868 Grand duchy Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 1957 Elective monarchy Selected from nine hereditary Sultans of the Malay states
Flag of Monaco Monaco 1911 Principality Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Morocco Morocco 1962 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Nepal Nepal 2007 (temp) Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands 1815 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 1987 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Norway Norway 1814 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 1975 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 1979 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of the Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 1978 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Spain Spain 1978 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Sweden Sweden 1974 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Thailand Thailand 2007 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Tonga Tonga 1970 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of Tuvalu Tuvalu 1978 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution
Flag of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 1971 Elective monarchy Chosen by Federal Supreme Council from rulers of Abu Dhabi
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 1688 Kingdom Hereditary succession directed by constitution

Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... La Seu dUrgell is the capital of the comarca of Alt Urgell, in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... See Heredity (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bahamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bahrain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Popular Monarchy is a system of monarchical governance in which the monarchs title is linked with the people rather than a unitary state. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... The Al-Sabah (Arabic: الصباح) are the ruling Family of Kuwait. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lesotho. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by a monarch who is elected by a group. ... The Rulers of the Malay States in Malaysia are the seven Sultans of Kedah, Perak, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Selangor and Johor, the Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan and the Raja of Perlis. ... The Malay states are a group of nine states of Malaysia (all located in West Malaysia) which have hereditary Rulers. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Solomon_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tonga. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tuvalu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by a monarch who is elected by a group. ... Abu Dhabi or Abu Zaby (Arabic language: أبوظبي) is the largest of the seven emirates that comprise the United Arab Emirates and was also the largest of the former Trucial States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

Previous monarchies

  • The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, formed after the Union of Lublin in 1569 and lasting till the final partition of the state in 1795 operated much like many modern European constitutional monarchies. The legislators of the unified state truly did not see it as a monarchy at all, but as a republic under the presidency of the King. Poland-Lithuania also followed the principle of "Rex regnat et non gubernat", had a bicameral parliament, and a collection of entrenched legal documents amounting to a constitution along the lines of the modern United Kingdom. The King was elected, and had the duty of maintaining the people's rights.
  • France functioned briefly as a constitutional monarchy during the post-Napoleonic era, under the reign of Louis XVIII and Charles X, but the latter's attempt at reinstating absolute monarchy led to his fall. Louis-Philippe of France was also a constitutional monarch.
  • Napoléon Bonaparte, as Emperor of the French, was in theory a constitutional monarch, though he was ousted from France before his line could continue. In practice, however, he is often classed as a military dictator, whose power derived primarily from his command of the army.
  • The German Empire from 1871 to 1918, (as well as earlier confederations, and the monarchies it consisted of) was also a constitutional monarchy—see Constitution of the German Empire.
  • Prior to the Iranian Revolution in 1979, Iran was a constitutional monarchy under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, which had been originally established during the Persian Constitutional Revolution in 1906.
  • Portugal until 1910 was a constitutional monarchy; the last king was Manuel II of Portugal until he was overthrown by a military coup.
  • Brazil from 1815 (United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves) until 1822, with the proclamation of independence and rise of the Empire of Brazil by Pedro I of Brazil. After this the Empire had ended in 1889, during the reign of Pedro II of Brazil, when the emperor was deposed by a military coup.
  • Hawaiʻi was a constitutional monarchy from the unification of the smaller independent chiefdoms of Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and the Hawaiʻi (or the "Big Island") in 1810 until the overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani in 1893 by conspirators from United States that threatened her that, should she not resign, her people would suffer greatly.
  • The Grand Duchy of Finland was a constitutional monarchy though its ruler, Alexander I, who was simultaneously an autocrat and absolute ruler in Russia.
  • The Kingdom of Hungary in 1848–1849 and 1867–1918 as part of Austria-Hungary. In the interwar period (1920–1944) Hungary remained a constitutional monarchy without a reigning monarch.
  • Yugoslavia until 1945 when King Peter was deposed by the communist government.
  • Romania until 1947 when King Michael was forced to abdicate at gunpoint by the communists.
  • Bulgaria until 1946 when Tsar Simeon was deposed by the communist assembly without consultation of the people.
  • Greece until 1973 when King Constantine was deposed by the military government. The decision was formalised by a plebiscite in 05/04/1976.
  • Many Commonwealth republics were constitutional monarchies in personal union with the Commonwealth realms for some period after their independence.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the official... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Louis Philippe (real name: Philippe Auclair) is a London-based French singer, songwriter, arranger and producer who has been active from the mid-80s onwards. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... The Constitution of the German Empire was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1919. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... The Persian Constitutional Revolution (also Constitutional Revolution of Iran) against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah started in 1905 and lasted until 1911. ... King Manuel II (r: 1908–1910) Manuel II, King of Portugal KG GCVO (pron. ... The Empire of Brazil was a political entity that comprised present-day Brazil under the rule of Emperors Pedro I and his son Pedro II. Founded in 1822, it was replaced by a republic in 1889. ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ... Motto Ua mau ke ea o ka āina i ka pono Anthem Hawaii Ponoi Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 Liliuokalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History  - Inception 1795  - Unification... Her Majesty Lili‘uokalani, Queen of Hawai‘i Queen Lili‘uokalani of Hawai‘i (September 2, 1838 - November 11, 1917), given the Christian name Lydia Lili‘uokalani and later named Lydia K. Dominis, was the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... King Michael I of the Romanians (born October 25, 1921), Prince of Hohenzollern[1][2][3], reigned as King of the Romanians (in Romanian Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor or Majestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor) from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from... Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha as Prime Minister of Bulgaria Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria (born June 16, 1937) was the last Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946, and was Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 until August 2005. ... Constantine of Greece, formerly Constantine II, King of the Hellenes (born June 2, 1940) was King of Greece from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1974. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... The Greek plebiscite of 1974 resulted in the final abolition of monarchy in Greece and the establishment of the current Third Hellenic Republic. ... The Commonwealth republics, shown in pink A Commonwealth republic is any one of the 31 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that have a republican form of government. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...

Other situations

  • Japan is the only country with a reigning emperor.
  • Luxembourg is the only country with a reigning Grand Duke.
  • Andorra, Monaco and Liechtenstein are the only countries with a reigning Prince.
  • Andorra is the only country where the head of state is vested jointly in two individuals.
  • Australia, whose constitution demands legislation for the holding of a referendum where a majority of votes in a majority of 6 states must occur for any change to take place. In 1999 a referendum was held to change the country into a republic and was defeated.

The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... The 1999 Australian referendum was a two question referendum held on 6 November 1999. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Montesquieu, 1984
  2. ^ Belgium is the only existing popular monarchy—a system in which the monarch's title is linked to the people rather than a state. The title of Belgian kings is not King of Belgium, but instead King of the Belgians. Another unique feature of the Belgian system is that the new monarch does not automatically assume the throne at the death or abdication of his predecessor; he only becomes monarch upon taking a constitutional oath.

References

  • G. W. F. Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Allen W. Wood, ed., H.B. Nisbet, trans.). Cambridge University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-521-34438-7 (originally published as Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Hegel, Philosophie des Rechts, 1820).
  • John Locke, Two Treatises of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration. (Ian Shapiro, ed., with essays by John Dunn, Ruth W. Grant and Ian Shapiro.) New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003 (Two Treatises first pub. 1690). ISBN 0-300-10017-5.
  • Baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws. Legal Classics Library, 1984.
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (January 18, 1689 - February 10, French political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment and is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many...

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The Monarchy Today > What is constitutional monarchy? (774 words)
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a king or queen acts as Head of State, while the ability to make and pass legislation resides with an elected Parliament.
The constitutional monarchy we know today really developed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as day-to-day power came to be exercised by Ministers in Cabinet, and by Parliaments elected by a steadily-widening electorate.
Bagehot's views of how monarchy works proved influential, and by the reign of King George V, the principle of constitutional monarchy was firmly established in Britain.
Wikipedia: Constitutional monarchy (1739 words)
Today, constitutional monarchy is almost always combined with representative democracy, and represents a compromise between theories of sovereignty which place sovereignty in the hands of the people, and those that see a role for tradition in the theory of government.
The concept of constitutional monarchy owes its origin to the absolute monarchies of the later Middle Ages, where governmental authority was exercised by the monarch and his (or in rare occasions her) government.
It is said in constitutional monarchies that the monarch "reigns but does not rule." Most modern constitutional monarchies owe their origins to systems in which the monarch not merely reigned but governed, as in the absolute monarchies which replaced aristocratic systems in the Renaissance.
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