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Encyclopedia > Constitutional Act of 1791

The Constitutional Act of 1791 was a British law which changed the government of the province of Quebec to accommodate the many English-speaking settlers, known as the United Empire Loyalists, who had arrived from the United States following the American Revolution. Quebec was divided in two. The western half became Upper Canada (now southern Ontario) and the eastern half Lower Canada (now southern Quebec). Upper Canada received English law and institutions, while Lower Canada retained French law and institutions, including seigneurial land tenure, and the privileges accorded to the Roman Catholic church. Representative governments were established in both colonies with the creation of a legislative assembly; Quebec had not previously had representative government. Along with each assembly there was also an appointed upper house, the Legislative Council, created for wealthy landowners; within the Legislative Council was the Executive Council, acting as a cabinet for the governor. Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ... United Empire Loyalists is the name given to the portion of British Loyalists who resettled in British North America when they were forced to leave the United States after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... Before the Revolution: The 13 colonies are in red, the pink area was claimed by Great Britain after the French and Indian War, and the orange region was claimed by Spain. ... Upper Canada Village in Morrisburg, Ontario Upper Canada is an early name for the land at the upstream end of the Saint Lawrence River in early North America – the territory south of Lake Nipissing and north of the St. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th) Land 917,741 km² Water 158,654 km² (14. ... Lower Canada was a British colony in North America, at the downstream end of the Saint Lawrence River in the southern portion of the modern-day province of Quebec. ... This article is about the seigneurial system in New France. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Representative democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein voters choose (in free, secret, multi-party elections) representatives to act in their interests, but not as their proxies—i. ...

Hierarchy of power under the Constitutional Act of 1791 Image File history File links Download high resolution version (621x647, 45 KB)Hierarchy of power under the Constitutional Act of 1791 (Upper and Lower Canada). ...

The Constitutional Act also tried to create an established church by creating clergy reserves. grants of land reserved for the support of the Protestant clergy. In practice income from the rent or sale of these reserves, which constituted one-seventh of the territory of Upper and Lower Canada, went exclusively to the Church of England and, from 1824 on, the Church of Scotland. These reserves created many difficulties in later years, making economic development difficult and creating resentment against the Anglican church, the Family Compact, and the Chateau Clique. In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... Clergy reserves were tracts of land in Upper Canada and Lower Canada reserved for the support of Protestant clergy by the Constitutional Act of 1791 which established the two provinces. ... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a split from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid-to-late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS sometimes known as the Kirk) is the national church of Scotland. ... The Family Compact was the informal name for the wealthy, conservative elite of Upper Canada in the early 19th century. ... The Ch teau Clique was a group of wealthy families in Lower Canada in the early 19th century. ...


The act was problematic for both English speakers and French speakers; the French Canadians felt they might be overshadowed by English settlement and increased rights for Protestants, while the new English-speaking settlers felt the French Canadians still had too much power. However, both groups preferred the act and the institutions it created to the Quebec Act which it replaced. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Quebec Act of 1774 was an act by the British Parliament setting out procedures of governance in the area of Quebec. ...


The act is often seen as a watershed in the developement of French Canadian nationalism as it provided for a province (Lower Canada) that was seen by les Canadiens to be their own, seperate from the Anglo Upper Canada. The disconnect between this French Canadian ideal of Lower Canada as a distinct, national homeland and the reality of the continued Anglo political and economic dominance in the province after 1791 led to discontent and a desire for reform among les Canadiens. The French Canadian frustration at the nature of Lower Canadian political and economic life in "their" province eventually helped fuel the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837-38. // Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life, and makes certain political claims based on that belief, above all the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state and that each nation is... Flag used by the Patriotes between 1832 and 1838 The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. ...


See also

The Constitutional history of Canada begins with the 1763 Treaty of Paris, in which France ceded most of New France to Great Britain. ... The Act of Union passed in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841, abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and established a new political entity the Province of Canada to replace them. ...

External links

  • Constitutional Act of the Province of Lower Canada

  Results from FactBites:
 
Constitutional Act, 1791 (229 words)
The Constitutional Act of 1791 was an Act of the British Parliament creating UPPER CANADA and LOWER CANADA.
This Act enshrined constitutional changes that were part of that reorganization of BRITISH NORTH AMERICA which took place under the pressure of thousands of LOYALISTS seeking refuge after the American Revolution.
Modelled on the earlier creation of the provinces of New Brunswick and Cape Breton in 1784, a constitutional bill was prepared by William Wyndham Grenville to ensure the development of British parliamentary institutions in the territory governed by the QUEBEC ACT of 1774.
Constitutional Act of 1791 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (442 words)
The Constitutional Act of 1791 was a British law which changed the government of the province of Quebec to accommodate the many English-speaking settlers, known as the United Empire Loyalists, who had arrived from the United States following the American Revolution.
The act was problematic for both English speakers and French speakers; the French Canadians felt they might be overshadowed by English settlement and increased rights for Protestants, while the new English-speaking settlers felt the French Canadians still had too much power.
The act is often seen as a watershed in the developement of French Canadian nationalism as it provided for a province (Lower Canada) that was seen by les Canadiens to be their own, seperate from the Anglo Upper Canada.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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