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Encyclopedia > Constitution of the Republic of China

The Constitution of the Republic of China (traditional Chinese: 中華民國憲法; simplified Chinese: 中华民国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Xiànfǎ; Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó SiànFǎ) is the basic governing document for the Republic of China (ROC), with jurisdiction over Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu. Drafted by the Kuomintang (KMT) as part of its third stage of national development (i.e. representative democracy), it established a centralized republic with five branches of government. Though the Constitution was intended for all of China, it was neither extensively nor effectively implemented as the KMT was already fully embroiled in a civil war with the Communist Party of China by the time of its promulgation. Following the KMT's retreat to Taiwan in 1949, the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion gave the KMT government, which despite the new Constitution still functioned as a one-party state, extra-Constitutional powers. With the lifting of martial law in 1987 and the repeal of the Temporary Provisions and the amending of the Constitution to reflect the government's loss of mainland China in 1991, the Constitution finally formed the basis of a multi-party democracy. However, in recent years, the Constitution's origins in mainland China has led to supporters of Taiwan independence to push for a distinctly Taiwanese replacement. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pÄ«nyÄ«n; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Pescadores Islands (Chinese: 澎湖群島; Wade-Giles: Peng-hu; Pinyin: Pénghú, from Portuguese, fishermen) are an archipelago in the Taiwan Strait. ... Kinmen (Traditional Chinese: 金門; Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«nmén; Tongyong Pinyin: Jinmén; Wade-Giles: Chin-men; POJ: Kim-mnÌ‚g; also romanized Quemoy from Southern Min (in early Spanish romanization); literally Golden Door or Golden Gate), located at 24. ... The Matsu Islands (馬祖列島 or less frequently, 馬祖群島 Pinyin: Mǎzǔ) are a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江 Pinyin: Liánjiāng), Fujian Province of the Republic of China (ROC, based on Taiwan). ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... The separation of powers (or trias politica, a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Montesquieu) is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... The Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion (Chinese: 動員戡亂時期臨時條款; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a series of temporary constitutional provisions passed by the National Assembly of the Republic of China on May 10, 1948 and gave President Chiang Kai-Shek extended powers amid the height of the Chinese Civil War... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... ... Taiwan independence (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p Å«n-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the...

Contents

History

The Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China was drawn up in March 1912 and formed the basic government document of the Republic of China until 1928. It provided a Western-style parliamentary system headed by the weak president. However, the system was quickly usurped when Song Jiaoren, who as leader of the KMT was to become prime minister following the party's victory in the 1913 elections, was assassinated under the orders of President Yuan Shikai. Yuan regularly flouted the elected assembly and assumed dictorial powers. Upon his death, China disintegrated into warlordism and the Beiyang Government operating under the Constitution remained in the hands of various military leaders. The first page of the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China After the victory in Xinhai Revolution, the Nanjing Provisional Government of the Republic of China, led by Sun Yat-sen, framed the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China, which was an outline of basic regulations with the... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Sung Chiao-jen (Chinese characters: 宋教仁, Pinyin: Sòng Jiàorén) (1882–March 22, 1913) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... National flag 1912-1928 The Beiyang government (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai. ...


The Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek established control over much of China by 1928. The Nationalist Government promulgated the Provisional Constitution of the Political Tutelage Period in 1931. Under this document, the government operated under a one-party system with supreme power held by the National Congress of the Kuomintang and effective power held by the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang. In Leninist fashion, it permitted a system of dual party-state committees to form the basis of government. The KMT intended this Constitution to remain in effective until the country had been pacified and the people sufficiently "educated" to participate in democratic government. Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ...

Seventeen Taiwanese National Assembly delegates selected by the ROC government in a photo with Chiang Kai-shek in 1946
Seventeen Taiwanese National Assembly delegates selected by the ROC government in a photo with Chiang Kai-shek in 1946

The current Constitution traces its origins to the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War when the impending outbreak of the Chinese Civil War pressured Chiang Kai-shek into enacting a democratic Constitution that would put an end to KMT party rule. The Chinese Communists sought a coalition, made of one-third Nationalists, one-third Communists, and one-third of members from other parties, to form a coalition government that would draft the new Constitution. However, Chiang Kai-shek refused to relinquish to hold on power and insisted on having the Nationalist Government draft the Constitution and then holding nation-wide elections in which the Communists would be permitted to participate. Unable to resolve the impasse, the KMT-drafted Constitution was adopted by the National Assembly on December 25, 1946, promulgated by the National Government on January 1, 1947, and went into effect on December 25, 1947. The Constitution was seen as the third and final stage of Kuomintang reconstruction of China. The Communists, though invited to the convention that drafted it, boycotted and declared after the ratification that not only would it not recognize the ROC constitution, but all bills passed by the Nationalist administration would be disregarded as well. Zhou Enlai challenged the legitimacy of the National Assembly in 1947 by accusing KMT hand-picked the members of the National Assembly 10 years earlier and thus could not have legal representativity of the Chinese people. Source[1]. Seventeen Taiwanese National Assembly delegates with Chiang Kai-shek in 1946. ... Source[1]. Seventeen Taiwanese National Assembly delegates with Chiang Kai-shek in 1946. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Pinyin: Zhōng huá mín guó) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... The National Assembly (Traditional Chinese: 國民大會; Simplified Chinese: 国民大会; Pinyin: ) refers to several parliamentary bodies that existed in the history of the Republic of China. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949...


Content

The Constitution originally established a republic with a National Assembly and five branches of government, named Yuan(院), which are: the Executive Yuan, Legislative Yuan, Judicial Yuan, Examination Yuan, and Control Yuan. In practice, the Examination Yuan and the Control Yuan have become marginal organizations, while the National Assembly was abolished in 2005. Although in practice the government on Taiwan has become a presidential system, the constitution itself is unclear as to whether the system is intended to be presidential or parliamentary and this has led to some deadlock when, as after the 2000 Presidential elections, the legislature and presidency was held by different parties. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The National Assembly (Traditional Chinese: 國民大會; Simplified Chinese: 国民大会; Pinyin: ) refers to several parliamentary bodies that existed in the history of the Republic of China. ... The Executive Yuan (行政院; literally executive court) is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China. ... The Legislative Yuan building in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City (the view is partially obscured by the childrens hospital building of the National Taiwan University Hospital). ... The Judicial Yuan is located directly east of the Presidential Office in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... The Examination Yuan (考試院) is one of five government branches of the Republic of China and is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. ... The Control Yuan building The Control Yuan main entrance The Control Yuan (監察院; pinyin: Jiānchá Yùan), one of five branches of the Republic of China government in Taipei, is a watchdog agency that monitors (controls) the government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ...


Application in Taiwan

Suspension of the constitution and martial law

On January 10, 1947, Governor Chen Yi announced that the new ROC Constitution would not apply to Taiwan after it went into effect in mainland China on December 25, 1947 as Taiwan was still under military occupation and also that Taiwanese were politically naive and were not capable of self-governing. Later that year, Chen Yi was dismissed and the Taiwan Provincial Government was established. From March 1947 until 1987, Taiwan was in a state of martial law. Although the constitution provided for regular democratic elections, these were not held in Taiwan until the 1990s. is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chen Yi, the first ROC Chief Executive and Garrison Commander of Taiwan. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Taiwan Province can refer to an existing administrative division under the government of the Republic of China or the claimed 23rd province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


On April 18, 1948, the National Assembly added to the Constitution the "Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion." These articles greatly enhanced the power of the president and abolished the two term limit for the president and the vice president. In 1954, the Judicial Yuan ruled that the delegates elected to the National Assembly and Legislative Yuan in 1947 would remain in office until new elections could be held in Mainland China which had come under the control of the Communist Party of China in 1949. This judicial ruling allowed the Kuomintang to rule unchallenged in Taiwan until the 1990s. In 1991, these members were ordered to resign by a subsequent Judicial Yuan ruling. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion (Chinese: 動員戡亂時期臨時條款; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a series of temporary constitutional provisions passed by the National Assembly of the Republic of China on May 10, 1948 and gave President Chiang Kai-Shek extended powers amid the height of the Chinese Civil War... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... The Judicial Yuan is located directly east of the Presidential Office in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the...


In the 1970s, supplemental elections began to be held for the Legislative Yuan. Although these were for a limited number of seats, they did allow for the transition to a more open political system. The Legislative Yuan building in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City (the view is partially obscured by the childrens hospital building of the National Taiwan University Hospital). ...


Democratization

In the late 1980s, the Constitution faced the growing democratization on Taiwan combined with the mortality of the delegates that were elected in 1947. Faced with these pressures, on April 22, 1991, the first National Assembly voted itself out of office, abolished the Temporary Provisions passed in 1948, and adopted major amendments (known as the "First Revision") permitting free elections. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...


On May 27, 1992 several other amendments were passed (known as the "Second Revision"), most notably that allowing the direct election of the President of the Republic of China, Governor of Taiwan Province, and municipal mayors. Ten new amendments to replace the eighteen amendments of the First and Second Revisions were passed on July 28, 1994. The amendments passed on July 18, 1997 streamlined the Taiwan Provincial Government and granted the Legislative Yuan powers of impeachment. The constitution was subsequently revised in 1999 and 2000, with the former revision being declared void the same year by the Council of Grand Justices. A further revision of the constitution happened in 2005 which disbanded the National Assembly, reformed the Legislative Yuan, and provided for future constitutional change to be ratified by referendum. is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... This article is about Taiwan Province, an administrative province which is currently under the admistration of the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Judicial Yuan (司法院) is one of five branches of the Republic of China government in Taipei and serves as the highest judicial organ in Taiwan. ...


Passing an amendment to the ROC constitution now requires an unusually broad political consensus, which includes approval from three-fourths of the quorum of members of the Legislative Yuan. This quorum requires at least three-fourths of all members of the Legislature. After passing the Legislature, the amendments needs ratification by at least fifty percent of all eligible voters of the ROC irrespective of voter turnout.


All amendments have been consolidated into a single text of twelve articles, maintained as a separate part of the Constitution.


Challenge of legitimacy

A number of criticisms have been leveled at the ROC constitution by supporters of Taiwan independence. Until the 1990s, the document was considered illegitimate by pro-independence advocates because it was not drafted in Taiwan. Pro-independence advocates have argued that the Constitution was never legally applied to Taiwan because Taiwan was not formally incorporated into the ROC's territory through the National Assembly. Though the constitution promulgated in 1946 did not define the territory of the Republic of China, while the draft of the constitution of 1925 individually listed the provinces of the Republic of China and Taiwan was not among them, since Taiwan was part of Japan as the result of the Treaty of Shimonoseki of 1895. The constitution also stipulated in the Article I.4, that "the territory of the ROC is the original territory governed by it, unless authorized by the National Assembly, can not be altered." In 1946, Sun Fo, the minister of the Executive Yuan of ROC reported to the National Assembly that "there are two types of territory changes: 1. renouncing territory and 2. annexing new territory. The first example would be the Independence of Mongolia, and the second example would be the reclamation of Taiwan. Both would be examples of territory changes." [1] No such formal annexation of Taiwan islands by the ROC National Assembly conforming with the ROC constitution ever occurred since 1946, even though Article 9 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China says, "The modifications of the functions, operations, and organization of the Taiwan Provincial Government may be specified by law." Taiwan independence (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p Å«n-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the... The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... Sun Ke or Sun Fo (Chinese: 孫科)(October 21, 1891–September 13, 1973) was a high-ranking official in the government of the Republic of China. ...


While both symbolic and legal arguments have been used to discredit the application the ROC Constitution in Taiwan, the document gained more legitimacy among independence supporters throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s due to democratization and it is now accepted as the basic law of Taiwan by all of the major parties. However, there are proposals being floated, particularly by supporters of Taiwan independence and the supporters of Taiwan localization movement, to replace the current Constitution with a document drafted by the Taiwanese constituencies in Taiwan. Taiwan independence (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p Å«n-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the... Localization (本土化, POJ: pún-thó·-hòa, Pinyin: Běntǔ huà) is a political term used within Taiwan to support the view of Taiwan as a centered place rather than as solely an appendage of China. ...


Referendums and Constitutional reform

One recent controversy involving the ROC Constitution is the right to referendum which is mentioned in the Constitution. Although the right is present, implementing legislation had been blocked until October 2003 by the pan-blue coalition largely out of suspicions that proponents of a referendum law would be used to overturn the ROC Constitution and provide a means to declare Taiwan independence. The Pan-Blue Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝联盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Pan-Blue Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝军; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), and the smaller New Party (CNP). ... Taiwan independence (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p ūn-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the...


In 2003, President Chen Shui-bian proposed holding a referendum in 2006 for implementing an entirely new constitution on May 20, 2008 to coincide with the inauguration of the 12th-term president of the ROC. Proponents of such a move, namely the pan-green coalition, argue that the current Constitution endorses a specific ideology (i.e., the Three Principles of the People), which is only precedented in Communist countries; in addition, they argue that a more "efficient" government is needed to cope with changing realities. Some proponents support replacing the five branch structure outlined by the Three Principles of the People with a three branch government. Others cite the current deadlock between the executive and legislative branches and support replacing the presidential system with a parliamentary system. Furthermore, the current Constitution explicitly states before the amendments implemented on Taiwan, "To meet the requisites of the nation prior to national unification...", in direct opposition to the pan-green position that Taiwan must remain separated from the mainland. In response, the pan-blue coalition dropped its opposition to non-constitutional referendums and offered to consider through going constitutional reforms. A referendum law was passed in October 2003, but this law sets very high hurdles against implementing constitutional changes by referendums. Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pan-Green Coalition (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Pan-Green Force (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is currently an informal political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan), consisting of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU), and the minor Taiwan Independence Party (TAIP). ... Sun Yat-sen, who developed the Three Principles of the People. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... The Pan-Blue Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝联盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Pan-Blue Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝军; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), and the smaller New Party (CNP). ...


The proposal to implement an entirely new constitution met with strong opposition from the People's Republic of China and great unease from the United States, both of which feared the proposal to rewrite the constitution to be a veiled effort to achieve Taiwan independence, as it would sever a legal link to Mainland China, and to circumvent Chen's original Four Noes and One Without pledge. In December 2003, the United States announced its opposition to any referendum that would tend to move Taiwan toward independence, a statement that was widely seen as being directed at Chen's constitutional proposals. Taiwan independence (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p ūn-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the... ... The Four Noes and One Without (Chinese: 四不一沒有; pinyin: sì bù, yī méiyǒu) is a pledge by President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian made in his inauguration speech on 20 May 2000 concerning the political status of Taiwan. ...


In response, the Pan-Blue Coalition attempted to argue that a new constitution and constitutional referendums were unnecessary and that the inefficiencies in the ROC Constitution could be approved through the normal legislative process. The Pan-Blue Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝联盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Pan-Blue Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝军; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), and the smaller New Party (CNP). ...


In his May 20, 2004 inaugural address, Chen called for a "Constitutional Reform Committee" to be formed by "members of the ruling party and the opposition parties, as well as legal experts, academic scholars and representatives from all fields and spanning all social classes" to decide on the proper reforms. He promised that the new Constitution would not change the issue of sovereignty and territory. This proposal went nowhere due to lack of cooperation from the opposition Pan-Blue. is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  1. ^ [1][dead link]

See also

The first page of the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China After the victory in Xinhai Revolution, the Nanjing Provisional Government of the Republic of China, led by Sun Yat-sen, framed the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China, which was an outline of basic regulations with the... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The Republic of China (ROC) currently has jurisdiction over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, and the Pescadores Islands (Penghu) and several smaller islands. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Constitution of the Republic of China
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Republic of China (ROC) currently has jurisdiction over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, and the Pescadores Islands (Penghu) and several smaller islands. ... Sun Yat-sen, who developed the Three Principles of the People. ... The center flag is the Five-Colored Flag of the Republic of China. ... Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... Hsiu-lien Annette Lu (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (born June 7, 1944) is the incumbent vice president of the Republic of China and member of the Democratic Progressive Party. ... The Office of the President of the Republic of China, located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City, also houses the office of the Vice President. ... Chang Chun-hsiung (Chinese: 張俊雄; pinyin: Zhāng Jùnxióng) (born March 23, 1938) is a politician in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... The President of the Executive Yuan (行政院長), colloquially referred to as the Premier (閣揆), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan. ... Chiou I-jen (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), born May 9, 1950, is the current Vice Premier of the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... The President of the Executive Yuan (行政院長), colloquially referred to as the Premier (閣揆), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan. ... The Executive Yuan (行政院; literally executive court) is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China. ... The Legislative Yuan building in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City (the view is partially obscured by the childrens hospital building of the National Taiwan University Hospital). ... The Judicial Yuan is located directly east of the Presidential Office in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... The Control Yuan building The Control Yuan main entrance The Control Yuan (監察院; pinyin: Jiānchá Yùan), one of five branches of the Republic of China government in Taipei, is a watchdog agency that monitors (controls) the government. ... The Examination Yuan (考試院) is one of five government branches of the Republic of China and is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. ... The National Assembly (Traditional Chinese: 國民大會; Simplified Chinese: 国民大会; Pinyin: ) refers to several parliamentary bodies that existed in the history of the Republic of China. ... Political parties in the Republic of China lists political parties participating in politics of the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... The Pan-Blue Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝联盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Pan-Blue Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝军; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), and the smaller New Party (CNP). ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... The People First Party (親民黨, pinyin: QÄ«nmíndÇŽng) is a conservative political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... The New Party (新黨, xīndăng), formerly the Chinese New Party (CNP; 中華新黨, zhōnghúa xīndăng), is a political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... The Pan-Green Coalition (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Pan-Green Force (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is currently an informal political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan), consisting of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU), and the minor Taiwan Independence Party (TAIP). ... The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; abbreviated to or ; Hanyu Pinyin: MínjìndÇŽng) is a major political party in the Republic of China which has traditionally been associated with the pan-green coalition and Taiwan independence although it has moderated its stance as it has... The Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU) (Traditional Chinese: 台灣團結聯盟, pinyin: Táiwān túanjíe líanméng) is a political party in Taiwan (Republic of China) which advocates Taiwan independence. ... The Non-Partisan Solidarity Union (NPSU, Chinese: 無黨團結聯盟, pinyin: w dǎng t is a political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... The Green Party Taiwan (綠黨) is a political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, active in the late 20th century, established on 25 January 1996. ... Elections in the Republic of China gives information on election and election results in the Republic of China (with effective control over Taiwan, Quemoy, Matsu and some islands in the South China Sea since 1949). ... The Election for the 9th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (第九任中華民國總統 、副總統選舉), the first ever direct elections for President and Vice President of the Republic of China on Taiwan, occurred on March 23, 1996. ... The Election for the 10th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (第十任中華民國總統、副總統選舉), the second ever direct elections for President and Vice President of the Republic of China on Taiwan and the 10th under the 1947 Constitution, were held on March 18, 2000. ... Elections for the President and Vice President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) were held on March 20, 2004. ... The Election for the 12th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (traditional Chinese: ) will be held Saturday, 22 March 2008. ... 1st Legislative Yuan: Republic of China legislative election, 1948: In 1948, 760 members were elected to the First Legislative Yuan under the rule of the recently promulgated Constitution. ... In December 1969 the first supplementary election took place for members of both legislative bodies of the Republic of China, the National Assembly and the Legislative Yuan. ... On December 22, 1972 the second supplementary election took place for members of both legislative bodies of the Republic of China, the National Assembly and the (first) Legislative Yuan, elected originally in 1948. ... In December 1975 the third supplementary election took place for members of the first Legislative Yuan, the main legislative body of the Republic of China, elected originally in 1948. ... On December 6, 1980 the fourth supplementary election took place for members of both legislative bodies of the Republic of China, the National Assembly and the (first) Legislative Yuan, elected originally in 1948. ... On December 3, 1983 the fifth supplementary election took place for members of the first Legislative Yuan, the main legislative body of the Republic of China and elected originally in 1948. ... On December 6, 1986 the sixth supplementary election took place for members of both legislative bodies of the Republic of China, the National Assembly and the (first) Legislative Yuan, elected originally in 1948. ... On December 2, 1989 the seventh (and last) supplementary election took place for members of the first Legislative Yuan, the main legislative body of the Republic of China and elected originally in 1948. ... On this elections, two hundred and twenty-five members of the Fourth Legislative Yuan were elected. ... The Election for the 5th Legislative Yuan (五屆立法委員選舉) of the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan was held on December 1, 2001. ... The Election for the 6th Legislative Yuan (第六屆立法委員選舉) of the Republic of China on Taiwan was held on December 11, 2004. ... An election for the National Assembly took place in Taiwan on Saturday 2005-05-14, from 07:30 to 16:00 local time. ... Legislative elections will be held on January 12, 2008 in the Republic of China (Taiwan}. These would elect the first set of legislators to serve a longer 4-year term in the Legislative Yuan, after the recent change in the Constitution of the Republic of China, which intended to synchronize... Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of... The legal question of which legal entity holds de jure sovereignty over Taiwan is a controversial issue. ... The Four-Stage Theory of the Republic of China or the Theory of the Four Stages of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國四階段論; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Sì JiÄ“duàn Lùn) is proposed by Chen Shui-bian, the current (10th and 11th terms) president of the Republic of... A flag for the proposed independent Taiwan designed in the mid-1990s. ... Taiwan independence (台灣獨立, pinyin: Táiwān dúlì, Taiwanese Church Romanization: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is — depending on ones interpretation of the state of affairs between the land directly administered by the Peoples Republic of China (from Beijing... The Taiwanese localization movement ({Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân pún-thó͘-hòa Å«n-tōng) is a political term used within Taiwan to emphasize the importance of Taiwans culture rather than to regard Taiwan as solely an appendage of... Chinese (re)unification (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a goal of Chinese nationalism that refers to the reunification of all of Greater China under a single political entity. ... The Republic of China (ROC) , now only constituting the island of Taiwan and a few smaller islands, is currently recognized by 24 states, including the Holy See of Vatican City. ... Chinas seat in the United Nations has been occupied by the Peoples Republic of China since October 25, 1971. ... Taiwan Strait Cross-Strait relations, or relations across the Taiwan Strait, deals with the complex relationship and interactions between the mainland nation of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) (which sits on the west of Taiwan Strait) and the island nation of the Republic of China (Taiwan), commonly known... The One-China policy (Traditional Chinese: 一個中國; Simplified Chinese: 一个中国; pinyin: yÄ« gè Zhōngguó) is a principle that there is one China and that mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan are all part of that China. ... Portuguese name Portuguese: Um país, dois sistemas One country, two systems is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping during the early 1980s, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China. ...

 
 

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