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Encyclopedia > Constitution of the Philippines
Philippines

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the Philippines
Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_the_Philippines. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The political system in the Philippines takes place in an...


Government
Political history · Constitution
Executive
President (list)
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
20012010

Vice President (list)
Noli de Castro
20042010
The political history of the Philippines as a unified archipelago begins with the rule of the Spanish monarchs of the Philippines. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... This a complete list of Presidents of the Philippines that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947), also known by her initials G.M.A., is the 14th and current president of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the Vice President of the Philippines The Vice President of the Philippines is the second highest executive official of the Philippine government. ... This is a complete list of Vice Presidents of the Philippines. ... Manuel Noli Leuterio De Castro, Jr. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Executive Departments
(list) Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Executive Departments of the Philippines (also known as the Cabinet) are the... In Philippine politics, The Cabinet consists of the heads of the largest part of the executive branch of the national government. ...


Congress
14th Congress
20072010
Senate House
President
Manuel Villar, Jr.
Speaker
Jose de Venecia, Jr.

Judiciary
Supreme Court

Chief Justice Reynato Puno
Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan
Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman
Philippine Congress Session Hall The legislative power is vested in Congress, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Fourteenth Congress of... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines. ... Type Lower house Houses House of Representatives House Speaker Jose De Venecia, Jr. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice: Reynato Puno Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | 1984 1981 | 1978 | 1969 | 1965 1961 | 1957 | 1953 | 1949 1946 | 1941 | 1935 Foreign relations Human rights Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The President of the Senate of the Philippines is the presiding... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jose de Venecia is the current Speaker of the House of Representatives The Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the lower house of Congress, the House of Representatives. ... José Clavería de Venecia, Jr. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) is the... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the Philippines presides over the Supreme Court of the... Reynato Puno Reynato S. Puno (born May 17, 1940) is the current Chief Justice of the Philippines, presiding the Supreme Court of the Philippines. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice: Reynato Puno Court of Appeals Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | 1984 1981 | 1978 | 1969 | 1965 1961 | 1957 | 1953 | 1949 1946 | 1941 | 1935 Foreign relations Human rights Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Philippine Court... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice: Reynato Puno Court of Appeals Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | 1984 1981 | 1978 | 1969 | 1965 1961 | 1957 | 1953 | 1949 1946 | 1941 | 1935 Foreign relations Human rights Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Sandiganbayan is... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice: Reynato Puno Court of Appeals Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | 1984 1981 | 1978 | 1969 | 1965 1961 | 1957 | 1953 | 1949 1946 | 1941 | 1935 Foreign relations Human rights Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Philippine Court... The Philippine Ombudsman is an ombudsman responsible for investigating and prosecuting government officials in the Philippines who are allegedly guilty of crimes. ...


Elections
Commission on Elections
Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra
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Political parties

Administrative divisions
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Foreign relations
Government Website
Human rights
Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Philippines elects on national level a head of state: the President, and... The Commission on Elections of the Philippines, or more commonly known as COMELEC is an independent government body responsible for running elections in the countrys democratic government. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      Legislative elections and local elections will be held on May 13, 2013. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Presidential elections, legislative elections... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Legislative and local elections were held in the Philippines on... Presidential elections, legislative elections and local elections were held in the Philippines on May 10, 2004. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Political clans Other countries Politics Portal      Legislative elections and local elections were held in the Philippines on... Presidential elections, legislative elections and local elections were held in the Philippines on May 11, 1998. ... Legislative elections and local elections were held in the Philippines on May 8, 1995. ... Presidential elections, legislative elections and local elections were held in the Philippines on May 11, 1992. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Political clans Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      This article on elections in the Philippines give information on election... Presidential and vice-presidential snap elections were held on February 7, 1986 in the Philippines. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Philippines elects on national level a head of state: the President, and... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Political parties in the Philippines are of diverse ideologies and... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, also more popularly known as simply Lakas or... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Political clans Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino (KAMPI, formerly the Kabalikat ng Mamamayang... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Political clans Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The Nationalist Peoples Coalition or NPC is a political party... The Nacionalista Party logo with party motto, Ang Bayan Higit sa Lahat (Nation, Above All). ... The Liberal Party (Filipino: Partido Liberal) is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded in 1945 by a breakaway from the Nacionalista Party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Partido Demokratikong Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (Philippines Democratic Party-National Struggle) is... The Partido ng Masang Pilipino (Party of the Filipino Masses) is a populist political party in the Philippines. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Political parties in the Philippines are of diverse ideologies and... This is a list of current and former national capital cities in the Philippines, which includes during the time of the Spanish colonization, the First Philippine Republic, the Commonwealth of the Philippines, the Second Republic of the Philippines (Japanese-Sponsored Republic), the Third Republic of the Philippines, the Fourth Republic... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Map of the Philippines showing the... Map of the Philippines showing the regions and provinces (click for larger version). ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      A city (lungsod, sometimes siyudad, in Filipino and Tagalog) is a tier of local... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A municipality (bayan, sometimes munisipyo, in Tagalog) is a local... A barangay (Tagalog: baranggay , pronounced as ba-rang-gai, gai as in guy), also known by its former name, the barrio, is the smallest local government unit in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. ... // Foreign policy The fundamental Philippine attachment to democracy and human rights is reflected in its foreign policy and is also a staunch and a close ally of the United States. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice: Reynato Puno Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | 1984 1981 | 1978 | 1969 | 1965 1961 | 1957 | 1953 | 1949 1946 | 1941 | 1935 Foreign relations Human rights Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      According to a U.S. Department of State report released in...


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The Constitution of the Philippines (Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas in Filipino) is the supreme law of the Philippines. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


The Philippines has undergone several constitutions since the declaration of independence in 1898. The Constitution currently in effect was promulgated in 1987, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution".[1] It was formulated following the ascendancy of Corazon Aquino to the presidency in 1986. Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... María Corazón Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino (born January 25, 1933), widely known as Cory Aquino, was President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Background of the 1987 Constitution

In 1986, following the EDSA Revolution of 1986 which ousted Ferdinand Marcos as president, and following on her own inauguration, Corazon Aquino issued Proclamation No. 3, declaring a national policy to implement the reforms mandated by the people, protecting their basic rights, adopting a provisional constitution, and providing for an orderly translation to a government under a new constitution.[2] President Aquino later issued Proclamation No. 9, creating a Constitutional Commission to frame a new constitution to replace the 1973 Constitution which took effect during the martial law regime imposed by her predecessor. President Aquino appointed 50 members to the Commission. The members of the Commission were drawn from varied backgrounds, including several former senators and congressmen, a former Supreme Court Chief Justice (Roberto Concepcion), a Catholic bishop (Teodoro Bacani) and a noted film director (Lino Brocka). President Aquino also deliberately appointed 5 members, including former Labor Minister Blas Ople, who had been allied with President Marcos until the latter's ouster. After the Commission had convened, it elected as its president Cecilia Munoz Palma, who had emerged as a leading figure in the anti-Marcos opposition following her retirement as the first female Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, . People Power redirects here. ... Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. ... María Corazón Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino (born January 25, 1933), widely known as Cory Aquino, was President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the Philippines presides over the Supreme Court of the... Roberto Concepcion Roberto Concepcion (June 7, 1903 - May 3, 1987) was the Chief Justice of the Philippines from June 17, 1966, until April 18, 1973. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... Catalino Ortiz Brocka, better known as Lino Brocka (April 3, 1939–May 21, 1991) is known as one of the greatest film directors of the Philippines. ... The Philippines Department of Labor and Employment (Filipino: Kagawaran ng Paggawa at Empleyo) abbreviated as DOLE is the executive department of the Philippine Government responsible for promoting gainful employment opportunities, developing human resources, protecting workers and promoting their welfare, and maintaining industrial peace. ... Blas F. Ople (February 3, 1927 – December 14, 2003) was a Filipino political figure. ... Cecilia Muñoz-Palma (November 22, 1913 — January 2, 2006) was the first woman appointed to sit on the Supreme Court of the Philippines. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) is the...


The Commission finished the draft charter within four months after it was convened. Several issues were heatedly debated during the sessions, including on the form of government to adopt, the abolition of the death penalty, the continued retention of the Clark and Subic American military bases, and the integration of economic policies into the Constitution. Brocka would walk out of the Commission before its completion, and two other delegates would dissent from the final draft. Nonetheless, a majority of voters approved the Constitution in a plebiscite held on February 2, 1987. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Clark Air Base, 1975. ... U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay was a major ship-repair, supply, and rest and recreation facility of the United States Navy located in Zambales, Philippines. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Preamble of the 1987 Constitution

The Preamble reads:

We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

Significant Features of the 1987 Constitution

The Constitution establishes the Philippines as a "democratic and republican State", where "sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them". (Section 1, Article II) Consistent with the doctrine of separation of powers, the powers of the national government are exercised in main by three branches — the executive branch headed by the President, the legislative branch composed of Congress and the judicial branch with the Supreme Court occupying the highest tier of the judiciary. The President and the members of Congress are directly elected by the people, while the members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President from a list formed by the Judicial and Bar Council. As with the American system of government, it is Congress which enacts the laws, subject to the veto power of the President which may nonetheless be overturned by 2/3rds vote of Congress. (Section 27(1), Article VI) The President has the constitutional duty to ensure the faithful execution of the laws (Section 17, Article VII), while the courts are expressly granted the power of judicial review (Section 1, Article VIII), including the power to nullify or interpret laws. The President is also recognized as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. (Section 18, Article VII) The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Philippine Congress Session Hall The legislative power is vested in Congress, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) is the... The Judicial and Bar Council of the Philippines is a body that recommends appointees for vacancies that may arise in the composition of the Supreme Court and other lower courts. ... Republic Acts are laws in the Philippines, created by the Congress and signed by the president. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Seal of the Philippine Army Seal of the Philippine Navy Seal of the Philippine Air Force Seal of the Philippine Marine Corps The Armed Forces of the Philippines or AFP (Filipino: Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas) originated in the establishment of the Philippine Scouts in 1901. ...


The Constitution also establishes limited political autonomy to the local government units that act as the municipal governments for provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays. (Section 1, Article X) Local governments are generally considered as falling under the executive branch, yet local legislation requires enactment by duly elected local legislative bodies. The The Constitution (Section 3, Article X) mandated that the Congress would enact a Local Government Code. The Congress duly enacted Republic Act No. 7160, The Local Government Code of 1991, which became effective on 1 January 1992.[3] The Supreme Court has noted that the Bill of Rights "occupies a position of primacy in the fundamental law".[4] The Bill of Rights, contained in Article III, enumerates the specific protections against State power. Many of these guarantees are similar to those provided in the American constitution and other democratic constitutions, including the due process and equal protection clause, the right against unwarranted searches and seizures, the right to free speech and the free exercise of religion, the right against self-incrimination, and the right to habeas corpus. The scope and limitations to these rights have largely been determined by Philippine Supreme Court decisions. Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Map of the Philippines showing the regions and provinces (click for larger version). ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      A city (lungsod, sometimes siyudad, in Filipino and Tagalog) is a tier of local... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A municipality (bayan, sometimes munisipyo, in Tagalog) is a local... A barangay (Tagalog: baranggay , pronounced as ba-rang-gai, gai as in guy), also known by its former name, the barrio, is the smallest local government unit in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives. ... This article is about the general concept. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Self-incrimination is the act of accusing oneself of a crime for which a person can then be prosecuted. ... In common law countries, habeas corpus () (Latin: [We command that] you have the body) is the name of a legal action, or writ, through which a person can seek relief from unlawful detention of themselves or another person. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) is the...


Outside of the Bill of Rights, the Constitution also contains several other provisions enumerating various state policies including, i.e., the affirmation of labor "as a primary social economic force" (Section 14, Article II); the equal protection of "the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception" (Section 12, Article II); the "Filipino family as the foundation of the nation" (Article XV, Section 1); the recognition of Filipino as "the national language of the Philippines" (Section 6, Article XIV), and even a requirement that "all educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors." (Section 19.1, Article XIV) Whether these provisions may, by themselves, be the source of enforceable rights without accompanying legislation has been the subject of considerable debate in the legal sphere and within the Supreme Court. The Court, for example, has ruled that a provision requiring that the State "guarantee equal access to opportunities to public service" could not be enforced without accompanying legislation, and thus could not bar the disallowance of so-called "nuisance candidates" in presidential elections.[5] But in another case, the Court held that a provision requiring that the State "protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology" did not require implementing legislation to become the source of operative rights.[6]


Historical constitutions

Malolos Congress

It is known as the Constitución política de Malolos and it was written in Spanish. Following the declaration of independence from Spain, by the Revolutionary Government, a congress was held in Malolos, Bulacan in 1899 to draw up a constitution. It was the first republican constitution in Asia. The document states that the people has exclusive sovereignty. It states basic civil rights, separated the church and state, and called for the creation of an Assembly of Representatives which would act as the legislative body. It also calls for a Presidential form of government with the president elected for a term of four years by a majority of the Assembly. The Malolos Constitution established Spanish as the official language of the Philippines. Malolos is a city in the province of Bulacan, Philippines. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bulacan Region: Central Luzon (Region III) Capital: Malolos City Founded: 1572 Population: 2000 census—2,234,088 (4th largest) Density—851 per km² (5th highest) Area: 2,625. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The Preamble reads:

"Nosotros los Representantes del Pueblo Filipino, convocados legítimamente para establecer la justicia, proveer a la defensa común, promover el bien general y asegurar los beneficios de la libertad, implorando el auxilió del Soberano Legislador del Universo para alcanzar estos fines, hemos votado, decretado y sancionado la siguiente"
(We, the Representatives of the Filipino people, lawfully covened, in order to establish justice, provide for common defense, promote the general welfare, and insure the benefits of liberty, imploring the aid of the Sovereign Legislator of the Universe for the attainment of these ends, have voted, decreed, and sanctioned the following)

Commonwealth and Third Republic (1935)

23 March 1935: Seated, left to right: George H. Dern, Secretary of War; President Franklin D. Roosevelt, signing the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines; Manuel L. Quezon, President, Philippine Senate
23 March 1935: Seated, left to right: George H. Dern, Secretary of War; President Franklin D. Roosevelt, signing the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines; Manuel L. Quezon, President, Philippine Senate

The 1935 Constitution was written in 1934, approved and adopted by the Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935-1946) and later used by the Third Republic of the Philippines (1946-1972). It was written with an eye to meeting the approval of the United States Government as well, so as to ensure that the U.S. would live up to its promise to grant the Philippines independence and not have a premise to hold onto its "possession" on the grounds that it was too politically immature and hence unready for full, real independence. Image File history File linksMetadata 1935Constitution. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 1935Constitution. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... George Henry Dern (born 1872) was an American politician, and the 54th War Secretary. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... FDR redirects here. ... Anthem Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ... The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ...


The Preamble reads:

"The Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine Providence, in order to establish a government that shall embody their ideals, conserve and develop the patrimony of the nation, promote the general welfare, and secure to themselves and their posterity the blessings of independence under a regime of justice, liberty, and democracy, do ordain and promulgate this constitution."

The original 1935 Constitution provided for unicameral National Assembly and the President was elected to a six-year term without re-election. It was amended in 1940 to have a bicameral Congress composed of a Senate and House of Representatives, as well the creation of an independent electoral commission. The Constitution now granted the President a four-year term with a maximum of two consecutive terms in office. An amendment is a change to the constitution of a nation or a state. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commission on Elections of the Philippines, or more commonly known as COMELEC is an independent government body responsible for running elections in the countrys democratic government. ...


A Constitutional Convention was held in 1971 to rewrite the 1935 Constitution. The convention was stained with manifest bribery and corruption. Possibly the most controversial issue was removing the presidential term limit so that Ferdinand E. Marcos could seek election for a third term, which many felt was the true reason for which the convention was called. In any case, the 1935 Constitution was suspended in 1972 with Marcos' proclamation of martial law, the rampant corruption of the constitutional process providing him with one of his major premises for doing so. hi:Alternative meaning: Constitutional convention (political custom) A constitutional convention is a gathering of delegates for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Edralin Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was the tenth President of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


Second Republic (1943)

The 1943 Constitution was drafted by a committee appointed by the Philippine Executive Commission, the body established by the Japanese to administer the Philippines in lieu of the Commonwealth of the Philippines which had established a government-in-exile. In mid-1942 Japanese Premier Hideki Tojo had promised the Filipinos "the honor of independence" which meant that the commission would be supplanted by a formal republic. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Philippine Executive Commission or PEC was established on January of 1942 with Jorge B. Vargas as its first Chairman. ... Anthem Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ...


The Preparatory Committee for Philippine Independence tasked with drafting a new constitution was composed in large part, of members of the prewar National Assembly and of individuals with experience as delegates to the convention that had drafted the 1935 Constitution. Their draft for the republic to be established under the Japanese Occupation, however, would be limited in duration, provide for indirect, instead of direct, legislative elections, and an even stronger executive branch. Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Political clans Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Preparatory Committee for Philippine Independence or the PCPI was...


Upon approval of the draft by the Committee, the new charter was ratified in 1943 by an assembly of appointed, provincial representatives of the Kalibapi, the organization established by the Japanese to supplant all previous political parties. Upon ratification by the Kalibapi assembly, the Second Republic was formally proclaimed (1943-1945). José P. Laurel was appointed as President by the National Assembly and inaugurated into office in October of 1943. Laurel was highly regarded by the Japanese for having openly criticised the US for the way they ran the Philippines and because he had a degree from Tokyo International University. José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 - November 6, 1959) was the president of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines from 1943 to 1945. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tokyo International University is an institution of higher learning with a strong international focus, with a satellite (or affiliated) campus--Tokyo International University of America (TIUA)--Willamette University in Salem, Oregon. ...


The 1943 Constitution remained in force in Japanese-controlled areas of the Philippines, but was never recognized as legitimate or binding by the governments of the United States or of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and guerrilla organizations loyal to them. In late 1944, President Laurel declared a state of war existed with the United States and the British Empire and proclaimed martial law, essentially ruling by decree. His government in turn went into exile in December, 1944, first to Taiwan and then Japan. After the announcement of Japan's surrender, Laurel formally proclaimed the Second Republic as dissolved. Anthem Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March...


Until the 1960s, the Second Republic, and its officers, were not viewed as legitimate or as having any standing, with the exception of the Supreme Court whose decisions, limited to reviews of criminal and commercial cases as part of a policy of discretion by Chief Justice Jose Yulo continued to be part of the official records (this was made easier by the Commonwealth never constituting a Supreme Court, and the formal vacancy in the chief justice position for the Commonwealth with the execution of Jose Abad Santos by the Japanese). It was only during the Macapagal administration that a partial, political rehabilitation of the Japanese-era republic took place, with the recognition of Laurel as a former president and the addition of his cabinet and other officials to the roster of past government officials. However, the 1943 charter was not taught in schools and the laws of the 1943-44 National Assembly never recognized as valid or relevant. The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... Jose Yulo (September 24, 1894 - October 2, 1976) was the Chief Justice of the Philippines of the Japanese Occupation during World War II.He served from 1942-1944. ... Jose Abad Santos (top-left) is featured on the 1000-peso bill Jose Abad Santos (February 19, 1886—May 7, 1942) was the 5th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. ...


The Preamble reads:

"The Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine Providence and desiring to lead a free national existence, do hereby proclaim their independence, and in order to establish a government that shall promote the general welfare, conserve and develop the patrimony of the Nation, and contribute to the creation of a world order based on peace, liberty, and moral justice, do ordain this Constitution."

The 1943 Constitution provided strong executive powers. The Legislature consisted of a unicameral National Assembly and only those considered as anti-US could stand for election, although in practice most legislators were appointed rather than elected. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ...


The New Society and the Fourth Republic (1973)

The 1973 Constitution, promulgated after Marcos' declaration of martial law, introduced a parliamentary-style government. Legislative power was vested in a National Assembly whose members were elected for six-year terms. The President was elected as the symbolic head of state from the Members of the National Assembly for a six-year term and could be re-elected to an unlimited number of terms. Upon election, the President ceased to be a member of the National Assembly. During his term, the President was not allowed to be a member of a political party or hold any other office. Executive power was exercised by the Prime Minister who was also elected from the Members of the National Assembly. The Prime Minister was the head of government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. This constitution was subsequently amended four times (arguably five depending on how one considers Proclamation No. 3 of 1986). The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official position of the head of the government of the Philippines. ...


The 1973 Constitution was amended in 1976 to allow the incumbent president to hold the position of prime minister and president simultaneously and to exercise legislative powers as well. This allowed Marcos to further consolidate his power.


A minor amendment in 1980 changed the retiring age of judges from 65 to 70 years of age.


Amendments were done again in 1981 which established a semi-parliamentary or (semi-presidential) form of government with a president elected by direct vote of the people. Additionally, executive power was transferred back to the President (who was now the Chief Executive) and the position of Prime Minister was reduced to a minor position. Additionally, the 1981 amendments created an Executive Committee. Marcos (at least on paper), claimed the end of martial law at about this time and conducted (highly questionable) elections, which he unsurprisingly "won". Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


The last amendments in 1984 abolished the Executive Committee and restored the position of Vice-President (which did not exist in the original, unamended 1973 Constitution).


Following the EDSA People Power Revolution that removed President Ferdinand E. Marcos from office, the new President, Corazon C. Aquino issued Proclamation No. 3 and the adoption of a provisional constitution that would prepare for the next constitution which became the 1987 constitution. PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Edralin Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was the tenth President of the Republic of the Philippines. ... María Corazón Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino (born January 25, 1933), widely known as Cory Aquino, was President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. ...


Presidential Proclamation No. 3, nicknamed the 1986 Freedom Constitution was the most far reaching set of amendments to the 1973 constitution that it was almost a constitution in its own right. However, it is really a large set of amendments which superseded and abolished certain provisions from the constitution. It granted the President certain powers to remove officials from office, reorganise the government and hold a new constitutional convention to draft a new constitution.


See also

The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... The Philippines has a representative democracy modeled on the United States system. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Philippine Congress Session Hall The legislative power is vested in Congress, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) is the... The Philippines is divided into, from the highest division to the lowest: Provinces and independent cities Municipalities and component cities Barangays Each division at each level from the provinces down to the barangays is a local government unit (LGU). ... Constitutional convention or “con-con” is one of the three modes in which the Constitution of the Philippines could be amended or revised. ... Constituent assembly or con-ass is one of the three modes in which the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines could be amended or revised. ... People’s Initiative or PI is one of the modes in which the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines could be amended. ... Republic Acts are laws in the Philippines, created by the Congress and signed by the president. ... Abortion in the Philippines is illegal. ... Capital punishment in the Philippines has a varied history and, as of June 24, 2006, is illegal. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines (15 October 1986). Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  2. ^ The 1986 Provisional "Freedom" Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines" (25 March 1986). Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  3. ^ Local Government Code of 1991 (1 January 1992). Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  4. ^ People vs. Tatud (G.R. No. 144037). Supreme Court of the Philippines (26 September 2003). Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  5. ^ Pamatong vs. Comelec (G.R. No. 161872). Supreme Court of the Philippines (13 April 2004). Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  6. ^ Oposa et al. v. Fulgencio (G.R. No. 101083). Supreme Court of the Philippines (requoted by Lawphil.net) (30 July 1993). Retrieved on 2007-06-09.

is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ...

Bibliography

  • Cruz, Isagani (1995). "The Nature of the Constitution", Constitutional Law. Philippines: Central Lawbook Publishing Co., Inc., pp. 18-20. ISBN 971-16-0333-0. 

External links

  • The 1899 Malolos Constitution
  • The 1935 Constitution
  • The 1943 Constitution
  • The 1973 Constitution
  • The 1986 Provisional Constitution
  • The 1987 Constitution
  • The Consultative Commission (The ConCom)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Constitution of the Philippines - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1014 words)
The Constitution of the Philippines (Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas in Filipino) is the supreme law of the Philippines.
The 1935 Constitution was written in 1934, approved and adopted by the Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935-1946) and later used by the Third Republic of the Philippines (1946-1972).
A Constitutional Convention was held in 1971 to rewrite the 1935 Constitution.
Philippine Constitution (17741 words)
The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.
Amendments to this Constitution may likewise be directly proposed by the people through initiative upon a petition of at least twelve per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered votes therein.
The legal effect of the lapse, before the ratification of this Constitution, of the applicable period for the decision or resolution of the cases or matters submitted for adjudication by the courts, shall be determined by the Supreme Court as soon as practicable.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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