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Encyclopedia > Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland

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Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland was granted to the 'Congress' Kingdom of Poland by tsar of Russia and king of Poland, Alexander I of Russia who was obliged to issue a constitution to the newly recreated Polish state under his domain as specified by the Congress of Vienna. It was considered among the most liberal constitutions of its time; however it was never fully respected by the government. It was modified during the November Uprising by the revolutionary government and discarded afterwards by the victorious Russian authorities. Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held on the way to Vienna, Austria, from September 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


History

Congress of Vienna obliged tsar of Russia and king of Poland, Alexander I of Russia to issue a constitution to the newly recreated Polish state under Russian domination.[1] The new state would be one of the smallest Polish states ever, smaller than the preceding Duchy of Warsaw and much smaller then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[2] Because it was the Congress of Vienna which de facto created the Kingdom of Poland, it became unofficially known as the Congress Poland (Kongresówka).[2] The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held on the way to Vienna, Austria, from September 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ...


It was signed on 27 November 1815 by the tsar. It was a constitution octroyée: given by the ruler and not voted upon by a parliament.[2] States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


A significant contributor to the constitution was prince Adam Czartoryski, although the text was edited by the tsar himself and his advisors.[3] The constitution, promising freedom of speech and religious tolerance, among others, was considered to be among the most liberal in contemporary Europe,[3] reflecting much of the thought of Polish and Russian Enlightenment. Compared to the Constitution of the Duchy of Warsaw, the document which governed the lands that became part of the Kingdom of Poland during their times of the Duchy of Warsaw, it however prioritized the nobility (szlachta) and revoked some rights given to the Polish Jews and peasants. It was never fully respected by the Russian authorities, and increasingly its liberal but ambiguous provisions became manipulated, avoided and violated by the government.[3][2][4] The parliament which was supposed to have been called into session every two years, after becoming a scene of many clashes between liberal deputies and conservative government officials have been called only four times (1818, 1820, 1826, 1830, with the last two sessions being secret). This disregard for the promised rights, among other factors, led to increasing discontent within Poland, eventually culminating in the failed November Uprising in 1830.[5]. The constitution was modified during the uprising, and in its aftermath, the constitution was superseded by on 26 February 1832 by the much more conservative Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland granted by tsar Nicholas I of Russia and never actually implemented.[3][4] Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, in English: Adam George Czartoryski (January 14, 1770 — July 15, 1861), Polish szlachcic, statesman and author, son of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and Izabela Fleming (it is rumoured he was a fruit of her liaison with Russian ambassador to Poland Nikolai Repnin[1]). He was known... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Mikeshins Monument to Catherine the Great in front of the Alexandrine Theatre in St. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... Polish szlachcic. ... From the Middle Ages until the Holocaust, Jews were a significant part of the Polish population. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. ...


Summary

The Constitution had 165 articles in 7 titles.[2]


General

Kingdom of Poland was a constitutional monarchy) in a real union with Russian Empire. Each tsar of Russia was also king of Poland (as in personal union), however the foreign policy was common (in reality, decided in Moscow). The parliament, military, administration and judiciary were separate (unlike in political union). This does not cite its references or sources. ... Real union is a union of two or more states, which share some state institutions; however they are not as unified as tates in a political union. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1913 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... A foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Look up Administration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicature is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ...


King

The King was the head of all three branches (executive, legislative and judicial). He: A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ...

  • called, postponed and dissolved parliament (Sejm) sessions
  • confirmed namestniks, ministers, senators, high officials (nominated by the namestnik) and nominated and confirmed marshals of local sejmiks
  • his signature was needed to pass Sejm legislation into law
  • he was the only person with legislative initiative
  • he had the right to temporarily anull legislation
  • he had the right to declare wars and sign foreign treaties

The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ) was the title of the official representatives of the king of Poland (i. ... A minister can mean several things: A government minister is a politician who heads a government ministry A minister of religion is a member of the clergy A minister is the rank of diplomat directly below ambassador This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... A sejmik (diminutive of the Polish sejm, or parliament) was a regional sejm in the pre-partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland. ... A Declaration of War is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation, and one or more others. ...

Namestnik

For more details on this topic, see Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland.

Namestnik: Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ) was the title of the official representatives of the king of Poland (i. ...

  • headed the Council of State
  • headed the Administration Council
  • his decision need a countersignature of a minister
  • he nominated candidates for ministers, senators and high officials for the king
  • he nominated and confirmed lower officials.

Administration Council

For more details on this topic, see Administration Council.

Composed of 5 ministers and other people nominated by the king, headed by namestnik, it:

  • carried out the executive and administration duties
  • prepared projects for Council of State
  • took decisions that were outside the scope of individual ministers

Council of State

For more details on this topic, see Council of State of the Kingdom of Poland.

Composed of the ministers, councilors, secretary of the state, referendars and other people nominated by the king, it had the followed prerogatives:

  • preparing legislation to be accepted by the king
  • confirming the final version of legislation that was voted upon by the Sejm
  • juridical powers: the right to file charges against administrative officials as well as competence and administrative court powers
  • received reports from various commissions, and prepared reports for the king

Parliament

For more details on this topic, see Parliament of the Kingdom of Poland.

Parliament was composed of the king, upper house (Senate) and lower house (Chamber of Deputies or Sejm). The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ...


Deputies numbering 128 were chosen for 6 years, with 1/3 of them chosen every 2 years. They had legal immunity. Voting was open to all persons of 21 years or older. Candidates for deputies had to be able to read, write and have certain wealth. Military personel had no right to vote. Immunity confers a status ojavascript:insertTags(ì,,)n a person or body that makes that person or body free from otherwise legal obligations such as, for example, lijavascript:insertTags(Ú,,)ability for damages or punishment for criminal acts. ...


Parliaments were called every 2 years for the period of 30 days.


Sejm had the right to vote on civil, administrative and legal issues. With permission from the king, it could vote on the matters related to fiscal system and military. It had the right to control governmental officials, and file petition.


Senate numbering 64 was composed of was composed of 9 bishops, voivodes and castellans and Russians 'princes of blood'. It acted as the Parliament Court, had the right to control citizens books, and similar legislative rights as the Chamber of Deputies. Two bishops assist at the Exhumation of Saint Hubert, who was a bishop too, at the église Saint-Pierre in Liège. ... Voivode (as it is spelled in the Oxford English Dictionary), or less commonly voivod, is a Slavic word that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. ... A castellan was the governor or caretaker of a castle or keep. ...


See also

References

  1. ^ Danuta Przekop, Maciej Janowski, Polish Liberal Thought Up to 1918, Central European University Press, 2004, ISBN 9639241180, Google Print, p.37
  2. ^ a b c d e Harold Nicolson, The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812-1822, Grove Press, 2001, ISBN 080213744X, Google Print, p.179 and p.180
  3. ^ a b c d Rett R. Ludwikowski, Constitution-making in the Region of Former Soviet Dominanc, Duke University Press, 1996, ISBN 0822318024, Google Print, p.12, 13
  4. ^ a b (Polish) konstytucja Królestwa Polskiego PWN Encyklopedia. Last accessed on 19 January 2006
  5. ^ Danuta Przekop, Maciej Janowski, Polish Liberal Thought Up to 1918, Central European University Press, 2004, ISBN 9639241180, Google Print, p.74
  • This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding Polish Wikipedia article as of 19 January 2007.

Sir Harold Nicolson (November 21, 1886 – May 1, 1968) was a British diplomat, author and politician. ... Encyklopedia PWN can refer to several encyclopedias published by Polish publisher Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wielka Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN - published from 1962 to 1970 Wielka Encyklopedia PWN - published from 2001 to 2005 Internetowa encyklopedia PWN, also reffered to as Nowa encyklopedia powszechna PWN, is a free Internet Encyclopedia published by...

External links

  • (Polish) Konstytucja Królestwa Polskiego on the official page of Polish Sejm
  • (Polish) Konstytucja Królestwa Polskiego 1815, WIEM Encyklopedia
  • (Polish) Text of the constitution
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Konstytucja Królestwa Polskiego

 
 

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